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Full text of "The Survey October 1918-March 1919"




THE SURVEY 



Vol. XLI 
October, 1918 — March, 1919 



1 



WITH INDEX 




New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

112 East 19 Street 




I 

ST 

v.1/ 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, I 






NC. 



NATIONA 

ROBERT W. DE 

JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL Paris 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND... Washington 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON,San Diego 
CHAS. D. NORTON, Treas. . . .New Y r ork 



L COUNCIL 

FOREST, Chairman 

MORRIS KNOWLES Pittsburgh 

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

HELEN S. PRATT New York 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

A. G. SCATTERGOOD Philadelphia 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

PHILIP P. JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 
GRAHAM R. TAYLOR* 

JOHN A. FITCH 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

BRUNO LASKER 

GEORGE M. PRICE 

HERBERT K. CARTER 



* On leave of absence attached to the American Embassy, Petrograd 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 

volume xli 
October, 1918— March, 1919 



r 



The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few 
cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only under 
those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under their 
subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where abbreviation 
or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Absentee workmen, 904 

Academic freedom in the Levine case, 734 

Accidents 

Industrial, Germany, 196 
Industrial, Pennsylvania, 328 
National Safety Council congress, 15 
Ackerman, C. W., 263 
Ackeruian, F. L., 241 
Addams, Jane, 731 

Roosevelt — His will to righteousness, 523 
Adler, Felix 

Letter of correction, 383 

Remarks and summaries at conference on 
demobilization, 288 
Adshead, S. D., 21 
Advertising, National, 809 
Aery, W. A. Negro problems and progress — 

a bibliography, 357 
Agricultural Reconstruction, 679 
Agriculture, Department of, charges against, 

800 
Airplanes, drawings of workers in a Buffalo 

factory, 749, 781-783 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 793 
Alabama, social problems, 900 
Alcohol 

Amount drunk at peace celebration, Nov. 
11, 205 

Booze or bonds (letter), 170 

See also Prohibition 
Aldrich, Chester. Outside the walls of Pisa, 

423 
Aliens 

Deportations, 722 

Employers' efforts at Americanization, 732 
Alleman, Louis, 921, 922 
Allotments and allowances (Devine), 561 

Letters on the article, 680, 845 
Almy, Frederic, 883 

Conference that does things, 720 

"Home Service" for "Charity" (letter), 359 

Names of charity organization societies, 10 

Shall we scrap Home Service? 893 
Alsace-Lorraine and organized labor, 721 
Alschuler, Judge, 222 
Altschul, C. War debt (letter), 384 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 640 
Amalgamated Society of Engineers, 417 
America 

France and, 122 

Western Europe and, 122 
America Overseas — monthly department, 122, 

258, 463, 631, 793 
American Academy of Political Science 

Conference on labor reconstruction, 335 

Conference on wounded, 71 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 

132 
American Association of Foreign Language 

Newspapers, 909 
American Button Co., 53 
American City, 53 
American Civic Association, 907 
American College of Surgeons, 349 
American Federation of Labor, 167, 453 

Berne conferences and bolshevism, 897 
American Hospital Association, twentieth an- 
nual meeting, 24 
American Jewish Congress, first, 391 
American Journal of Care for Cripples, 942 
American Labor Party of Greater New York, 

534 
American Library Association, 128 

War work (with poster), 159, 161 
American Medical Association, 713 
American Prison Association, 77 
American Public Health Association 

Convention at Chicago (46th annual), 367, 
369 

Influenza program, 408 

Other health bodies invited to annual meet- 
ing, 746 

Postponement, 77 

Resolutions adopted at Chicago convention, 
373 
American Soldiers and Sailors Protective As- 
sociation, 799 
Americanism, list of Americans put under ban, 

648 
Americanization 

Big business and, 732 

Cincinnati saloon transformed, 788 

Division in Bureau of Education 911 

Jenks, A. E., on goal, 505 

Library as aid, '537 

Mothers, difficulties with, 873 

Primer of Civics, 942 
Ames, T. H. Nervousness in soldiers, 307 
Ancker, A. B., 24 



Anderson, H. C. World capital plan, 600 

Anderson, Mary, 337, 345, 907 

Review of Collier's The Girl in Industry, 

708 
Review of Equal Pay and the Family, 739 

Anderson, Mrs. W. C. See McArthur, Mary 

Andrews, J. B., 317 

Anti-Saloon League, 76 

International prohibition, 267 

Archeologist in A. D. 2000 (cartoon), 197 

Architects, 704 

Aristocracy and labor, 933 

Armenia, relief campaign of Jan. 12-19, 486, 
495 

Armenian and Syrian Relief, 123 

Armistice 
Terms, 179 
Wilson's address on terms, Nov. 11, 186 

Armstrong, Vance. Belgium, 1918 (verse), 185 

Army Educational Commission, 128 

Arnold, G. S., 337 

Aronovici, Carol. Review of Gordon's Ru- 
mania Yesterday and Today, 907 

Ashurst, H. F., 47 

Asylum, right of, 558 

Atkinson, C. J., 70 

Atkinson, H. A. Churches and reconstruc- 
tion, 375 

Atlas Powder Co., 586, '587 

Atrocities, 180 

Augsburg, Anita, 228 

Austria, celebrating fall of, 163 

Austria-Hungary, 6 

Resolution at Carnegie Hall, Sept. 15, 7 

Autocracy 

Archeologist in A. D. 2000 (cartoon), 197 

Economic, 641 

Labor and (cartoon), 933 



Babies 

French, convalescent, 633 

German, 702 

Thermometer of death rate, 670 

See also Infant mortality 
Babushka. See Breshkovsky 
Back to his plow (poster), 389 
Baeumer, Gertrude, 228 
Bagdad, 796 
Bailey, L. H., 530, 633 
Baker, N. D., 520 

Repudiation of Stevenson list, 648 

Social work, 264 

Soldiers and the future — Address at Camp 
Humphries, 719 

Treatment of conscientious objectors, 471 
Baldwin, R. N., 323, 731 

Letter protesting against pardon, 941 

Statement at trial, 153 
Balkans, Red Cross relief, 794 
"Bar-flies", 833 

Barleycorn, John, last days, 266 
Barnes, F. B., 498 
Barnett, S. A., tablet to, 779 
Barr, W. H., 221 
Barrett, D. C. Review of Readings in the 

Economics of War (Clark and others), 403 
Barrett, Maude T., 875 
Bauer, G. A., 73 
Baxter, Edith G. Everybody do it (letter), 

544 
Beard, C. A., 242 
Beck, Carl, 328 

Becker, Maurice. Drawings of Fort Leaven- 
worth prisoners, 690, 691 
Belgium, 102 

Appeal to America, 258 

Clothing poster, 18 

Commission for Relief (with cartoon), 103 

Credit for, 795 

Need, 854 
Bell, G. L., 310 
Benjamin, P. L. Christmas candles (verse), 

378 
Bergen, Eliza K. von. Earthquake in Porto 

Rico (letter), 170 
Berger, Victor, 205 
Berlinsky, G. A., 898 
Berne conferences, 855 

Bolshevism and the A. F. L., 897 
Bernstein, Edward, 73 
Berwick, Edward. New deal (letter), 877 
Bethlehem, Pa., steel workers (drawings), 581, 

615,-618 
Bethlehem Steel Co., collective bargaining, 223, 

909 
Bidwell, Bertha, 901 
Bill of rights, Jewish, 392 
Bing, A. M. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 741 

On industrial relations, 314, 315 



Birrell, Francis. Back of Verdun, 429 
Blackwell, Alice Stone, 134 

Babushka misquoted (letter), 846 
Blakey, G. C. and R. G. Review of Fitz- 
patnek's Budget Making in a Democracy, 
875 
Blind 

Industrial employment, 397 
Soldiers, 665 

Soldiers at Evergreen, 809 
Typewriting for, 507 
Bloomfleld, Meyer, 907 

Review of Kelly and Allen's The Shipbuild- 
ing Industry, 939 
Bloomington, 111., 907 
Blue, A. L., 215 
Blue, Rupert, 62, 63, 370 
Blue Ridge, N. C, School for Social Workers, 

46 
Boarding-homes for children, 85 
Bogardus, Professor, 900 
Bohemia 

Independence, 101 
See also Czechoslovaks 
Bohemian bibliography, 907 
Bolshevik cry (cartoon), 416 
Bolsheviki, 712 
American, '535 
Can we help Russia under the Bolsheviki? 

655 
England's conciliatory attitude, 534 
New York Bolsheviki (ill.), 612 
Bolshevism 

American Federation of Labor and, 897 
France, 490, 491 

Methodist publishers and H. F. Ward, 920 
Bondfield, Margaret, 343 
Bonds (letter), 170 
Bonser, F. G. Review of Miller's Education 

for the Needs of Life, 402 
Bonuses, 738 
Book reviews 

ABC, The, of Exhibit Planning (Ront- 

zahn), 232 
ABC, The, of the Federal Reserve System 

(Kemmerer), 677 
Accidents and Emergencies (Dulles), 739 
Alsace-Lorraine, Past, Present and Future 

(Phillipson), 811 
Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (Morgen- 

thau), 508 
America in France (Palmer), 475 
America Save the Near East (Rihbany), 508 
American Charities (Warner), 905 
American Country-Dances, Vol. I (Burch- 

enal), 509 
American Girl. The, and Her Community 

(Slattery), 233 
American Hospital, The, of the Twentieth 

Century (Stevens), 814 
American Jewish Year Book: 5679 (Oppen- 

sheim), 906 
American Problems of Reconstruction 

(Friedman), 355 
American Red Cross Text-books (3), 739 
American Social Problems (Burcb. and Pat- 
terson), 69 
American Spirit, The, a Basis for World 

Democracy (Monroe and Miller), 711 
Americanized Socialism (Maekaye), 570 
Applied Eugenics (Popenoe and Johnson), 

571 
Arbitral Determination of Railroad Wages, 

The (Stockett), 230 
Architecture and Democracy (Bragdon), 404 
Asia Minor (Hawley), 508 
Australian Social Development (Northcott), 

69 
Back of the Front in France (Bradley), 475 
Basis of a World Order, The (Rogers), 200 
Before Governor and Kings (Ussher), 508 
Britain After the Peace (Villiers), 268 
Budget Making in a Democracy (Fitz- 

patrick), 875 
Business of the Household, The (Taber), 169 
Buying Brains (Stern), 168 
Camp School, The (McMillan), 403 
Catholic Social Year Book for 1919, The, 876 
Century, A, of Moravian Sisters (Myers), 

571 
Child-Placing in Families (Slingerland), 940 
Child Welfare in North Carolina, 876 
Children of France, The, and the Red Cross 

(Lucas), 169 
Church, The, and the Great War (Tippy), 

232 
Civil Government of Idaho (Rose), 711 
Classroom Organization and Control (Sears), 
571 



VI 



Index 



Cooperation in Danish Agriculture (Paber), 

169 
Cradle of the War, The (Woods), 508 
Creative Impulse in Industry (Marot), 

200 
Curriculum, The (Bobbitt), 542 
Dark People, The (Poole), 541 
Diet and Health with Key to Calories 

(Peters), 358 
Disabled Soldier, The (McMurtrie), 676 
Dispensaries, Their Management and Devel- 
opment (Davis and Warner), 202 
Doctor, The, in War (Hutchinson), 678 
Doctor's Part, The (Church), 475 
Economic Addresses (Folwell), 231 
Economic Problems of Peace After War 

(Scott), 268, 277 
Economics, An Introduction for the General 

Reader (Clay), 907 
Economics of Progress, The (Robertson), 

230 
Educating by Story-Telling (Catber), 739 
Education, The, of the New Canadian (An- 
derson), 87-5 
Education for the Needs of Life (Miller), 

402 
Effect of Diet on Endurance, The (Fisher), 

543 
England and Palestine (Sidebotham), 843 
English for Coming Citizens (Goldberger), 

570 
English Village, The (Patton), 939 
Equal Pay and the Family (Courtney and 

others), 739 
Essays and Addresses in War Time (Bryce), 

543 
Essentials of Dietetics for Nurses (Perry), 

542 
Essentials of Social Psychology (Bogardus), 

708 
Eve of Election, The (Howe), 842 
Evolution of the Dominion of Canada (Por- 

ritt), 572 
Fair Play for the Workers (Grant), 401 
Finding Themselves (Stimson), 475 
First Steps in Americanization (Maboney 

and Herlihy). 570 
From War to Work (Turner), 810 
Future, The, Belongs to the People (Lieb- 

knecht), 906 
Future Citizen, The, and His Mother (Por- 
ter), 811 
Future of Democracy, The (Haldane), 543 
German Liberty Authors (Florer), 358 
Girl in Industry, The (Collier), 708 
Girls' Clubs (Ferris), 106 
Good Man, The, and the Good (Calkins), 

677 
Grand Rapids Survey (Judd and associates), 

543 
Great Britain After the War (Webb and 

Freeman), 268, 275 
Great Britain, Palestine and the Jews 

(Anon.), 843 
Greater European Governments (Lowell), 

709 
Halo of Grief, The (Hall), 201 
Healthful Schools (Ayres and others), 358 
Heart of Alsace, The (Vallotton), 231 
History of Statistics, The (Koren), 68 
History of the Lithuanian Nation, etc. 

(Jusaitis), 876 
Home and Community Hygiene (Broad- 
hurst), 106 
Home Fires in France (Canfield), 709 
Hospital, The, as a Social Agent in the Com- 
munity (Catlin), 168 
How a Soldier May Succeed After the War 

(Conwell), 68 
How the World Votes (Seymour and Frary), 

842 
How to Enlighten Our Children (Scharlieb), 

356 
How to Prevent Sickness (Howe), 231 
How to Teach English to Foreigners (Gold- 
berger), 570 
Human Machine, The, and Industrial Effi- 
ciency (Lee), 707 
Human Needs of Labour, The (Rowntree), 

68 
Hygiene of the Eye (Posey), 231 
Imperial England (Payne and Lavell), 202 
In the Soldier's Service (Dexter), 475 
Industrial Fatigue (Bentinck), 707 
Industrial Reconstruction (Carter), 268, 272 
Influence, The, of Age and Experience on 
Correlations Concerned with Mental Tests 
(Jones), 69 
Information for the Tuberculous (Wittich), 

542 
Instincts in Industry (Tead), 507 
Interpreter, The (Gladden), 232 
Jerusalem, Past and Present (Atkins), 843 
Keeling Letters and Recollections (E. T.), 

939 
Kingdom of the Child, The (Heniger), 675 
Labor and Capital After the War (Chap- 
man), 268, 273 
Labor in the Commonwealth (Cole), 643 
Labor Problems Under War Conditions, 201 
Land Tax in China, The (Huang), 401 
League of Nations (Warburg), 200 
Letters and Leadership (Brooks), 51 
Little Democracy, The (Clarke), 404 
Little Theater Classics, Vol. I (Eliot), 202 
Luxemburg and Her Neighbors (Putnam), 
709 



Macedonia (Georgevitch), 571 
Man and Machine Power in War and Re- 
construction (Petavel), 268, 278 
Married Love or Love in Marriage (Stopes), 

50 
Meaning, The, of National Guilds (Reckitt 

and Bechhofer), 643 
Mental Diseases (Gulick), 571 
Modern and Contemporary European His- 
tory (Schapiro), 404 
Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in 

Dusty Trades (Hoffman), 509 
Mulatto, The, in the United States (Reuter), 

842 
Municipal Ownership (Todd), 842 
National Governments and the World War 

(Ogg and Beard), 906 
National Guild Movement (5 books), 643 
National Guilds (Hobson), 643 
National Reconstruction (Robinson), 268, 

277 
Near East, The, from Within (Anon.), 106 
Nerve Control and How to Gain It (Bruce), 

876 
Nerves and the War (Call), 169 
New State, The (Follett), 813 
Newer Knowledge, The, of Nutrition (Me- 

Collum), 571 
No. 6 (de Florez), 475 
Non-Resistance Christian or Pagan? 

(Bacon), 202 
Observations in France (Smith), 475 
Old Worlds for New (Penty), 643 
One of Them (Hasanovitz), 168 
Open- Air Schools (MacDonald), 401 
Our Community (Ziegler and Jaquette), 711 
Our Dailv Bread (Radford), 810 
Our Revolution (Trotzky), 404 
Path of the Rainbow, The (Cronyn), 570 
Patriotic Drama in Your Town (Mackay), 

675 
Patriotic Pageants of Today (Thorp), 711 
People's Theater, The (Rolland), 675 
Personal Hygiene and Home Nursing (Lip- 

pitt), 739 
Physical Education in Relation to School 

Life (Roper), 403 
Picture Completion Test, The (Pintner and 

Anderson), 69 
Popular Theater, The (Nathan), 675 
Preparing for Womanhood (Lowry), 356 
Problem of Administrative Areas, The 

(Laski), 813 
Problems of Reconstruction, 268, 275 
Progress and Its Enemies (Wilber), 202 
Psychology and the Day's Work (Swift), 401 
Psychology, The, of Handling Men in the 

Army (Peterson and David), 542 
Psychology of Marriage, The (Galliehan), 50 
Quakerism and Industry (Hodgkin), 738 
Race Regeneration (Smith), 403 
Radio-Diagnosis of Pleuro-Pulmonary Affec- 
tions (Barjou), 233 
Readings in Industrial Society (Marshall), 

358 
Readings in the Economics of War (Clark 

and others), 403 
Red Cap, The, on the Cross (Roberts), 709 
Reform of Political Representation, The 

(Williams), 906 
Religion and the War (Sneath), 709 
Religion, The, of a Man of Letters (Mur- 
ray), 232 
Responsible State, The (Giddings), 402 
Results, The, of Municipal Electric Lighting 

in Massachusetts (Lincoln), 202 
Revolution, The, of 1848 : Dr. Hermann 

Kiefer (Florer), 905 
Rumania Yesterday and Today (Gordon), 

907 
Rural Life (Galpin), 739 
R U S (Rural Uplift Service) (Bailey), 906 
Russia (Fanning), 51 
Safe and Unsafe Democracy (Jones), 738 
Scientific Management (Drury), 876 
Second Line of Defense, The (Slattery), 50 
Selected Articles on Direct Primaries (Fan- 
ning), 572 
Self-Government in Industry (Cole), 643 
Shipbuilding Industry, The (Kelly and Al- 
len), 939 
Social and Industrial Reform (Macara), 810 
Social Antagonisms (Weeks), 356 
Social Insurance in the United States (Mil- 
ler), 106 
Social Process (Cooley), 677 
Songs of a Miner (Welsh), 940 
Spirit of Polish History, The (Choloniewski), 

711 
Stakes of the War (Stoddard and Frank), 

170 
Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intel- 
ligence Scale (Terrnan and others), 69 
State, The, and the Child (Hall), 507 
Sugar Beet, The, in Industry (Harris), 939 
Teaching the Child Patriotism (Clark). 711 
Throw Physic to the Dogs (Hayden), 358 
Tobacco and Human Efficiency (Pack), 709 
Tower, The (Watchman), 810 
Trade of To-morrow, The (Benn), 268, 269 
Traffic in Babies, The (Walker), 710 
Tragedy of Armenia. The (Papazian), 677 
Truth, The, About Lynching and the Negro 

in the South (Collins), 843 
Twentieth Century Crusade, The (Abbott), 
357 



Twentieth Century Theater, The (Phelps), 
675 

Unemployment of American Trade Unions 
(Smelser), 841 

University Debaters' Annual, 1917-1918 
(Phelps), 677 

Use of Factory Statistics in the Investiga- 
tion of Industrial Fatigue (Florence), 707 

Village, The: Russian Impressions (Poole), 
541 

Village Life After the War, 810 

Vision and Service (Barnett), 709 

Vocational Re-Education, The, of Maimed 
Soldiers (Paeuw), 810 

War, The, and the Future (Masefield), 268, 
279 

War Nurse's Diary, A, 475 

War-Time Nerves (Hall), 169 

War-Workers, The (Delafield), 169 

Woman Citizen, The (Boyd), 510 

Woman Citizen, The, a Problem in Educa- 
tion (Hollister), 357 

Women and the Sovereign State (Royden), 
402 

Women as Sex Vendors (Tobias and Marcy), 
106 

Women and Soldiers (Alec-Tweedle), 570 

World Problem : The : Capital, Labor and the 
Church (Husslein), 709 

World War, The, and Leadership in a 
Democracy (Ely), 402 
Books for Soldiers. See American Library 

Association 
Booth, Evangeline, 162 
Borden, R. P., 24, 25 
Borst, H. W. New white folks, 149 
Boston 

Housing code, new, 557 

Housing conference, 324 

Retail store employment, 351 

War Camp Community Service and girls 
(letter), 76 

Women's Municipal League and American- 
ization, 873 
Bourrillon, Maurice, 921, 922 
Boy Scouts 

Investigating juvenile delinquency, 234 

Men wanted (letter), 511 

Roosevelt trees, 713 
Boys 

After care for offenders, 70 

Toledo " opportunity farm," 713 
Brackett, J. R. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 745 
Bradford, Eng., 936 
Brandes, George, 93 
Brandt, Lilian 

Child protection program, 338 

Pierre Dubois, 121 

Review of books by nurses, doctors and mo- 
tor drivers, 475 

Review of Weeks's Social Antagonisms, 356 

Saving the S. O. C, 696 
Bread, cooperation for good, 872 
Breshkovsky, Catherine 

Arrival at Seattle, 556 

At Henry Street Settlement (verse), 698 

Evening with, 630 

Last letter, 134 

Misquoted (letter), 846 

Portrait, 125, 134 

Portrait and autograph, 631 

Reported living, 204 
Brewers and prohibition, 533 
Brewers Association, journalistic activities, 

267 
Bridgeport, 519 
Briggs, G. W., 794 
Brisbane, Arthur, 267 
British Columbia, shipyard workers, 512 
British Labour Congress, 11 
British Labour Party, 125 163 

As a national party, 243 

Election posters, 418, 419 
Broadhurst, Jean. Health (letter), 846 
Brotherhood of misericordia, 148 
Brown, H. D., 109 
Bruere, Henry, 498 

On war-time industrial standards, 309 
Bruno, F. J. In the path of the flames (Minne- 
sota relief), 83 
Brussels, 598 

Liberation of, 466 
Bryn Mawr College, fellowships and scholar- 
ships, 908 
Buckraan Village, 586, 589 
Budget 

Illinois, 701 

National, 786 
Budget clubs, 72 
Buffalo 

Airplane makers (drawings), 749, 781-783 

Social Welfare Conference, 720 
Buffer employment, 730 
Building restriction, 77 
Bull Moose leader, 528 
Burda faroshi, 14 
Burdick, Anna, 16 
Bureau of Education. See Education ; U. S. 

Bureau of Education 
Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 845 

Allotments and allowances (Devine), 561- 
568. 

Location, 802 

Red Cross relations as to allotments and 
allowances, 680 

Regulations delayed, 379 



Index 



VI 1 



Burial, municipal,, 839 

Burleson, Postmaster General, message for, 836 

Burnage Works, 595 

Burt, H. F. What I expect of residents, 538 

Burton, J. P., 839 

Business maxims, 785 

Butler, A. W., 674 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 741 
Butler, P. C, 911 
Butterfleld, K. L., 129, 307, 679 
Byington, Margaret, 44 



Cachin, Marcel, 488, 491 
Cafeteria and sailor, 344 
Calder, Senator, 105 
Caldwell, R. J., 338, 66S 
California 

Constitutional amendments, 282 

Insurance amendments to constitution, 91 

Santa Clara county social federation, 936 

Union of Producers and Consumers, 132 

Women's program for reconstruction, 804 
Calkins, Raymond. Substitutes for the saloon, 

493 
Caminetti, Anthony, 722 
Camp Dix, 74 
Camp Funston, 471 
Camp Greene, 398 

Camp Humphries, Baker's address, 719 
Camps 

Construction camp where men live, 703 

Home Service in, 398 
Canada, reconstruction, 441 
Canadian Patriotic Fund, policy compared 

with Red Cross (letters), 409 
Canning kitchens, 53 

Cannon, Ida M. Review of Catlin's The Hos- 
pital as a Social Agent in the Community, 

168 
Canteen management, 736 
Cantonments, proposed peace uses, 592 
Capital punishment, Louisiana law, 167 
Card houses, 519 
Carols, Christmas, 227 
Carris, L. H. Review of Courvell's How a 

Soldier May Succeed After the War. 68 
Carson, Norma V. Review of Alec-Tweedle's 

Women and Soldiers, 570 
Carver, T. N. Review of Friedman's American 

Problems of Reconstruction, 355 
Case work, definition, 703 
Case workers 

Standard for, 705 

Urgent need, 713 
Castberg law, 923 

Casualties of war and industry, 328 
Catholic War Council. See National Catholic 

War Council 
Catholics and reconstruction, 727, 805 
Cecil, Lord Robert, 933 
Censorship in France, 490 
Census of 1920, industrial features, 713 
Central Howard Association, 70 
C. G. T. See Confederation Generate du Tra- 
vail 
Chaddock, R. E., 226 

Chamber of Commerce and collective bargain- 
ing, 354 
Chamberlain, Beulah. Spring to the poorhouse 

(verse), 925 
Chamberlain, J. P., on war insurance in tran- 
sition period, 313 
Chandler school, 507 
Chapin, F. S. Social work and the first step 

in science, 42 
Chapin, H. D. Speedwell plan of child-saving, 

85 
Chaplains, 127 
Chapman, Paul, 282, 362 
Character, 70 

Charitable organizations, tax exemption, 361 
Charities 

Court representative for, 874 

Massachusetts State Conference, annual 
meeting, 376 

New York Department (letters), 511, 544 

New York State Conference, annual meeting, 
377 

Rhode Island Conference, 512 
Charity 

Name, and "Home Service" (letter), 359 

Not justice but charity (Devine), 395 
Charity organization societies 

Name, 10 

Standardizing salaries, 703 

What's in a name? (Devine), 891 
Charlotte, N. C, 398 
Chemical industries, women in, 345 
Chester, Pa., 584, 586, 588, 589 

Program of reconstruction, 636 
Chicago 

Employment for older women, 673 

Labor Party, 499, 733 

Library bra'nch building, 513 

New measures, 199 

Plan Commission and public works, 699 

Reconstructing, 896 

Relief agencies and war chest, 72 

Stockyards workers, 222 

Traction plan, 22 

United Charities, court representative, 874 

Vice control, 164 
Chicago Federation of Labor, 264, 354 

Labor's fourteen points, 265 



2hlld, Dorothy, 941 
Child labor 

Annual conference, 338 

Poster, 341 

Provision of the revenue bill, 894 

Roosevelt as protector of childhood, 527 

Senate taxes, 405 

Taxation and, 221 

Taxed to death, 798 

Tobacco (letter), 543 

War industry, 49 

" War power h to restrict, 103 

Woman in Industry Service, 471 
Child Labor Day, 361 
Child protection program, 338 
Child welfare 

Community councils as recreational basis, 
298, 313 

Roosevelt and the White House Conference, 
525 

Second Pan-American Conference, 385 
Child Welfare Committee and Hawaii school 

children, 802 

Children 

Eye clinics, 3 

Kansas, proposed paternity law, 923 

Missouri revised code, 406, 470 

Normal, 3S1 

Speedwell plan of saving, 85 

Testimony of the scales as to health, 674 
Children's Bureau, 798 

Milk investigations, 802 
Children's court, Seattle, 935 
Childs, R. S., 242 

Government model villages, 585 
China 

Contribution to War Work Campaign, 466 

Missions, contrasting views of three books, 
633 

Shall we debauch China? (letter), 712 
Chinese in Hawaii (letter), 383 
Chinese restaurant workers, 730 
Christmas 

Carols under service stars, 227 

Cartoon by Rehse, 379 

Prayer, 380 

Red Cross seals, correction, 52 

Shop early (cartoon). 167 
Church Federation conference, 39 
Churches 

Campaigns for Christian unity, 931 

Centers for soldiers, 558 

Design for a Liberty church, 198 

English language in (letter), 544 

Parochial clubs, 841 

Reconstruction, Atlantic City meeting, 375 

Reconstruction cooperation, 804 

Spirit of the Liberty church, 197 

Use of empty, 504 
Cincinnati 

American House, 788 

Better Housing League, 902 

Occupational tax, 746 

Social Unit, 498, 503, 886, 907 
Cities 

Democracy in employment, 936 

French and Belgian reconstruction, 805 

Occupational tax, 746 

Roosevelt for a model city, 525 

Standardizing districts, 736 

World capital plan, 598, 600 
Citizenship 

Soldiers, preparation abroad, 765 

Toronto recommendations, 538 
City planning, 805 
Civics 

Primer, 942 

Sheet of comment and criticism, 907 
Civil service 

Colorado reform, 701 

Roosevelt and, 531 
Claghorn, Kate H. 

Review of Anderson's The Education of the 
New Canadian, 875 

Review of Hasanovitz's One of Them, 168 
Clark, Mary V., 512 

Peace uses for war plants, 592 
Clarke, Walter, 308 
Clay Center, Kansas, 803 
Clemenceau and the balked deputation, 492 
Cleveland 

Day nurseries, 229 

Library work among foreigners, 537 

Saloons, personnel, 513 

Survey of cripples, report, 381 

Women street-car conductors, 380 
Clopper, E. N., Review of Harris's The Sugar 

Beet in Industry, 939 
Clothes for girls, 540 
Clothing for Belgium, poster, 18 
Clothing workers' strike, 554, 640 
Clubs 

Church and parochial clubs, 841 

Cosmopolitan, 533 

Girls', pageants, etc., for, 540 
Clyde strikes, 421 
Clynes, J. R., 416 

Coal strike of 1902 and Roosevelt, 527, 528 
Coates, A. A., The ticket seller (verse), 169 
Cockran, W. B., 551 
Cocks, O. G., After the saloon — the movie 

(letter), 878 
Codding, J. K, 700 
Coleman, G. W., 915 

Salvaging the Four Minute Men, 924 



Coleman, J. C, 510 

Russia uncensored (letter), 359 
Collective bargaining, 183 

Bethlehem Steel Co., 909 

U. S. Chamber of Commerce and, 354 
College fraternities, 77 
Colleges, Army Training Corps in, 13 
Collier, John, 699 

Review of Clarke's The Little Democracy, 404 
Colorado civil service reform, 701 
Colvin, Will, on Illinois paroled prisoners 195 
Comenius, J. A. See Komensky 
Commissar's wife, 768 
Commons, J. R. Review of Clay's Economics, 

An Introduction, etc., 907 
Communities 

Efficient, 218 

Organization, 506 
Community centers 

Building design, federal, 585 

Y. M. C. A. cartoon, 903 
Community councils as basis for recreational 

program, 298, 313 
Community houses as memorials for soldiers, 53 
Community life, standardized organization, 791 
Community markets, 53 
Community organization handbook, 809 
Community service, Chester, Pa., movement, 636 
Community spirit, 165 

Madison, Wis., program, 737 

Rocky mountains, 735 

Tennessee, 839 
Compensation. See Workmen's compensation 
Condon, R. J., 788 
Confederation Gen6rale du Travail, 125, 48S 

Minimum program, 500^501 
Conferences 

Postponements, 109 

Reports, 511, 678 

Several December meetings, 374 
Congregationalist, 23 
Congress, reconstruction proposals, 47 
Conrey, Lee, 462 
Conscientious objectors, 778 

Baldwin, R. N., case, 153 

Easing the punishment for, 353 

Extremity of discipline (letter), 383 

Military prison experiences, 625, 628 

Prison conditions, 224 

Standing after the war, 319 

Teachers in England. 746 

Treatment by War Department, 471, 801 
Constitution, new, for Missouri, 406 
Construction camp. See Camps 
Consumers' League, National, annual meeting 

at Wilmington, 264 
Conventions postponed, 77 
Cooley, E. J., 670 

Advantages of probation, 671 
Cooperation 

Canteens in France, 736 

England, 808 

Negroes, 557 
Cooperative bread, 872 
Cooperative restaurant, 837 
Copartnership in Norway, 559 
Copeland. R. S., 3, 559 

Industrial hygiene protest, 639 
Copp, Tracy, 16 
Copps, Edward, 52 
Corda Fratres, 533 
Cosmopolitan clubs, 533 
Cost of living 

Advance, 226 

Letter, 359 

Wage adjustment, 737 
Cotton manufacturers, 139 
Council of National Defense 

British educational mission, 53 

Reconstruction study, 133 
Country life 

Land and labor and land settlement, 805 

Organization for, 735 

Problems of reconstruction — appeal to Wil- 
son, 791 
Country Life Conference, 679 
County boards of welfare, 901 
Courts, plan for efficient, 671 
Crandall, Ella P., 834 
Crane, Walter, 761 
Crime, war-time decrease, 919 
Cripples, 182 

Cleveland survey, report, 381 

Industrial, legislation; 799 

Journal of care for, 942 

Re-educating, 70, 234 

Value of re-educated (letter), 172 
Cross, W. T. 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 741 

National council of social agencies, 303, 316- 
317 
Crossett, L. A., 796 
Curran. J. J. Roosevelt and industrial peace, 

527 
Curtis, Margaret, 129 
Czechoslovak republic, 204 
Czechoslovakia, 809 
Czechoslovaks, 8, 101 

In Russia (letters), 360 

Rebirth of a nation (Miller), 117 

Recruits with President Masaryk (ill.), 81 

Republic, 114. 115 

Siberia expedition (letter), 575 

Soldiers singing (ill.), 116 
Czechs, 117 



Vlll 



Index 



Dairymen, 532 

Dallas, Tex., social workers club, 909 

Dana, J. C. Social reconstruction (letter), 941 

Daniels, John. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 742 
Das (Hindu), 558 
Daszynsky, Ignatius, 205 
Davenport-Donahue bills, 895 

Hearing, 926 
David, Edward, 73 
Davidson, Gabriel, 933 

Davies, Mary C. Purged by war (verse), 200 
Davis, Jerome. Cooperating with the com- 
missars, 655 
Davis, M. M., Jr., 375 

On physicians and public health, 311, 312 

Review of Bogardus' Essentials of Social 
Psychology, 708 
Davis, W. J., 12 
Davison, H. P., 348, 798 
Day nurseries, Cleveland, 229 
Daylight saving 

Letters on recreational advantage, 171 

Social effect, 105 
Deacon, J. P.., 219 

Letter on allotments and allowances (with 
reply), 680 
Deane, Muriel. New York Charities, 377 
Death rate, 728 

Cities compared, 1885-1895, 729 
Declaration of Independence of Mid-European 

nations, 114, 115 
Defectives, Massachusetts commission's con- 
clusions, 935 
De Forest, R. W. 

Exemption from federal taxes for charitable 
organizations, 361 

Mrs. Sage's will and the federal estate tax, 
211 

Roosevelt as housing reformer, 523 
De Lamar, J. R., 385. 
Delanoy, W. C, 109 
Delaware, Service Citizens, 362 
De Leon, Solon. Review of Miller's Social In- 
surance in the United States, 106 
Delinquency, Boy Scouts to investigate, 234 
Demobilization, 182 

Conference of social agencies at Aldine Club, 
287 

Labor and wages, 221 

Rate, chart, 425, 426 

Reemployment and, 342 

Resolution of conference of Nov. 29 and 30, 
316 

Social, 311 

Women workers in England, 641 
Democratic Mid-European Union, 115 
Democracy, 59 

Emergent democracies of Europe, 5 
Standards, 185 

Steel workers, 453 

Stuffed lion in the path of (cartoon), 416 
Denmark, 809 
Dennett, Mary W. Review of two books on 

marriage, 50 
Dennett, Tyler, 633 

Dependent children. See under Children 
Deportation of aliens, 722 
Derby, Labour Congress, 11 
Derby, R. C, 705 
"Desert shall rejoice", 430 
Detroit 

Christmas carols, 227 

Court reform, 671 

Firemen, 205 

Prohibition, 833 

Street cleaning, 670 

Street railway award, 801 
De Vilbiss, Lydia A., 341, 512, 915 

Who is the father? 923 
Devine, E. T. 

Allotments and allowances, 561, 568 

Attack on the U. S. Employment Service, 
662 

Between war and peace, 179 

Future of Home Service, 861 

Gillespie shell-loading plant explosion and 
relief problem, 35 

Letters in commendation of his article on 
Ireland, 572 

Nation-wide drive for social reconstruction, 
784 

Not justice but charity, 395 

Reconstruction of social agencies, 619 

Reply to Deacon's letter on allotments and 
allowances, 681 

Review of Patton's The English Village, 939 

Roosevelt as the all-round man, 529 

Students' Army Training Camp, greetings, 13 

What's in a name? 891 

Will California lead? 91 
Dewitt Clinton High School, unpatriotic 

teachers, 205 
Diet. See Food. 
Dinwiddie, Emily W., 129 
Disease, returning soldiers and, 350 
Dismissal wage, 513 
Districts, municipal, 736 
Dittoe, W. C, 799 
Dmowski, Roman, 93 
Doll, E. S. Review of books on educational 

psychology, 69 
Dooley, C. R., 938 
Doremus case, 867 
Doty, Madeleine Z. Review of Liebknecht's 

The Future Belongs to the People, 906 



Dow, G. S. Review of Ogg and Beard's Na- 
tional Governments and the World War, 906 

Dowling, Oscar. Letter on The Survey, 544 

Drama, soldiers' tastes in, 657 

Drugs 

Prohibition, 727 
Situation, 867 

Dublin, L. I., 866 

Dubois, Pierre, 121 

DuBois, W. E. B., 557 

Duggan, S. P. The world covenant, 724 

Duluth, 83 

Dundalk, 589 

Dutton, S. T., 123, 408 

Review of 5 books on the Near East, 508 
Review of The Near East from Within, 106 

Dykeman, Judge, of Seattle, 935 

w 
Earling, A. J., 522 

Earthquake in Porto Rico (letter), 170 
Easley, R. M., 535 
East St. Louis, 234 
East Side, Roosevelt, on, 524 
East View. See Westchester County Peniten- 
tiary 
Eastman, E. F., 310, 311 

Appeal to President Wilson, 791 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 743 

Country Life Conference, 679 

Review of Galpin's Rural Life, 739 
Eastman, Max, 53 
Ebert, Friedrich, 190, 191 

Portrait, 191 
Edlund, R. C. Association of Social Workers, 

(letter). 745 
Edrop, Percy, 465 
Education 

Bill to create a department, 324 

British mission to America, 53 

Federal subsidies, 869 

Resolution of Child Labor Conference on 
new bill, 339 

State demands on legislatures, 899 

Students' Army Training Corps, 13 

See also Physical education ; Schools ; Vo- 
cational education 
Eidlitz, O. M., 77, 519 
Eight-hour day 

Clothing workers' success, 640 

Steel industry, 19 
Eirene (Peace), 352 
Election results as to suffrage, prohibition, etc., 

198, 199 
Elliott, J. L. Poor Richard's grandsons, 215 
Ellis, A. C, 869 
Ellis, G. W., 544 

Mooney (letter), 383 
Ellis, .1. C, 504 
Ellis Island 

Aliens for deportation, 722 

See also Immigration 
Emergency Fleet Corporation, 474 
Emergency guilds (letter), 383 
Employers' efforts at Americanizing aliens, 732 
Employment, 183 

Buffer, 730 

Demobilization and reemployment, 342 

Retail Stores Clearing House, 351 

See also U. S. Employment Service 
Employment management, 746 
Emporia, Kansas, Welfare Association, 936 
End of the day (ill.), 461 
Engelhardt, N. L. Review of Judd's Grand 

Rapids Survey, 543 
England 

British labour as a national party, 243 

Education of adults. 903 

Election results, 472 

Housewives rebellious, 704 

Housing, 807 

Housing and furniture, 704 

Impressions, 779 

Labor troubles, 700, 853 

Land-holding changes. 942 

Parleys for industrial peace, 917 

Reaction in the drink question, 533 

Socializing medicine, 135 

Teachers who are conscientious objectors, 
746 

Women in industry, 932 
English language, in church (letter), 544 

Teaching adults, 903 
English-Speaking Union, 794 
Ephphatha Club, 67 
Epileptics, war's, 382 
Ernst, M. L., 706 
Erskine, John, 128 
Eskimos and influenza, 835 
Espionage law 

Executive clemency. 870 

Hindu prisoners, 558 

Review of cases, 834 
Essington, Pa., 590 
Eugenics, 374 
Europe 

Americans in western, 122 

America's responsibility for peace, 634 

Bulwark of nations, 1 

Cartoons, 165 

Emergent democracies. 5 

Famine relief bill, 632 

Hunger (cartoon), 228 

Mid-European nations, 5 

Mid-European nations' declaration of in- 
dependence, 114, 115 

Reconstruction, 809 

Relief study, 635 

Transporting schools to, 128 



Evergreen (hospital), 809 
Eye clinics, 3 

F 

Fabian Club of Chicago, 809 

Factories in Russia, 612 

Fair Price Committees, 840 

Falconer, Martha P., 308 

Family, housing for large, 838 

Family Welfare Society, 10 

Famine relief bill, 632 

Farbstein, Mr., 93 

Fare increase, 790 

Farley, R. P. Review of Porrit's Evolution of 

the Dominion of Canada, 572 
Farmers 

Conference of farm organizations, 800 

Jewish, 933 

Labor need, 361 

Labor politics, 733 

Newspaper in Minneapolis, 909 

Reconstruction Conference, 557 

Roosevelt and, 530 

See also Nonpartisan League 
Farming, 844 
Farms 

France, buildings, 607, 608, 609 

Maxims, 785 

Reconstruction resolution, 679 

Toledo's "opportunity farm," 713 
Farrand, Livingston, 694 
Fatherhood, 923 

Fauset, Jessie. Review of Reuter's The Mu- 
latto in the United States, 842 
Federal Board of Vocational Education, 746, 

889 
Federal Employment Service. See U. S. Em- 
ployment Service 
Federation of Mid-European States. See 

Europe 
Feeblemindedness in Massachusetts, 935 
Feiss, P. L., 47 

On standardizing municipal districts, 736 
Fernandis, Sarah C. Community service 

(verse), 663 
Ferris, Helen, 713 
Fichier Central, 129 

Finnish-American cooperative movement, 77 
Finty, Tom, Jr. Texas is dry (letter), 682 
Fire protection at American Button Co., 53 
Firemen, 205 
Fires in Minnesota, 83 
Fisher, Boyd, 746 
Fisher, Helen D. Review of Child Welfare in 

North Carolina, 870 
Fisher, Irving, 737 
Fisher, W. L., 22 
Fiske, John, 86, 87 
Fitch, J. A. 

Guild in industry, 192 

John Williams — peacemaker, 521 

Labor feels its muscle (Seattle, etc.), 695 

Labor reconstruction, 335 

Review of Marot's Creative Impulse in In- 
dustry, 200 

Review of Tead's Instincts in Industry, 507 

Socializing the railroads, 823 

Unrest as the governors see it, 858 

Unsettled Mooney case, 318 
Folks, Homer, 205 
Food 

Commissions, lessons, 838 

Congress and Europe, 497 

"Darn Hoover" (cartoon), 222 

Economy for single persons, 705 

Famine relief bill, 632 

First international task, 228 

For friends and enemies, 182 

Home preparation, 536 

International relief, 497 

Jewish saving, 167 

Master strategist (cartoon), 223 

Prices, diagram, 226 
Food Administration, figures on cost of living, 

226 
Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm and others. "Pacifist" 

a misnomer (letter), 52 
Ford, G. B. Devastation in France, 602 
Ford, James, 166 
Foreign language newspapers, 909 
Foreign Press Bureau, 800 
Foreign-born. See Aliens 
Foremen, training in industrial organizations, 

903 
Fort Leavenworth. Kan., 224, 319, 383, 801, 

844 

Conditions, 851 

Experiences, 625 

Strike, 687 
Forums, 327 

Open forum movement, 924 

Small country town, 538 
Fosdick, R. B., 156 
Foster. J. A., 308 
Four Minute Men, 924 
Fourth Liberty Loan (poster), 46 
Fox, H. F., 267 
Fox, J. P. Trolley fares, 790 
Framingham, Mass., and influenza, 64, 74 
Frampton, Sir George, 779 
France 

America and, 122 

Appeal to America, 258 

Devastation, rebuilding plans, etc.. 602 

Grave in (cartoon by Cesare), 196 

Lisieux health exhibit, 787 

Peace Conference attitude, 829 



Index 



IX 



Reconstruction, 429, 808 

Red Cross reorganization, 124 

Ked Cross zones, map, 124 

St. Etienne, 38 

Serbian refugees, 464 

Tuberculosis, 803 

Workers' attitude toward Wilson, peace con- 
ference and reconstruction, 488 

Y. M. C. A. grumblings, 465 

See also Paris 
Frankel, L. K., 370, 374, 934 

Mothers aid, federal (letter), 711 
Frankfurter, Felix, 337, 554 

Conservation of the new federal standards, 
291 
Fraternities, 77 
Frazier, L. J., 733, 833 
Free speech 

Conscientious objectors, 778 

Open Forum National Council, 327 

Saying what we please (letter), 877 

Toledo, 934 
Freedom 

Bulwark of nations in Europe, 1 

Emergent democracies, 5 

Industrial, 621 

Rebirth of a nation (Czechoslovaks). 117 
Free-thinking, 117 
French postcard (ill.), 793 
Freund, Ernst, 799 
Frey, J. P., 125 
Friends. See Quakers 
Friends' War Victims Relief Expedition, 429, 

772 
Fuel Administration, 538 
Funerals, municipal, 839 
Furniture, 704 

Furniture making in France, 433 
Furuseth, Andrew, 733 

G 

Gage, S. H., 541 
Galsworthy, John. 819 
Gaiter, D. J., 393 
Gambling, racetrack, 512 
Gannett, L. S., 819 

Berne conferences, 855 

League of nations without Russia? 552 

Organized labor in Alsace-Lorraine, 721 

Temper of the French workers, 488 

Third Internationale, 660 

Wilson's achievement at the Peace Confer- 
ence, 826 
Garden cities, definition, 539 
Garden village, Vienna, 472 
Garment industries, visiting nursing, 674 
Garment-workers, sketches by J. Stella, 413, 

447-450 
Gary, Ind., 130, 131 
Gauvain, Auguste, 489, 490 
Geddes, Patrick, 365 
Germany 

Babies, 702 

Health deterioration in the war, 385-386 

Industrial accidents during the war, 196 

Labor in the ascendant, 73 

Private letter from, 793 

Revolution of '48, 187 

Socialist government, 189 

Treatment of Jews in Poland, 92 

War debt (letter), 384 
Getts, Clark. 627-628 

Gibbany, W. W. Saying what we please (let- 
ter), 877 
Gifts, exemption from taxation, 832 
Gillespie shell-loading plant, 35 

Federal compensation, 103 
Gillett, Lucy H., 536 
Gillette, J. M. North Dakota Nonpartisan 

League, 753 
Girls 

Messenger service, 911 

War drives in Boston (letter), 76 
Girls' clubs, plays, pageants, dress, 540 
Gleason, Arthur. 851 

Constitutionalism in British industry, 594 

Labor situation England — general unrest, 853 

Parleys for industrial peace, 917 

Roosevelt and the great adventure, 487 

Shop stewards, 417 
Gleason, Arthur, and P. U. Kellogg. The 

England they've been fighting for, 243 
Glenn, J. M. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 741 
Gloucester, N. J., 584, 589 
Glueck, Bernard, 908 
Godart, Justin, 489, 866 
Goethe, C. M., 124, 385 

Goldberg, Harry Czechoslovaks (letter), 575 
Gompers, Samuel, 11, 335, 350, 453 

In England and France, 125 

Wage reductions, 221 
Goodrich, N. E. W., 25 
Goodsell, Willystine. Review of Hollister's The 

Woman Citizen. 357 
Gorgas. W. C, 3, 362 

Government and soldiers' jobs (letter), 382 
Governors' conference on labor, 858 
Governors' social recommendations, 907 
Grancher, Professor, 90 

Grand Rapids. Mich., Social Welfare Associa- 
tion and industrial justice, 932 
Gray, A. W., 541 
Great Britain 

Reconstruction, 807 

Women labor candidates, 343 

See also England 



Greece 

Appeal to United States, 467 

Red Cross Commission, 52 
Greek idea of reconstruction, 352 
Greene, J. S., Releasing the tongues of men, 65 
Gregory, T. W., 834 
Gruenberg, F. P., 53 
Gruger, F. R., 389 
Grumman, Anne S., 70 
Gudehus, E. R., 46 
Guild 

Reappearance in industry, 192 

See also National guilds 
Guild Socialists, 643 
Guth, Margaret E. Letter on allotments and 

allowances, 680 



Habarovsk, 769 

Hackett, J. D. Appreciation of Devine's arti- 
cle on Ireland (letter), 572 
Hadfield, Sir Robert, 535 
Haessler, Carl, 693 

Portrait, 690 
Halbert, L. A., 133, 317 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 740 
Halifax emergency relief report, 672 
Hall, Bolton. Review of Wilber's Progress 

and Its Enemies, 202 
Hall, G. A., 340 

Hall, Janet. Essential social work (letter), 77 
Hall, W. H., 123 
Hamailah Society, 198 
Hamilton, Alice, 907 
Hamilton, Grant, on industrial relations, 314, 

315 
Hamilton, Jean, 314 
Hamilton, W. H., 315, 337 

When labor comes to market, 425 
Hammerling, L. N., 909 
Hampton Institute, 205 
Hanging. See Capital punishment 
Hanly, Elizabeth. To a realist (verse), 120, 

438 
Hannah, I. C. 

Review of Huang's The Land Tax in China, 
401 

Review of Payne and Lavell's Imperial Eng- 
land, 202 
Hanson, J. M., 893 
Hanson, Ole, 822 
Harris, E. C, on physicians and public health, 

311, 312 
Harris, L. I., 535 
Harrison, Shelby, 310 
Harrison act, 727, 867 
Hart, H. H. 

Alabama social survey, 900 

Review of Walker's The Traffic in Babies, 710 
Hart, Hornell. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 744 
Hart, Sch'affner & Marx, 522, 555, 640 

Prizes, 713 
Hartman, E. T. 

Physical education (letter), 843 

Review of Lincoln's The Results of Munic- 
ipal Electric Lighting in Massachusetts, 
202 

Russian conditions (letter), 510 

Self-owned towns (letter), 876 
Harvard University, first woman in faculty, 907 
Haskell, E. B. Review of Georgevitch's Mace- 
donia, 571 
Hastings, C. J., 370 
Hawaii 

Chinese in (letter), 383 

School children, 802 

Sugar and welfare, 869 
Hayes, C. B., 507 

Hayford, F. L. Massachusetts Charities, 376 
Haynes, G. E., 337 

Negroes move North, 455 

On Negroes and industrial standards, 310 
Hayward, Frances. Brotherhood of miseri- 

cordia, 148 
Health 

French poster, 786 

German conditions, 385-386 

Importance (letter), 846 

New York Department sick, 535 

Next steps, 373 

Scale's testimony as to children's, 674 

Schools for health centers (letter), 359 

Slogans, 371 

Soldiers' final examination, 379 

War workers, 164 

See also Public health ; Public Health Service 
Health council, proposed, 934 
Health exhibit in France, 787 
Health insurance, 27 

California, 91 

New York, hearing. 926 

New York and Ohio bills, 895 

Ohio, 473 
Health survey. 874 
Healy, William. Review of Swift's Psychology 

and the Day's Work, 401 
Heaven, n bit of, 780 
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society, 

109, 470 
Helinski, T. M.. 116 
Henderson, Arthur, 12, 125, 853, 917 
Henderson, E. F.. 544 
Henry, Alice. Review of Royden's Women and 

the Sovereign State, 402 
Henry, F. W., 795 



Henry Street Settlement (1914-15 statement), 

147 
Hewes, Amy. Review of books on industrial 

fatigue, 707 
Hichens, W. L., 535 
Hieronymus, R. E:, 165 
Hill, Caroline M., 673 
Hilton Village, 588 
Hindu prisoners, 558 
Hinkovich, llinko, 116 
Hoag, C. G. Review of Seymour and Frary's 

How the World Votes, 842 
Hobbs, Margaret A. 

Review of Labor Problems Under War Con- 
ditions, 200 

Review of Smelser's Unemployment and 
American Trade Unions, 841 
Hodgson, Elizabeth. Review of Sears's Class- 
room Organization and Control, 571 
Hoffman, F. L., 16, 371, 374 
Hog Island, types of workers (sketches), 260- 

261 
Hogan, F. B. Schools for health centers 

(letter), 359 
Holden, Cora, 863 
Holland, wages, 746 
Hollander, J. H. Review of Grant's Fair Play 

for the Workers, 401 
Holmes, J. H., 327, 699 
Holmes, P. M., 345 
Holt, L. E., 340 

Home Economics Committee, 886 
Home Service 

After eighteen months, 451 

Contribution to organized social effort, 293 

Exhibit, 205 

Future (Devine), 861 

In the camp, 398 

Name "Charity" and (letter), 359 

Persons and Morris correspondence, 409 

Red Cross work in the United States, 219 

Resignation of F. W. Persons, 468 

Result of a year's activities of institutes, 43 

Rocky Mountain chapter, report, 735 

Shall we scrap Home Service? 893 

Streator, 111.. 536 
Homes Registration Bureau, 166 
Honduras, 469 
Hoover, H. C, 228, 632 

"Darn Hoover" (cartoon), 222 

International directorship of relief, 497 

Task for, 463 
Home, Sir Robert, 917, 934 
Hospitals 

Increasing the efficiency, 349 

Municipal Lodging House, New York city, 148 

War and the civil hospitals, 24 
Hostess houses, 713 
Hours, race of (ill.), 105 
Hours of work 

British Columbia shipyards, 512 

Law on strikes for women, 885 

Lawrence strike, 832 

Steel industry. 19 

Wool industry, 380 

See also Eight-hour day ; Six-hour day 
Hourwich, Isaac A. 

Review of Poole's two books on Russia, 541 

Review of Trotzky's Our Revolution, 404 
Housekeeping, light, 705-706 
Housing 

Bibliography of English works, 474 

Boston conference of November 25-27, 324 

Boston's new code, 557 

England, 807 

English housewives rebellious, 704 

English Quakers, 897 

Federal industrial communities, 519 

French reconstruction plans, 602 

Government model villages, 584, 585 

Iowa bill, 732 

Large families, 838 

Lessons to school children, 902 

London (Kennington), 21 

Negroes in the North, 459 

Philadelphia discussion of national crisis, 502 

Pittsburgh, 867 

Reconstruction study (Ihlder), 474 

Rent profiteering, 504 

Roosevelt as reformer, 523 

St. Louis, 3 

Self-owned town (letter), 876 

Standards, federal, 469 

War workers, 77 

What is the government going to do with 

__ its projects? 659 
ifousing bureaus, 166 

Howard, E. D., on industrial relations, 314, 315 
Howe, F. C, 309 
Howes. Edith M. Girls in war drives (letter). 

76 
Hudson Guild, 215 
Hull, W. A. Review of two books on world 

organization, 200 
Hume. S. J. Review of books on the theater, 

675 
Humphries, J. H., 349 
Hungary, isolation, 795 
Hunger 

Cartoon, 223 

Europe (cartoont, 228 
Hunter. J. DuB. Review of Hall's The State 

and the Child, 507 
Huntington, Julia W. A man in these clothes, 

344 
Hus, John (with portrait), 118, 119 
Hvlan. J. L.. 511 

Health Department, 535 



Index 



Ihlder, John 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 740 

Card houses, 519 

Housing (Reconstruction Study I), 474 

Uncle Sam as auctioneer, 659 
Illegitimacy, 923 

Analysis of laws, 799 
Illinois 

Board of Public Welfare Commissioners, 3 

Boys from St. Charles school, 70 

Budget-making, 701 

Community adviser's outlook, 165 

Enforcement of social legislation, 901 

Labor Party, 499, 733 

Legislation for Chicago, 896 

New sanatoria, 230 

Parole of state prisoners, 195 

Plans for public welfare, 406 

Progressive measures, 199 

Shorter training for nurses, 896 
Imagination, 70 

Immigrants. See Americanization 
Immigration ebb or flow at Ellis Island? 669 
Independence Hall, 114, 115 
Independent Labor Party, 264 

Platform, 265 
Index Visible, 738 
India 

Influenza, 794 

Trade in women, 14 

War ravages, 803 
Indiana 

Labor legislation, 836 

Mental defectives, 674 

Peace problems conference, 326 
Individual development and skill (letter), 543 
Individuality 

Diagrams symbolizing industrial and na- 
tional, 622, 623 

Organized industry and, 620 
Industrial accidents. See Accidents 
Industrial communities, federal abandonment 

considered, 519 
Industrial councils, 902 
Industrial Engineers, conference, 938 
Industrial hygiene, 372, 373, 639 
Industrial medicine, 540 
Industrial relations, gains of war-time to be 

consolidated, 314 
Industrial standards 

Carrying forward of war-time, 308 

Conservation of the war's new, 291 
I. W. W., deportations, 723 
Industry 

British, self-government, 594 

British Quakers, conclusions of group of em- 
ployers, November 23 issue, Section II 

Democratic principles in, 668 

Democratization, 620 

Employment for the blind (Tennessee sur- 
vey), 397 

Guild, reappearance, 192 

Italy's monopolies, 942 

Justice, Grand Rapids, 932 

Medical supervision, 540 

Negroes in, 348 

Negroes in the North, 455 

Personnel records and, 938 

Reconstruction views, 804 

Roosevelt and industrial peace, 527 

Russia, 612 

Stabilizing by wage zones, 905 

Training of foremen and submanagers, 904 

Women in England, 932 

See also Labor 
Infant mortality 

Date of meeting of Association for Study, 
etc 234 

Meeting of Association for Study, etc., 374 

Philippine, 467 
Infant welfare, 706 
Infanticide, 14 

Influenza. See Spanish influenza 
Ingersoll, W. H., 924 

Initiative and referendum in Massachusetts, 198 
Insurance 

Health. See Health insurance 

Social, 49, 641 

Soldiers and, 265 

War, 182 

War-time, conversion, 941-942 
Inter-Church War Work conference, 39 
Inter-Church World Movement, 931 
Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations, 362 
Intercollegiate Community Service Association, 
713 

Fellowships, 907-908 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society, annual dinner, 

512 
International Charter of Labor, 857, 867 
International Institute of Agriculture, 513-514 
International labor laws, 728 
International Labor Legislation, Commission 

on, 866 
International Seafarers' Conference, 733 
International Workers' Defense League, 551 
Internationale, the third, 660 
Internationalism 

Cosmopolitan clubs, 533 

Political (letter), 712 
Inter-Racial Council, 732 
Iowa 

Housing bill, 732 

Red flag bill, 909 

Relief plan, 505, 872 
Ireland 

Devine, E. T., on, 395 



Letters on Mr. Devine's article, 510, 572 

Sonnet (Manahan), 572 
Ireland, M. W., 3 
Italy 

Reconstruction, 795 

Red Cross work in Pisa, 423 

State industrial monopolies, 942 



Jackson, J. F., 313 

Jacksonville, Fla., old colored people, 149 

Jacobi, Abraham, 187, 189 

Portrait, 187 
Jacobs. H. B. Review of MacDonald's Open- 

Air Schools, 401 
Jacobs, P. P. 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 741 

On tuberculosis, 307 
Jails 

Kansas, 700 

Welfare League in Newark, 731 
James, A. F., 52 
James, W. O., 692 

Portrait, 690 
Jean, Sally L., 340 
Jenks, A. E. Americanization, 505 
Jewish Committee on Food Education and 

Conservation, 167 
Jewish Welfare Board, war work (with poster), 

158, 160 
Jews 

American Jewish Congress, first, 391 

As farmers, 933 

New York cartoons on the League of Na- 
tions, 871 

Outbursts against in Rumania and Poland, 
229 

Palestine and American Jews, 463 

Poland (Kohler), 92 

Reconstruction plans, 263 

Spain (letters of protest), 941 

Sufferings in Poland, 353 

Wandering, 470 
Johnson, Alexander 

Free speech, 778 

Red Cross Home Service in the camp, 308 
Johnson, F. E., 504 
Johnson, R. H., 374 

Johnston (Mary) Maternity Hospital, 467 
Jordan, D. S. 

Review of Phillipson's Alsace-Lorraine, 811 

Review of Putnam's Luxemburg and Her 
Neighbors, 709 

Roosevelt as Nobel Prize Winner, 526 
Jouhaux, Leon, 126, 489, 491 
Justice 

Industrial, Grand Rapids, 932 

Not justice but charity (Devine), 395 

Peace and (from President Wilson's address 
of Nov. 11), 186 
Juvenile court. See Children's court 



Kansas jails, 700 

Proposed paternity law, 923 
Keating bill, 103 
Kelley, Florence, 339. 340 

Inescapable dilemma, 885 
Kellogg, Paul U. 

Protest to Baker against barred Americans, 
648 

Roosevelt as Bull Moose leader, 528 

Wilson policies, 59 

See also Gleason, Arthur, and Paul U. Kel- 
logg 
Kellor, Frances A., 909 

Kelsey, Carl. Review of Papenoe and John- 
son's Applied Eugenics, 571 
Kent, William, 336 
Keppel, F. P.. 321 
Kerensky, 768 

Members of government group, 125 
Kilbuck, Mr. and Mrs. Henry, 835 
King, C. L. Review of Todd's Municipal 

Ownership, 842 
King, Edith S. Review of Stein's Buying 

Brains, 168 
Kingsbury, J. A. New military training, 765 
Knights of Columbus. See National Catholic 

War Council 
Knox, Senator, 361 
Kohler, M. J. The Jews in Poland, 92 
Komensky, J. A. (with portrait), 118, 119 
Koreans and Peace Conference, 909 
Koren, John, 267 
Krawczyk, Monica, 780 



Labor 

Absentee workmen, 904 

Alsace-Lorraine, 721 

American party, growing support for, 354 

Aristocracy and. 933 

Autocracy and (cartoon), 933 

British, and President Wilson, 163 

British congress, 11 

British election posters, 418, 419 

California resolution as to reconstruction, 

225 
City parties and Nonpartisan League, 733 
Commission to study European conditions, 

668 
Congregatlonalist, 23 
Demobilization chart, 425, 426 
England, call for " labor peace conference," 

746 



England — general unrest, 853 

Farmers and, 361 

Feeling its muscle (Seattle, Lawrence, Pat- 
terson, etc.), 695 

French workers' temper, 488 

Germany, 73 

Governors' and mayors' conference at the 
White House, 858 

Independent Labor Party launched, 264 

Indiana campaign for legislation, 836 

Industrial democratization, 620 

International charter of Berne conference, 
857, 867 

International law, 866 

International legislation, Paris Commission, 
728 

Legislation, 132 

Maxims, 785 

Mexican protest, 167 

New order, 247 

New York party, 468, 534 

New York State Federation program of re- 
construction, 642 

Old order, 246 

Parleys for industrial peace in England, 917 

Peace treaty and labor legislation, 350 

Peace wages, 221 

Prohibition and (letter), 845 

Reconstruction (conference of Amer. Acad 
of Polit. Science), 335 

Reducing the turnover, 706 

Rudiments of a party, 132 

Skill by shop training, 938 

Third Internationale, 660 

Training schools, 840 

"Waiting for him" (cartoon), 700 

Women candidates in England, 343 

See also British Labour Party ; Confedera- 
tion Generale du Travail ; Industrial 
stewards ; Industry ; Reconstruction 
Labor, Department of 

Advisory committee on readjustment, 385 

Training and Dilution Service, 840 

Women's Trade Union League, 101 
Labor Party 

Illinois, 499, 733 

New York city, 499 
Labor Reconstruction Conference, programs 

for, 282 
Laidler, H. W. Books on the National Guild 

movement reviewed, 643 
Lambert, Henri, 746 
Land 

England, changes, 942 

Ownership, 469 

Soldiers and (letter), 844 
Land appraisers, 844 
Land settlement, 806 

Southern, 353 
Lane, F. K., 907 

Letter to Dr. Condon, 787 

Purpose of reconstruction, 120 
Lane, W. D. 

Fort Leavenworth strike, 687 

Revolution of '48 in Germany, 187 
Langley, E. W. " War's Heretics " (letter), 383 
Lantern slides, 541 
Lapp, J. A., 27, 473 
Laredo, Tex., 167, 221, 350 
Lashman, L. E., 941 
Lasker, Bruno 

Germany's Socialist government, 189 

On social work and reconstruction, 317 

Review of ten English books on reconstruc- 
tion, 268 
Daski, H. J., 338 

Lathrop, Julia C, 287, 373, 374. 731 
Law, obedience to (Judge Mayer's sentence of 

Baldwin), 154 
Lawrence, Mass., strike, 832 
Lawrence, G. W. 

Church Federation for community service, 
etc., 39 

Health of infant and mother, 374 
League of Free Nation's Association 

Origin and statement of principles, 250 

Protest against Knox resolutions, 361 

Robins's address on Russia, 926 

Wells's (H. G.) signature, 499 
League of Nations 

American groups to rouse interest, 559 

Civic center plan. 598, 600 

Constitution, discussion of proposed, 724 

Dubois' dream, 600 years ago, 121 

European bulwark, 1 

Letter campaign proposed (letter), 233 

Model for (letter), 170 

New York Jewish cartoons on, 871 

Prizes offered for essays, 234 

Support for fifty Americans, 408 

Trial for (letter), 877 

Wilson's achievement at the Peace Confer- 
ence, 826 

Wilson's speech and the Peace Conference, 
639 

Without Russia? 552 
League of Small and Subject Nationalities, 234 

Conference in New York, 376 
Ledbetter, Eleanor E., 537 
Lee, Harry 

Hut by the side of the road (verse), 593 

Night in the hospital (verse), 214 
" Left Hand Corps/" 380 
Legislation 

Enforcement in Illinois, 901 

Promotion in Missouri, 361 

Reconstruction conference at Richmond, va., 
511 






Index 



XI 



Reforms for women in New York, 642 

Way to success, 673 
Legler, H. E., 513 
Lennon, J. B., 907 
Lenroot, Senator, 341 
Lenroot amendment, 405 
Leonard, Leah W., 838 
Leonard, Oscar 

Daylight saving (letter), 171 

Review of Burch and Paterson's American 
Social Problems, 69 
" -Less " Days, 52 
Levine, Louis, suspension from University of 

Montana, 734 
Lewis, B. G., 353 

War service for law breakers (letter), 51 
Liberty bonds (letter), 170 
" Liberty buildings," 53 
Liberty church 

Design for a building, 198 

New spirit and, 197 
Library, Americanization by aid of, 537 
Lighting, suggestions for improved, 538 
Lincoln, A., quoted, 57 

Lindsay, S. M. Roosevelt as protector of child- 
hood, 527 
Liquor question. See Alcohol ; Prohibition ; 

Saloon 
Lisieux, 787 
Litchfield, Conn., 706 
Living Conditions, Commission on, 498 
"Living France," 468 
Lloyd George, David, 41S, 828, 917 

British Labour Party and (cartoon), 4!6 

Call for " labor peace conference," 746 

Election returns, 472 

Manchester speech on the social order, 152 
Locke, F. C, 833 
Locke, Miss, 339 
Lodging houses, 166 
Logan Mining Co., 873 
Lomonossoff, R., 06G 

London, tenants of royalty (housing), 21 
Longuet, Jean, 4S9, 491 
Louisiana, capital punishment law and other 

legislation, 167 
Louisville Federation of Social Agencies, 737 
Louisville School of Social Work, 908 
Love, T. B., 337 
Lovejoy, O. R., 340 
Lowe, Caroline A., 723 
Lowe, R. P. The path to calamity (letter), 

Lubin, David, 513 

M 

McAneny, George. Roosevelt and civil service, 

531 
McArthur, Mary (Mrs. W. C. Anderson), 343 
McBain, H. L., 242 
MacCaughey, Vaughan, 870 

Chinese in Hawaii (letter), 383 
McClenahan, Bessie A., 505 
McCombs, C. E., on health survey method, 874 
McCutcheon, J. T 349 

McDevitt, P. R. ''Erin go bragh" (letter), 572 
McDowell, Mary. Impressions of England, 779 
Macfarland, C. S. Report on chaplains, 127 
Machinery 

Household labor-saving, 942 

Labor-saving, 938 
Mack, J. W., 391 
Mackaye, Percy, 475 
McKeesport, 453 
McLean, F. H., 10, 872 
McMahan, Theresa S., 819 

Seattle strike. 821 
McMurtrie, D. C, 922 

Re-educated cripples (letter), 172 

Review of Paeuw's The Vocational Re-edu- 
cation of Maimed Soldiers, 810 
McNaughton, Amelia, 70 
MacPherson, C. A. Burda faroshi, 14 
Macy, V. E., S34 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 743 
Macy adjustment board, 822 
Madison. Wis., community program, 737 
Magazines, Russian (with covers and cuts repro- 
duced). 666 
Mairet, 365 
Mallery, O. T., 45 
Mallon, Patrick. " Not justice but charity " 

(letter), 510 
Manahan, Mary G. Ireland (sonnet), 572 
Manchester, Eng., Lloyd George's speech on 

social order, 152 
Manila, nurses in, 467 
Manly, B. M., 352 
Manning, Rosalie, 699 

Manufacturers. See National Association, etc. 
Manufacturing, three divisions, 621 
Marasmus case, 87 
Marine Workers' Affiliation, 8 j3 
Markham, Edwin. The league of love in action 

(verse), 348 
Marseilles 

Red Cross work, 252 
Marshall, Harold, 328 
Maryland contract labor, 165 
Masaryk, T. G., 101, 115, 204 

Portrait with Czechoslovak recruits, 81 
Mason, S. C, 351 
Mason, Samuel, 470 
Massachusetts 

Community markets, 53 

Constitutional amendments adopted, 19S 

Educating adult blind, 507 

Mothers' Aid experience, 506 



Recommendations on defectives, 935 

Spanish influenza, methods of fighting, 97 

State Conference of Charities, annual meet- 
ing, 376 
Masses, The, second trial, result, 53 
Mather, Samuel, 47 
Matthews, W. H. Christmas, 380 
Maxfield, F. N. Review of Peterson and 

David's The Psychology of Handling Men in 

the Army, 542 
Maxims for reconstruction, 785 
Mayer, Eli. Jews in Spain (letter), 941 
Mayer, J. M. Statement in case of R. N. 

Baldwin, 154 
Mayo. W. J., 349 

Mears, Helen F. End of the day (ill.), 461 
Medical convention, interallied, 713 
Medical education, De Lamar bequest, 385 
Medical supervision of industries, 540 
Medicine, socializing English, 135 
Meeker, Royal, 373, 374 
Menken, Alice D. Passing of the Women's 

Night Court, 41 
Mental defectives in Indiana, 674 
Mental hygiene, Massachusetts Society, annual 

conference, 678 
Merington, Marguerite. War's consecration 

(verse), 396 
Merrheim, M., 492 
Messengers, girl, 911 
Metaxa, J. N., 467 

Methodist Episcopal Church, community cen- 
ters for soldiers, 558 
Methodist publishers, bolshevism and H. F. 

Ward, 920 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 730 
Mexican labor protest, 167 
Meynell, Francis, 921, 922 
Miami Conservancy District, 703 
Michigan 

Prohibition amendment, 514 

Prostitution, 70 

Woman Suffrage, 199 
Mid-Europe. See under Europe 
Mid-European Union, 194 

Extract from paper by H. S. Miller, 634 

Letter from H. A. Miller, 360 
Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co., 19 
Militarism (cartoon by Cesare), 196 
Military Intelligence Service, Stevenson list of 

Americans under the ban, 648 
Military prisoners, 801 
Military prisons. See under Prisons 
Military training of soldiers abroad, for citi- 
zenship at home, 765 
Milk 

Investigations by Children's Bureau, 802 

New York Conference Board, etc., 532 

Strike settlement, 713 

Zone system of delivery, 109 
Miller, H. A., 115 

America's responsibility for the peace of 
Europe, 634 

Czechoslovaks in Russia (letter), 360 

Emergent democracies (bulwark of freedom, 
I), 5 

Mid-European Union (letter), 360 

Rebirth of a nation (Czechoslovaks), 117 
Mines 

Great Britain and a six-hour day, 732 

Montana, taxation, 734 

West Virginia mining town, 873 
Minimum wage 

Washington, 47 

Women's dilemma, 885 
Minneapolis 

Farmers' newspaper, 909 

Slavic family sketch, 780 

Unity House, requirements, 539 
Minnesota relief work after conflagration, 83 
Minor, Miss, 339 
Misericordia brotherhood, 148 
Missions in China, contrasting views of three 

books, 633 
Missouri 

Children's code, 470 

Children's code commission, 384 

Mayors' plan for new constitution, 406 

Revised children's code, 406 

Social legislation promotion, 361 
Mitchell, John. Roosevelt and the anthracite 

strike in 1902, 528 
Mogotova House, 772 
Molokans, 319, 628 
Monopolies, state in Italy, 942 
Montana, University of, 734 
Montgomery, Louise, 819 

Vocational education— a vestibule, 830 

Vocational education convention, 678 
Montreal, social workers' legal rights, 898 
Mooney case 

Letters on, 383 

National issue, 551 

Smith, M. D., on (letter), 544 

U. S. Supreme Court on, 234 

Unsettled, 318 
Moore, Howard, 629 
Moore, O. H., 538 
Morgan, N. J., 35 

Federal compensation, 103 
Morgan, E. L., 506 
Morris, P. H. Canadian Patriotic Fund (letter 

and reply), 409 
Morrison, Frank, 330 
Morristown, N. J., 86, 88 
Mortality. See Death rate 
Moscow factories, 612 



Mothers 

Recreation for, 838 

Schools for, 706 
Mothers' aid 

Federal (letter of correction), 711 

Four years' Massachusetts experience, 506 

Rankin-Robinson bill, 640 
Mothers' pensions, British report on American 

legislation, 665 
Motion pictures 

As saloon successor (letter), 878 

Families of soldiers, 352 
Mott, J. R., 465, 466, 796 
Moulton, H. G., on buffer employment, 730 
Mucha, A. M., 907 
Municipal interment, 839 
Municipal Lodging House hospital, 14S 
Municipal research, Toronto bureau, 538 
Munition factories and workers 

Gillespie loading plant explosion, 35 

Insurance for workers, 49 
Murphy, J. P. 

Aftermath of influenza, 212 

Association of Social Workers (letter) 742 

Massachusetts methods of meeting influenza, 

Music, Christmas carols, 227 



N 

Name guide cards, 672 
Names, Charity organization societies, 10 
National Adult School Union 903 
National Association of Manufacturers, 351 
National Association of Social Workers 
Constitution, tentative draft, 560 569 
Pro and con — sheaf of letters. 740 
National Bohemian Alliance, 119 

"columbu^f^T WaF C0UDCil (Knights of 
War work (with posters), 159, 160 

^mJT 1 , C K nlld Labor Committee. See under 
ciiiia labor 

National Child Welfare Association 470 
National Conference of Social Work 

Demobilization responsibilities, 303, 315 

Methods, 720 

Session of 1919, date and committees an- 
nounced, 50 
National Conference on Federation and Inter- 
Church War Work, 39 
National Guilds, books reviewed, 643 
National Investigation Bureau, 47 797 

551 Dal Labor Con S ress on the Mooney case, 
National Municipal League, Rochester recon- 
struction conference, Nov. 20-22 241 ■ nlat- 

form, 266 ' ' 

National Safety Council, seventh annual con- 
gress, 15 
National Society for Vocational Education. 

convention, 830 ' 

National Tuberculosis Association, postpone- 
ments, 77 
National War Garden Commission, 74 
Nationalism, British elections 472 
Nationalities, subject, Europe, 5 
Nations, new European, 181 
Near East, 181 

Reconstruction, 123 

Relief campaign of Jan. 12-19, 485, 495 
Negro Cooperative Guild, 557 
Negroes 

Arrival in the North, 455 

Bibliography of problems and progress, 357 

Cooperation, 557 

East St. Louis work, 234 

Industrial standards, 310 

National League on Urban Conditions. 348 

Old colored people in Jacksonville, Fla., 149 

Recreation, 314 

Will they stay in industry? 348 
Neighborhoods 

Program, 394 

Workers, 834 
Neighborliness, 735 
Nesbitt, Florence. Review of McCollum's The 

Newer Knowledge of Nutrition, 571 
Neumann, Henry. Review of two books on 

democracy, 402 
Nevinson, H. W., 702 
New Jersey 

Munitions plant explosion and relief prob- 
lems, 35 

Rural social survey, 735 
New London, Conn., 504 
New Majority, The (periodical), 713 
New Orleans, race track gambling, 512 
New Rochelle, 90 
New York (city) 

Budget clubs, 72 

Charities Department (letters), 511, -544 

City Club, 804 

Eye clinics for school children, 3 

Harbor strike, 833, 898 

Health Department, protests, 559, 639 

Labor conference planned, 354 

Labor party, 468, 499, 534 

Municipal Lodging House hospital, 148 

Private commercial schools, 166 

Probation Bureau, 670 

Public school lunches, 109 

Shows for soldiers, 657 

Sick Health Department, 535 

Women's Night Court, 41 
New York (state) 

Charities Conference, 377 



Xll 



Index 



Reconstruction commission, 664 

Women's labor bills, 868 
New York Clinic for Speech Defects, 65 
New York Drama League, 657 
New York Milk Conference Board, '532 
New York School of Philanthropy, 908 
New York State Federation of Labor, program 

of reconstruction, 642 
New York State Food Commission, 838 
New York State Industrial Commission, 803 
New York Times, 49 
New Zealand, war fund balances, 941 
Newark, N. J. 

Fire, negligence, 53 

Jail welfare league, 731 
Newport News, 586, 588 
News service, foreign, 800 
Newspapers 

Foreign language, 909 

Nonpartisan League, 757 
Niagara Falls, Employers' Association, 345 
Niagara Falls Manufacturers' Association, 230 
Nichols, Estes, 307 
Nicholson, W. B., 397 
Night court. See Women's Night Court 
Night work for women, 101 
Nitro, W. Va., 197 

Nobel Prize, Roosevelt as winner, 526 
Nokes, Tom. Daylight saving (letter), 171 
Nolan, E. D., 551, 911 
Nolen, John, 469, 587 
Nomination of Chicago school superintendent 

by experts, 558 
Nonpartisan League, 733 

Appraisal of organization and program, 753 
North Dakota 

Farmers and labor, 733 

Nonpartisan League, organization and pro- 
gram, 753 

State ownership bills, 833 
Northcliffe, Lord, 535 

On Russia, 534 
Norton, C. D., 361 
Norway, copartnership in, 559 
Nuorteva, Santeri, 77 
Nurses 

Filipina, 467 

Illinois, shorter training, 896 

Public health, 834 

Shortage, 24 

Survey by Red Cross, 73 

Tribute to returning, 640 

Visiting nursing in industry, 674 

O 

Oakdale, Tenn., 839 
Obituary 

Sage, Margaret Olivia, 151 

Van Hise, C. R., 282 

Young, Ella Flagg, 141 
Odell, J. H., 362 
Oeuvre, Grancher, 91 
Offenders, after care, 70 
Ogburn, W. F., 834 
Ogden, J. W., 11 
Ogden Hall, 205 
Ogg, F. A. Review of Schapiro's Modern and 

Contemporary European History, 404 
Ohio 

Health and Old Age Insurance Commission 
plan, 895 

Health insurance, 473 

Prohibition amendment, 514 
Old age pensions in Pennsylvania, 902 
O'Neil, James, portrait, 690 
Open Forum National Council, 327 
Organized charity. See Charity organization 

societies 
Orr, W. A., 234 
Oswald, W. G., 833 

Otlet, Paul. Foundations of world society, 598 
Overman reconstruction bill, 48 
Overs treet, H. A. 

Review of Calkin's The Good Man and the 
Good, 677 

Review of two works on political science, 813 
Ovington, Mary W. Review of Collins's The 

Truth About Lynching and the Negro in the 

South, 843 
Ownership, conditional, 469 
Oxenham, John. The goal and the way 

(verse), 356 
Oyen, Henry. The wounded man speaks 

(verse), 892 



Pacifists, name a misnomer (letter), 52 
Packard Motor Car Co., 455 
Paderewski, Ignace, 194, 899 
Pageants in girls' clubs, 540 
Palestine 

American Jewish Congress, 392 

American Jews and, 463 

Protest of New York Syrians, 198 

Restoration, 634 
Palestine Builders, 796 
Palmer, Ada M., 872 

Pan-American Child Welfare Conference, 385 
Pan-American Labor Conference, resolution as 

to labor in peace treaty, 350 
Paris 

Cooperative restaurant, 837 

Social service exchange, 129 
Park, Alice. Weeklies, missing (letter), 233 
Parker, A. C. Review of Cronyn's The Path 

of the Rainbow, 570 
Parker. Maud N., 467 
Parliament, women candidates, 343 



Parochial clubs, 841 
Parole 

After care for boys, 70 

Example of pre-parole work, 503 

State prisoners in war-time, 195 
Patch, Dan. Labor and prohibition (letter), 

845 
Paternity, 923 

Patten. S. N. Maxims for social reconstruc- 
tion, 785 
Peace 

Between war and (Devine), 179 

Disinterested justice (from President Wil- 
son's address of Nov. 11), 186 

Greek idea, 352 

Indiana conference on readjustment, 326 

Promise of (ill.), 177 

Quotation from A. Lincoln, 57 

Toward a lasting — statement at Henry Street 
Settlement in 1914-15, 147 

Verse (Woodberry), 257 

Wage reductions, 221 

Women's program (Victory Dinner), 731 

See also Demobilization ; Reconstruction 
Peace Conference 

Cartoons, American and French, 826 

Commission on International Labor Legisla- 
tion, 866 

French workers' attitude, 488 

Social aspects. 552, 660, 721, 826, 855 

Stranger (Russia) at (cartoon), 553 

Wilson's achievements, 826 

Wilson's speech on the league, 639 

Winding road (cartoon), 405 

Women workers, 907 
Peace-maker (J. E. Williams), 521 
Peace treaty, labor legislation in, 350 
Pearson, Sir Arthur, 809 

Blinded soldier (verse), 665 

Work for blinded soldiers, 665 
Peasant life in Russia, 772 
Peixotto, Jessica B. Community councils as 

basis for recreational program, 208, 313 
Pennsylvania 

Industrial casualties, 328 

Old Age Pension Commission, 902 
Pensions. See Mothers' pensions 
People's Institute of New York, lectures, 941 
Periodicals, missing weeklies (letter), 233 
Perkins, Frances, 803 
Perryville, Md.. 585, 587 
Persia, relief, 796 
Person, H. S., 942 
Personal records in industry, 938 
Persons, W. F., 312-313, 451, 468 

Canadian Patriotic Fund (reply to P. H. 
Morris), 410 

Contribution of Red Cross Home Service to 
social effort, 293 

Home Service, 219 

Studying foreign relief, 635 

Year's activities of institutes, 43 
Perth Amboy. .Sec Morgan, N. J. ; Gillespie 

shell-loading plant 
Philadelphia 

Housing discussion, 502 

Influenza, 74 

Playgrounds in politics, 45 

Society for Organized Charity, finances, 696 

Teachers' salaries, 469 
Philippines, infant mortality, 467 
Phillips, Elsie La G. ('.. 503 
Phillips, W. C, 503, 908-909 
Phinney. S. H. 

Czechoslovaks in Russia (letter), 360 

Political internationalism (letter), 712 

Review of Fanning's Selected Articles on 
Direct Primaries, 572 

Review of Folwell's Economic Addresses, 231 
Photo-engravers' Union, 192 
Physical education 

Massachusetts (letter), 843 

Progress in state provisions, 931 
Physicians 

England. 135 

See also Public health 
Pierce, C. C, on venereal diseases in the army 

and in demobilization, 306 
Pinkham, H. W. League of nations (letter), 

170 
Pisa. 423 
Pittsburgh 

Housing, 867 

Negro housing, 459 

Steel industry, 453 
Playgrounds 

India. 385 

Philadelphia, politics, 45 
Plumb, G. E., 823 

Pneumonia, death rates in cities, 729 
Poetry. See Verse 
Poland 

Jewish sufferings. 353 

Jews (Kohler), 92 

Polish Committee and Mid-European Union, 
194 

Pronortional representation, 899 

Socialist republic, 205 
Police. Roosevelt as commissioner, 524 
Port Jefferson. L. I.. 591 
Porto Rico earthquake (letter), 170 
Posters 

American relief. 485 
Back to his plow. 3^0 

British labor, 418. 419 

Child Labor Conference. 341 

Clothing for Belgium, 18 

France reconstruction, 602-607 

French, on preventing disease, 7S6 



Home Service, 863 
Missouri children's code, 470 
Rankin, Pa., 454 
Safety, 17 

Tuberculosis in France, 464, 465 
United War Work Campaign, organizations 
engaged, 145, 155, 160, 161 
Postponements, 109 
Powder-makers' village, 586, 587 
Powell, T. R., 341 
Powlison, C. F., 741 

Review of Routzahn's The A B C of Exhibit 
Planning, 232 
Press Feeders' Union, 130 
Price, G. M. 

After-war public health problems, 369 
Disabled in the line of duty, 889 
Influenza — destroyer and teacher, 367 
Mobilizing social forces against inliuenza, 95 
On physicians and public health, 311, 312 
Public health, nationalization, 62 
Rehabilitation problems, 921 
Review of Davis and Warner's Dispensaries, 
Their management and Development, 202 
Safety in war and peace, 15 
Women in chemical industries, 345 
Prices 

Control, 183 
Reasonable fixing, 840 
Printers, school for training, 215 
Printers' League, 130 
Printing industry, stabilizing, 905 
Printz-Biederman Co., 738 
Prisoners 

Civil, for reconstruction, 353 
Government and prison-made goods, 53 
War service for (letter), 51 
War-time parole for state prisoners, 195 
Prisons 

Contract labor in Maryland, 165 

Fort Leavenworth, 224, 319, 383, 801, 844, 

851 
Fort Leavenworth strike, 687 
Massachusetts, 935 
Military and discipline (letter). 3S3 
Military barracks — experiences at Fort Leav- 
enworth, 625 
New York State superintendent, 234 
Wartime crime, 919 
Probation 

Advantages, 671 

New York city problem, 670 

New York Conference of Probation Officers, 

407 
Supervising, 513 
Profiteering in rents, 504 
Progressive League and reconstruction, 804 
Progressive party movement and Roosevelt, 528 
Progressives, conferences to unite, 468 
Prohibition 

Amendment ratified by necessary number of 

states, 556 
Arjti-Saloon League's program for a dry 

world (letter), 76 
Arguments against federal amendment, 532 
Association Opposed, etc., 533 
Brewers' inquiry, etc., 267 
Detroit, 833 
Drugs, 727 

Enforcement measures, 713 
How constitutional amendment was brought 

iibout. 673 
Labor and (letter), 845 
Michigan and Ohio, 514 
Kew strides, 199 

States ratifying federal amendment, 532 
Texas, 205 
Texas (letter), 682 
fl r ar prohibition amendment and President 

Wilson, 233 
Filson's signing of the prohibition rider of 
the agricultural bill, 266 
Proportional representation 
Poland, Ireland, Philadelphia, and other 

places, 899 
Progress, 349 
Prosser, C. A., 830 
Prostitution in Michigan, 70 
Public Education Association, 166 
Public health 
After-war problems (annual convention), 369 
Great Britain, 807 
„Ohio, 801 
Red Cross world plans, 798 
Wages and, 329 
War-time physician and, 311 
Public health nurses, 834 
Public Health Service 
Disease and returning soldiers, 350 
Medical supervision in industries, 540 
Spanish influenza, 63 
Venereal diseases and demobilization, 305 
War program, 62 
War workers, 164 
Public schools. See Schools 
Public service districts. 736 
Public services, functional organizations, 670 
Public welfare 

County boards. 901 
Emporia, Kansas, 936 
Illinois, 406 
Public works 
Chicago Plan Commission and, 699 
Department of Labor division, 746 
Projects data, 361 
Publicity, national, 809 
'ulling together (cartoon). 903 
3 unishment in military prisons, 626 
Putnam, Mrs. W. L, 375 



Index 



Xlll 



Q 

Quakers 

Aid to Russia, 258, 2G3 

British, conclusion of group of employers in 
industry, November 23 issue, Section II 

English village, 897 
Quo vadis? 439 

Letters on, 682, 712 

K 

Race track gambling, 512 
Railroads 

Socializing, 823 

Women employes, C68 
Rankin, Pa., 454 
Rankin-Robinson bill, 640 
Raymond, Stockton, 703 

Razovski, Cecilia. Review of books on Ameri- 
canization, 570 
Reccord, A. P. A perfectly normal child, 381 
Reconstruction, 181 

Agricultural, resolutions, 679 

Back of Verdun, 429 

California Labor resolution, 225 

Canada, 441 

Catholic, 727 

Churches at Atlantic City conference, 375 

Conference of social agencies, and addresses, 
287 

Conference on legislation at Richmond, Va., 
511 

Congress and commission, 224 

English books reviewed, 268 

Farmers' Conference, 557 

Foreign, by civil prisoners, 353 

France, plans, posters, 602 

French workers' attitude, 488 

Greek idea, 352 

International civic center, plan, 59S, 600 

Italy, 795 

Jewish plans, 263 

Letter on Yarros's statement, 941 

Miscellany, 804 

Near East, 123 

New York state commission, 664 

Patten's maxims, 785 

Prophecy (drawing by Crane), 761 

Purpose, 120 

Purpose of commissions and programs, 439 

Resolutions at conference of Nov. 29 and 
30, 316 

Rochester conference, Nov. 20-22, 241 ; plat- 
form, 266 

Russian idea (ill.). 807 

Selective service aid, 256 

Shall social agencies unite for? 315 

Social, a nation-wide drive for, 784 

Social agencies, 619 

Social problems (cartoons), 349 

Song, 908-909 

Studies (I), 474 

Study groups, 133 

Survey Pamphlet No. 2, 510 

Two proposals before Congress, 47 

Way of (ill.), 365 

Wilson, President, on, 329 
Reconstruction (periodical), 809 
Recreation 

Community councils as basis, 298, 313 

Mothers, 838 

Saloon substitutes (Calkins), 493 

Shows for soldiers, 657 

Spreading American ideas overseas, 124 
Red Cross 

Army (verse), 635 

Asks all to join at Christmas Roll-Call, 348 

Balkan relief, 794 

Belgium clothing poster, 18 

Bits from letters of relatives of soldiers, 382 

Character and war work, 155 

Christmas Roll-Call (ills.), 333, 350, 351 

Christmas Roll-Call (poster), 462 

Christmas seals, correction, 52 

Commission for Greece, 52 

Cooperating in Russia with Bolsheviki, 655 

Distribution of money for anti-tuberculosis 
work, 198 

French reconstruction plans, 607, 611 

Home Service poster, 863 

Marseilles work. 252 

Masque of the Roll-Call, shields from, 475 

Membership, 512 

Minnesota relief, 83 

New zones in France, map, 124 

Nurse and French children, 123 

On a peace basis, 694 

Pisa, Italy, 423 

Relief for Gillespie plant explosion, 35 

Reorganizr.tion in France, 124 

Roll-Call poster, 389 

St. Etienne work, 38 

Serbia work, 866 

Social service exchange in Paris, 129 

Study of European war effects, 205 

Survey of nurses, 73 

Verses for Christmas Roll-Call (Markham), 
348 

War Risk Insurance ; allotments and allow- 
ances, 561, 680 

Workers turned back, 282 

World health plans, 798 

See also Home Service 
Red flag, Iowa, 909 
Redfield. Sec'v, 804, 840 
Reed, Anna Y., 282 

Referendum. See Initiative and referendum 
Refugees 

France, 429 



Italy, 423 

Serbians in France, 464 
Rehabilitation problems, 921 
Reisner, E. H. Review of books on teaching 

patriotism, 711 
Relief 

Chicago agencies and war chest, 72 

Combining public and private, 505 

Halifax report, 672 

Iowa plan, 505, 872 
Relief organizations, list of approved, 797 
Ueligion 

Daily work and, 77 

Soldiers in Europe, 127 
Renold, C. G., 595 

Shop committees in practice, 761 

Workshop committees, Reconstruction Series 
No. 1, Oct. 5 
Rents, fighting profiteering in, 504 
Reports, formal and real, 735 
Republics, new European, 181 
Restaurants 

Chinese in New York, 730 

Cooperative in Paris, 837 
Retail Stores Clearing House, 351 
Revolution of '48 in Germany. 187 
Reynolds, J. B. Roosevelt as police commis- 
sioner, 524 
Rhode Island Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection, 512 
Rhododendron Falls, 839 
Rice, Col. Sedgwick, 801 
Richards, John, 498 
Richmond, Miss, 893 
Richmond, Va., reconstruction conference of 

professors, 511 
Rickman, Lydia L. Among Russian peasants, 

772 
Righteousness, 523 
Rights, Jewish bill of, 392 
Ripley, W. Z.. 554 
Roberts, Richard, 682 

Quo vadis? 439 

Review of Bacon's Non-Resistance Christian 
or Pagan? 202 

Review of Murray's The Religion of a Man 
of Letters, 232 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 131 
Robins, Raymond, 712, 907 

On Russia (address), 926 
Robinson, C. G., 322 
Robinson, J. H., 104 
Rochester conference on reconstruction, Nov. 

20-22, 241 ; platform, 266 
Rockefeller, J. D., Jr., industrial creed, 354 
Roimarmier, M. Letter of appreciation, 436 
Rolfe, H. W., 104 
Rolland, Romain, 489 
Roman Catholics. See Catholics. 
Room registries, 166 
Roosevelt, Theodore 

Appreciation (Gleason), 487 

As social worker — a symposium, 523 
Roosevelt trees, 713 
Rose, Mary S. See Stewart, Isabel M., and 

Mary S. Rose 
Rosenwald, Julius, excerpts from his letters, 

126 
Ross, E. A., 513 
Rowe, Clarence, 333 

Rubinow, I. M. Review of Koven's The His- 
tory of Statistics, 68 
Rue St. Antoine, 252 
Rural life. See Country life 
Russell Sage Foundation, 151, 361 
Russia 

Aid to, 258 

American women in, 631 

Czechoslovaks in (letters), 360 

Helping under the Bolsheviki, 655 

In detail (letters), 510 

Industry, new era, 612 

Information wanted, 512 

Liberal attitude toward, 180 

New view, 534 

Peace Conference and, 552 

Peasants, 772 

Quakers and. 258, 263 

Red Cross commissioners, etc., group, 125 

Robins, Raymond, on, 926 

Soviet constitution, 499, 502 

Uncensored (letter), 359 

United States Russian Bureau, 258 

Vodka, 533 

See also Siberia 
Russian magazines (with reproduction of 

covers and cuts), 666 

S 
Safety. National Council, seventh congress, 15 
Sage, Margaret Olivia (Mrs. Russell), obituary, 

151 

Will, and federal estate tax, 211 

Will, list of gifts to charity, 229 
Sailors, our relations with, 344 
St. Antoine, Rue, 252 
St. Etienne, 38 

St. Helena, Baltimore, 589, 591 
St. Louis 

Housing association, 3 

National Safety Council, 15 
Salomon, Alice, 228 
Saloon 

Cincinnati, new enterprise, 788 

Cleveland, nationalities in personnel, 513 

Discussion of substitutes, 699 

Movies as successor (letter), 878 

Substitutes (Calkins), 493 



Salvation Army's war work (with poster), 160, 

162 
Samara, case work with refugees, 772 
Samoens, 633 

San Francisco, 'milk delivery, 109 
Schapiro, J. S. Review of Lowell's Greater 

European Governments, 709 
Schiff, J. II., 109 
Schneiderman, Rose, 907 
School for Printers' Apprentices, 215 
Schools 

Adults, teaching, 903 

Chicago nomination of superintendent by ex- 
perts, 558 

Commercial, 166 

Drive to return children, 136 

Health centers (letter), 359 

Housing instruction, 902 

Lunches, New York city, 109 

National Conference to study, 50 

State demands on legislatures, 899 

Transporting to Europe, 128 
Schreiber, Cornell, 934 
Schwab, C. M., 335 

Schweinitz, Karl de. Daylight-saving (letter), 
171 

Review of Myers' A Century of Moravian 
Sisters, 571 

Review of Warner's American Charities, 905 
Schwimmer, Rosika, 795 
Science and social work, 42 
Scott, Elmer. Association of Social Workers 

(letter), 740 
Scott, W. D., 938 

Seamen, international conference, 733 
Seamen's law and the Supreme Court, 550 
Sears, Amelia, 3 
Seattle 

General strike, 695, 821 

Home Service methods, etc., 409 

Juvenile Court, 935 

Street railways, 362 

Strike settlement, 911 
Selborne, Lord, 933 
Selby, C. D. 546 

Selective service aid for reconstruction, 256 
Self determination, 420 
Self-government in industry, British, 594 
Serbia 

Reconstruction, 632 

Suffering in, 866 
Serbian refugees in France, 464 
Sermaize, 437 

Service Citizens of Delaware, 362 
Service Flag Carol, 227 
Service flags 

Cartoon, 701 

New type suggested, 907 
Settlements 

Usefulness, 834 

What is expected of residents, 539 
Sexton, G. F., 352 
Seymour, Gertrude. Review of two books on 

sex education, 356 
Shaw, Mark R. Booze or bonds (letter), 170 
Shell-shock in civil life, 307 
Shipbuilders (sketches by Joseph Stella), 237, 

259-262 
Shipbuilders' village, 587 
Shipyard workers. 512, 911 
Shirley, W. P., 703 

Shop committees. See Workshop committees 
Shop early (cartoon), 167 
Shop stewards, 417 
Short, W. M. 

Letter praising The Survey, 712 

"War's Heretics" (letter), 383 
Shupp, Mary 

Review of Ferris's Girls' Clubs, 106 

Review of Slattery's The Second Line of 
Defense, 50 
Siberia 

Story of a commissar's wife, 768 

Vodka, 533 
SImkhovitch, Mary K., 317 

Neighborhood program, 392 
Simkhovitch, Mrs. V. G., 834 
Simons, H. A., 688. 692 

Portrait, 691 
Sing Sing, influenza, 835 
Sinha, S. P., 803 
Sinn Fein, 472 

Six-hour day in British mines, 732 
Skilled labor 

Controversy, 764 

Short cuts to, 938 
Slovaks. 118 
Small, W. S., 340 
Smedley, Agnes, 559 
Smillie, Robert, 853 

Smith, Bromide. Three funerals (verse), 446 
Smith, Marshall D. Soldiers' jobs (letter), 382 
Smith, T. E., 45 
Smith-Bankhead bill, 799 
Smythe, Nathan A., 336, 498 
Snedden, David. Review of Bobbitt's The 

Curriculum, 542 
Snowden, Ethel, 343 
Social agencies 

National council suggested, 303, 316-317 

Reconstruction, 619 

Santa Clara county, Cal., 936 

Union for reconstruction? 315 
Social demobilization. 311 
Social Hygiene Monthly, 513 
Social insurance. See under Insurance 



XIV 



Index 



Social order 

Lloyd George on, 152 

New (Baldwin's statement), 153 
Social science papers, advice on, 900 
Social service 

Demobilization and reconstruction problems, 
287 

South, training, 46 
Social Unit of Cincinnati, 498, 503, 8S6, 907 
Social work 

Appeal (W. R. P. C), 224 

Compilation of governors' recommendations, 
907 

Essential (letter), 77 

Science and, 42 
Social workers 

Demand and supply, 705 

In foreign countries, 713 

International conference suggested (letter), 
941 

Legal rights, 898 

See also National Association of Social 
Workers 
Social Workshop — department, 503, 536, 670, 

703, 735, 838, 900, 935 
Socialist Intercollegiate Society, 809 
Socialists 

Election and, 205 

Germany, 73 

Germany's government, 189 
Society of Industrial Engineers, 809 
Sokols, 119 
Soldiers 

Agriculture, 74 

Blinded, 665 

Blinded, at Evergreen, 809 

Church centers, 558 

Civil War " Left Hand Corps," 380 

Community houses as memorials, 53 

Disease-bringing, 350 

Final medical examination, importance, 379 

Future (Baker's address at Camp Humph- 
ries), 719 

Insurance and, 265 

Jobs (letter), 382 

Land settlement in the South, 353 

Money straits of returning, 799 

Preparation abroad for citizenship at home, 
765 

Re-educating crippled, 70, 234 

Rehabilitation problems, conference in New 
York, 921 

Shows for, 657 

Toy soldiers, 932 

Tuberculous, 889 
Solenberger, E. D. Review of Slingerland's 

Child-Placing in Families, 940 
Solitary confinement, 627 
South, social service in the, 46 
South Amboy, N. J., 35 
South America, reconstruction, 809 
South Dakota, woman suffrage, 199 
Southern Land Congress, 353 
Southern Summer School for Religious and 

Social Workers, 46 
Soviet republic, 499, 502, 768 
Spain 

Jews (letters), 941 

News of strikes, etc., 835 
Spanish influenza, 3 

Aftermath, 212 

Death rates affected in 1918, 728 

Destroyer and teacher, 367 

English regulation for public entertainments, 
907 

Extent and control, 45, 63 

Extent and cost, 194 

Framingham, Mass., 64, 74 

Massachusetts method of fighting, 97 

Mobilizing social forces against, 95 

Philadelphia, 74 

Trogram of committee of Public Health 
Association, 408 

Social Unit idea, 503 

Strange places (Eskimos; Sing Sing), 835 

Streator. 111., 536 
Speech, clinic for defects in, 65 
Speedwell Society, 85 
Spencer, Anna G. Peace uses for war plants 

(letter), 711 
Spillman, W. J.. 800 
Sproul, W. C, 636 
Stabilization of industry, 905 
Stammerers 

Results of appeal (letter), 575 

See also Speech 
Stecker, Margaret L. Cost of living (letter), 

359 
Steel industry 

Bethlehem Steel Co., 223 

Democracy, 453 

Eight-hour day, 19 

Organizing campaign, 641 

Unionizing, 130 
Steel workers at Bethlehem, Pa. (drawings), 

581, 615-618 
Steele, H. W., 942 
Steiner, J. F., 44 
Stella, Joseph 

Bethlehem steel workers (drawings), 581, 
615-618 

Garment-workers (drawings), 413, 447-450 

Makers of wings (drawings), 749. 781-783 
Shipyard workers (drawings), 237, 259-262 
Rtelzle, Charles, 53 

Stevens, J. G. Letter on " Quo vadis," 682 
Stevenson, Archibald, 648 
Stevenson, J. A., 922 

Reconstruction in Canada, 441 



Stewart, G. C, 796 

Stewart, Isabel M., and Mary S. Rose. Review 
of Perry's Essentials of Dietetics for 
Nurses, 542 
Stockyards workers, 222 
Stokes, A. P., 766 
Stone, N. I., 555 

Buying unemployment insurance cheap, 399 
Storey, Moorfield. Review of Jones's Safe and 

Unsafe Democracy, 738 
Straus, Nathan, 391 
Strayer, G. D., 339 
Stray er, P. M., 133 
Streator, 111., 521 

Influenza, 536 
Street, Elwood, 737 
Street cleaning organization, 670 
Street railways 

Detroit award, 801 

Menace of higher fares, 790 

Seattle, 362 
Strikes 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 554, 640 

Anthracite strike of 1902 and Roosevelt, 
527, 528 

Clyde District, 421 

Fort Leavenworth, 687 

Lawrence, Mass., 832 

Miners in Great Britain, 732 

New York harbor, 833, 898 

Press- feeders, 130 

Seattle, 821, 911 

Seattle, Lawrence, Paterson, etc., 695 

Spain, 835 

Telephone operators' preparation, 836 

Women's pay, 132 
Students' Army Training Corps, 13, 77 

Farewell to, 378 
Subject-nations 

Declaration of independence, 114, 115 

Europe, 5 

See also League of Small and Subject Na- 
tionalities 
Subsidies for education, federal, 869 
Sugar industry in Hawaii, 869 
Sun Hill, 584, 588 
Sun Village, 588, 589 

Supreme Court and the seamen's law, 556 
Survey, The 

Cooperating subscriptions, 883 

Dowling, Oscar, on (letter), 544 

Letters of appreciation. 915 

Office visitors, 819 

Praise for (letter), 712 

Reconstruction Pamphlets, 510 

Staff work, 851 

Statement by editor in behalf of Survey 
Associates, November 2 issue, Section II 

Strike of press-feeders and, 130 
Survey Associates, statement and appeals, 927- 

930 
Surveys 

Clay Center, Kansas, 803 

Health, method, 874 

Social : H. H. Hart's method and Alabama, 
900 
Suspended sentence, 706 
Swartz, Nelle, 311, 345 

Swett, Ida M. English in church (letter), 544 
Swift, M. I., 712 

Russia in detail (letter), 510 
Switzerland, labor conferences, 660 
Syrians, New York, protest as to Palestine, 198 
Szold, Henrietta, 391 



Taft, H. W., 222 
Taft, W. H., 335 

On bolsbevism (letter), 510 
Taxation, 183 

Charitable organizations, 361 

Child labor and, 221. 405 

Exemption of gifts, 832 

Mines in Montana, 734 

Mrs. Sage's will, 211 

Occupational, in cities, 746 

Toronto folder on tax rate, 870 
Taylor, Clara I. New Era in Russian industry, 

612 
Taylor, Graham 

Demobilization and reemployment, 342 

Evening with Babushka, 630 

Selective service aid for reconstruction, 256 
Taylor Society, 942 

Taylorsville Community Association, 703 
Teachers 

English conscientious objectors, 746 

Philadelphia, 469 

Shortage, 223 

Unpatriotic, 205 
Telephone operators, 836 
Teller, S. A., 77 

World-wide social work (letter), 941 
Tennant, H. J., 418 
Tennessee 

Community spirit, 839 

Survey of industries, for helping the blind, 
397 
Tenney, A. A. Review of Cooley's Social 

Process, 677 
Texas 

Prohibition, 205 

Prohibition (letter), 682 
Thomas, E. W. 

Disciplinary barracks, 025 

Release on technicality (letter), 844 

Statement of his case by War Department, 
702 



Thomas, J. F., 512 
Thomas. J. H., 12 
Thomas, Norman 

Extremity of discipline (letter), 383 

War's heretics, 319 
Thome, C. H., 406, 701 
Thrift, 886 
Thurston, H. W. Review of Canfield's Home 

Fires in France, 709 
Thwing, C. F., 804 
Tilton, Elizabeth 

League of Nations (letter), 233 

World prohibition (letter), 76 
Time. See Daylight saving 
Tippy, W. M. Mine Breshkovsky at Henry 

Street Settlement (verse), 698 
TNT explosion, 35 
Tobacco and children (letter), 543 
Tobenson, Gertrude K. Story of Siberian con- 
ditions, 768 
Todd, A. J. 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 742 

Review of Robertson's The Economics of 
Progress, 230 
Toledo 

Free speech and Mayor Schreiber, 934 

Opportunity farm, 713 
Tompkins, Ernest. Stammerers (letter), 575 
Toronto 

Citizenship recommendations, 538 

Ideal Bread Co., 872 

Tax rate folder, 870 
Townley, A. C, 753 
Towns, copartnership (letter), 876 
Towson, C. W., 311 
Toy soldiers, 932 
Toynbee Hall, 780 
Traction, Chicago. 22 
Trade unionism, 183-184 
Trade unions 

Chinese restaurant workers, 730 

French body (C. G. T), 125 

See also Women's Trade Union League 
Trask, Katrina. Army of the Red Cross 

(verse), 635 
Traut, Elise. Emergency guilds (letter), 383 
Treasury Department, 802 
Trolley fares, 790 
Tuberculosis 

Advisory committee for discharged soldiers, 
385 

As a war and after-war problem, 307 

France, 803 

France (posters), 464, 465 

France — children scrambling for leaflets, 787 

Illinois sanatoria, 230 

Problem of the soldier, 889 

Red Cross money, distribution plan. 198 

Russia, 774 
Typewriting for the blind, 507 
Typographical Union No. 6, 215 



Ukrainia and the Poles, 194 
Unemployment 

Short time factor, 911 

Situation worse, 664 

War Department and, 399 

Worcester, Mass., method of dealing with, 
673 
Union Park Gardens, 587, 589 
United States. See America 
U. S. Bureau of Education, new department, 

223 
U. S. Employment Service, 342, 362, 400, 498 

Attack on. 662 

Curtailment, 894 
United States Housing Corporation, 470, 474 
U. S. Steel Corporation. 19, 130, 454 
United War Veterans, 282 
United War Work Campaign, 155, 282 
Unwin, Raymond, 704 

Upson, L. D. Review of Williams's The Re- 
form of Political Representation, 906 



Vanderlip, F. A., 335 

Vandervelde, Emile. Belgium's need, 854 

Van Hise, C. R., obituary. 282 

Van Kleeck, Mary, 347 

Niagara Falls Association, 230 
Van Raalte, Dr., 93 
Van Schaack, David, 16 
Van Schaick, John, 466 

Private letter from Germany, 793 
Vaughan, V. C, 370 

Veiller, Lawrence. Association of Social Work- 
ers (letter), 742 
Venereal diseases, Public Health Service and 

demobilization, 305 
Verdun 

Appreciation, letter from Sous-Prt5ft>t, 436 

Reconstruction, 429 
Verse 

Armv of the Red Cross (Trask), 635 

Belgium, 1918 (Armstrong), 185 

Blinded soldier, the (Pearson), 665 

Christmas candles (Benjamin), 378 

Community service (Fernandis), 663 

Goal, the, and the way (Oxenham), 356 

Golden Age (Webster), 825 

Hut bv the side of the road (Lee), 593 

Ireland (Manahan), 572 

League of love in action, the (Markham),348 

Little cart (Waley), 629 

Mme. Breshkovsky at Henry Street Settle- 
ment (Tippy), 698 

Night in the hospital (Lee), 214 

Peace (Woodberry), 257 









Index 



xv 



Purged by war (Davies), 200 

Reconstruction song (Phillips), 908-909 

Spring to the poorhouse (Chamberlain), 925 

Three funerals (Smith), 446 

Ticket seller, the (Coates), 169 

To a realist (Hanly), 120, 438 

Vision of content, the (Woodberry), 347 

War at home, the (Wattles), 400 

War's consecration (Merington), 396 

Wounded man speaks (Oyen), 892 

Vestibule schools, 840 

Veterans, 282 

Vice in Chicago, 164 

Victory, final (cartoon by Cesare), 195 

Vienna, 839 

Garden village near, 472 

Villages, model, See Housing 

Vincent, G. E., 70, 371 

Vincken, 102 

Vocational education 
Federal Board, 746, 889 
Middle West convention, 678 
War methods, 830 

Vodka in Siberia, 533 

Vogt, P. L., 558 

Voice. See Speech 

W 

Wage zones, 905 
Wages 

Adjustment to cost of living, 737 

Children dazzled by, 136 

Dismissal wage, 513 

Effect of increase in a Slavic family in 
Minneapolis, 780 

Health and, 373 

Holland, 746 

Press-feeders, 130 

Public health and, 329 

War Labor Board and, 301 

Women in New York state, 668 
Wald, Lillian D., 640 

Roosevelt on the East Side, 524 
Waldo, D. B., 339 

Waley, A. The little cart (verse), 629 
Walker, Evelyn T., 123 
Willing, Willoughby, 468 
Walsh, L. P., 352 

W T ar Labor Board and the living wage, 301 
Walter, Henrietta R. Review of Stockett's 
The Arbitral Determination of Railroad 
Wages, 230 
Walton, Dorothy. In the square at Lisieux, 787 
War 

Between war and peace (Devine), 179 

Crime decrease, 919 

Gains, 1S4 

War at home (verse), 400 
War Camp Communitv Service, 218, 658 

Permanent values, 295, 313 

War work (with poster), 145, 156 
War charities, 282 

Investigating, 46 

Requirements of the new Investigation 
Bureau, 47 
War chest associations, 47 

Chicago agencies, 72 
War debt of Germany (letter), 384 
War Department 

Agriculture, 74 

Colleges and, 13 

Employment, 399 

Military prisoners, 801 
War drives and girls (letter), 76 
War funds, unexpended balances, in New Zea- 
land, 941 
War gardens, 74 
War industry and children, 49 
War insurance. See Insurance 
War issues, campaign for study of, 104 
War Labor Board 

Future, 352 

Living wage and, 301 

Press- feeders, 130 

Women representatives, 3 
War Labor Policies Board, 49 

Demobilization chart, 425, 426 

Public works projects, 361 
War Loan Organization, 886 
War monuments, 805 
War plants 

Peace uses, proposed, 592 

Peace uses (letter on article), 711 
' War power," federal, 103 
War Risk Insurance. See Bureau of, etc. 
War savings campaigns, by-products, 886 
War workers, health, 164 
Warburg, P. M., 823 



Ward, H. F., bolshevism and Methodist pub- 
lishers, 920 

Warren, B. S., 329 

War's consecration (verse). 396 

"War's heretics" (letters on), 383 

Washington (state), new minimum wage, 47 

Washington's birthday, Jewish celebration, 713 

Watson, F. D. Review of Tobias and Marcy's 
Women as Sex Vendors, 106 

Wattles, Willard. The war at home (verse), 
400 

Webb and Doremus cases, 867 

Webster, W. F. Golden Age (verse), 825 

Weeklies, missing (letter), 233 

Weeks, D. F., 382 

Weeks, Senator, reconstruction resolution, 47 

Weeks. Louise, 382 

Welfare. See Public welfare 

Welfare league In Newark jail, 731 

Weller, C. F., 313 

Efficient communities, 218 

Permanent values in War Camp Community 

Service, 295, 313 
Reconstruction and social advance (Chester 

movement), 636 
Roosevelt for a model city, 525 

Wells, H. G., signature to League of Free 
Nations Association, 499 

Wells, Sarah C. Review of Slattery's The 
American Girl and Her Community, 233 

West, J. E. 

Association of Social Workers (letter), 741 
Boy Scouts want men (letter), 511 
Roosevelt and the White House Conference, 
525 

West, Paul. A house in the Rue St. Antoine, 
252 

West Collingswood, N. J., 590 

West Virginia mining town improvement, 873 

Westchester County Penitentiary, 503 

" Wheatless, meatless " days, 52 

Wheeler, W. R., 633 

White, Sue S. Industrial employment for the 
blind, 397 

White House Conference on the Care of Depen- 
dent Children, 525, 530 

White slave traffic in India, 14 

Whitford, W. C. Allotments and allowances 
(letter), 845 

Whitley committee, 761 

Whitley councils, 917 

Whitley Reports, 595 

Whitman, Governor. Prison superintendents, 
234 

Wickes, Mrs. F. S. Shall we debauch China? 
(letter), 712 

Wilder, Veronica O., 703 

Wilkie, J. R., 936 

Wilkins, E. H., 308 

Williams, E. H., 267 

Williams, J. E., peace-maker (Fitch), 521 

Williamson, Pauline. Tobacco or children? 
(letter) 543 

Wilmington, 'Del., 587, 588, 589 

Wilson, Havelock, 11 

Wilson, Isabella C, 873 

Wilson, President 

Achievement at the Peace Conference, 826 
Address of Nov. 11, extract, 186 
Appeal to, from a country minister, 791 
Balked French labor deputation, 492 
British Labor behind, 163 
Clemency for espionage cases, 870 
French workers' attitude, 488 
Governors' conference on labor, 858 
On reconstruction, 329 
Prison-made goods, 53 
Speech in New York on Sept. 27, 19 
Speech on the league of nations, 639 
Wilson policies (Kellogg), 59 

Wilson, Sec'y, 385, 860 

Wilson, W. H., 735 

Review of Faber's Cooperation in Danish 

Agriculture, 169 
Roosevelt and the farmers, 530 

Wings. See Airplanes 

Winslow, Emma A. 

By-products of war savings campaigns, 886 
Review of Peters's Diet and Health, 358 
Review of Taber's The Business of the 
Household, 169 

Winslow, Irving. Association of Social Work- 
ers (letter), 744 

Wisconsin, reconstruction, 804 

Woerishoffor (Carola) fellowships, 908 

Wolf, R. B. Individuality, 620 

Wolfe, A. B., 902 



Wolfsohn, Leo, 392 

Woll, Matthew, 338 

Woman in Industry Service. 101, 345 

Niagara Falls Association, 230 

Standards, 471 . 

Value, 734 
Woman Suffrage, states gained at election, 199 
Woman's Educational and Industrial Union 

(Boston), fellowships, 941 
Women 

American workers in Russia, 631 

Bills to protect women's labor in New York. 
868 

Budget clubs. 72 

Chemical industries, 345 

Delegation to workers in England, 794 

Detroit railway award, 801 

English, demobilized, 641 

English non-munition industries, report, 932 

France, reconstruction work. 808 

French women's address to President Wilson, 
731 

Hours and wages — law or strike, 885 

Indiana legislation, 836 

Labor candidates in England, 343 

Madison, Wis., workers, 737 

Night work, 101 

Railroad work, 668 

Reclaiming the older, 673 

Reform legislation in New York, 642 

Right to choose her job, 380 

Russian industry, 612 

Soldiers' wholesome fellowship with, 296 

Standards for industry, 471 

Trade in India, 14 

Victory Dinner and Conference at Washing- 
ton, D. C, 731 

Voting (French cartoon), 555 

Wages in New York state, 668 

War Labor Board, 3 

Women organizations unite to protect, 405 

Workers, 184 

Working women's questions, 131 
Women's Joint Legislative Conference, 868 
Women's Night Court in New York city, 41 
Women's Trade Union League, 101 

After the war, 131 
Woodberry, Laura G. 

Peace (verse), 257 

Vision of content, the (verse). 347 
Woodcraft League of America, 70 
Woods, R. A. Daylight saving (letter), 171 
Wool industry, hours and output, 380 
Woolley, Helen T. 679 
Worcester, Mass., work-test, 673 
Workmen's compensation and the Gillespie 

plant explosion, 103 
Workshop committees 

America, 902 

In practice (Renold), 761 

Suggested lines of development (Renold), 
Reconstruction Series No. 1, Oct. 5 
World covenant, 724 
World organization, 180, 598 

See also League of nations 
Wounded. See Cripples ; Soldiers 
Wright, H. C, 740 

Wright, Ivan. Land appraisers (letter), 844 
Writers, advice to, 900 
W. R. P. C. What Shall I do? 224 



Yarros, V. S., 941 

Yellow fever, 362 

Yonkers, 89 

Yorkship Village, 588, 590 

Young, Ella Flagg, obituary, 141 

Y. M. C. A., 77, 128, 133 

Community center cartoon, 903 

Cooperating in Russia with Bolsheviki, 655 

Criticisms and replies, 796 

Grumblings about, 465 

War work (with posters), 155, 157, 161 
Y. W. C. A. 

American women in Russia, 631 

Cooperating in Russia with Bolsheviki, 655 

Hostess houses, 713 

Hotels in Europe, 796 

War work (with posters), 155, 158, 161 



Zionism, 198, 634 

American Jewish Congress and, 392 
Ziv, R. L., 713 
Zmrhal, J. J., 942 















4/ , 



<D*tf 










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Habits That Handicap 

A Book by 
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Social workers are called upon to help men and women with 
habits that handicap. Every day they are faced with the case of the 
alcoholic, the opium, cocaine or morphine taker, or the tobacco user. 
To act wisely they must understand the tortures and torments of 
drug and drink victims; they must realize the peril of these un- 
fortunates. 

In his book, "Habits that Handicap," Charles B. Towns answers 
and advises the social worker who is confronted by such problems. 
And Mr. Towns is well qualified for the task. Some chapter head- 
ings throw light on the way he deals with the menace of alcohol, 
opium and other drugs, and with the proposed remedies. The 
Need of Definite Treatment for the Drug Taker; The Drug Taker 
and the Physician; Psychology and Drugs; Help for the Hard 
Drinker; The Injury of Tobacco; Preventive Measures for the 
Drug Evil; Classification of Habit Forming Drugs. 

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THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5 



1 1 



JOTTINGS 



MAJ.-GEN. W. C GORGAS will on Oc- 
tober 3 retire from the office of surgeon-gen- 
eral for age but will remain on quasi-active 
duty as advisor. It is reported that he will 
be succeeded by Maj.-Gen. Merritte W. Ire- 
land, now chief surgeon of the American 
Expeditionary Forces in France. General 
Ireland was assistant to surgeon-generals 
O'Reilly and Torney before the war and 
went over to France with General Pershing 
in July, 1917. He is largely responsible for 
the medical organization and hospital facili- 
ties of the American Expeditionary Forces 
and will probably follow the practice of the 
infantry and other branches of the service 
and send back officers from France to give 
instruction. Gen. Robert E. Noble, now as- 
sistant to General Gorgas in the surgeon-gen- 
eral's office, is expected to take the place of 
General Ireland in France. 



A TEMPORARY committee to urge that 
women be represented on the National War 
Labor Board has been formed, with head- 
quarters at 50 East 42 street, New York city. 
This board, of which William H. Taft and 
Frank P. Walsh are joint chairmen, has been 
very active since its formation last spring in 
settling controversies between employers and 
workers in war industries. The temporary 
committee believes that women's representa- 
tion on the board both will tend to increase 
production and is a logical recognition of the 
increasing number of women in war indus- 
tries. The chairman of the committee is 
Mrs. Chas. C. Rumsey and other members 
are Mrs. H. P. Davison, Mary E. Dreier, 
Mrs. Alexander Kohut, Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, Mrs. Willard Straight and Maud 
Wetmore. 



GOV. LOWDEN, of Illinois, has, in the 
view of many social workers in that state, 
performed a public service by appointing 
Amelia Sears, civic director of the Chicago 
Woman's City Club, to the Illinois Board of 
Public Welfare Commissioners. These com- 
missioners, though advisory and non-execu- 
tive, are authorized to investigate the con- 
ditions and management of the whole system 
of charitable, penal and reformatory institu- 
tions, including state hospitals, penitentiaries 
and reformatories; to inquire into the equip- 
ment and policies of all institutions and or- 
ganizations supervised by the Department of 
Public Welfare; and to collect and publish 
annually statistics relating to insanity and 
crime. The long delay in recognizing women 
citizens of the state is declared by one Chi- 
cago social worker to be "partly extenuated 
by such a high-class appointment of the first 
woman to be selected for a position of state- 
wide responsibility and influence." Miss 
Sears is well qualified by long and varied 
experience in the service of the United Chari- 
ties of Chicago, the Juvenile Protective As- 
sociation, the Cook County Bureau of Public 
Welfare and the Woman's City Club. Her 
new duties will not interfere with her work 
in the latter organization. 



it has already spread to thirty-six states. To 
help stamp out the epidemic Provost-Marshal 
General Crowder has cancelled calls for the 
entrainment of 142,000 draft registrants be- 
tween October 7 and 11. The Public Health 
Service, the army, the navy and the American 
Red Cross are fighting the disease through 
a central committee. With the aid of the 
Volunteer Medical Service Corps, traveling 
medical units are being organized to reach 
communities suffering most from lack of doc- 
tors and nurses. On September 27 Congress 
appropriated a million dollars for a vigorous 
campaign against the epidemic; this money 
is to be spent by the Public Health Service. 
Much work is being done in laboratories, 
public and private, to isolate the epidemic 
influenza germ, if there be such a thing. In 
the meantime, since most of the deaths have 
occurred from pneumonia following influenza 
rather than from the influenza itself, the 
surgeon-general has made arrangements for 
vaccination against pneumonia of officers, en- 
listed men and government employes who 
voluntarily present themselves for that pur- 
pose. 



ANOTHER vital social service is threatened 
with extinction by the present administration 
of New York city. The health board, in its 
budget, has cut out provision for the six eye 
clinics for school children. At these clinics 
more than twenty thousand children haVe 
been examined each year, and glasses, have 
been obtained for from ten to sixteen thou- 
sand. Some of the most distinguished oph- 
thalmologists of the city have sent a letter 
of protest to Health Commissioner Royal S. 
Copeland containing a complete statement of 
the reasons why these clinics should not be 
abandoned. The importance of the conserva- 
tion of vision as a war time measure is sup- 
ported not only by reference to American 
statistics (defective vision is the largest 
cause of physical disqualification for service 
in the army, accounting for more than one- 
fifth of the rejections) but also by the ex- 
ample of England where, in spite of un- 
heard-of war time economies in almost every 
branch of public service, forty local authori- 
ties established clinics for the first time in 
1915-16, and a number of others have ex- 
tended their previous work. 



AN effort has been launched in St. Louis 
for the establishment of a housing associa- 
tion with a paid secretary. St. Louis has 
long felt the need of the elimination of build- 
ings that cannot be made safe and sanitary, 
for the restoration and modernization of 
buildings and houses in the congested dis- 
tricts, and for the abolition of the privy 
vault. A score of organizations have pledged 
their support in forming the new association. 



SPANISH INFLUENZA, so called, has now 
extended to more than a score of army 
camps and, while it is still most acute in 
Massachusetts where, according to the state 
epidemiologist, there are over 50,000 cases, 



October 5, 1918 Vol. 1,1, No. 1 

THE SURVEY 

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THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, igi 



r 




Something New by 
Ingersoll, Maker of 
Ingersoll Watches 

CHAPTER I 

Night ! Pitch dark ! You 
open the door and enter 
the house. Timidly you 
grope forward, raise your 
arm and feel for the light 
chain. Bang! Your knee 
hits the chair. You mut- 
ter "Tut— tut," etc. 

CHAPTER II 

Same room. Same dark- 
ness. You see a bright 
spark glow through the 
gloom — it's the little, In- 
gersol-lite on the light 
chain. You pull on the 
light. No groping, no col- 
liding, no "tut-tutting." 

The Ingersol-lite is a lit- 
tle unbreakable glass tube 
containing the same sub- 
stance that makes the 
hands and numerals of the 
Ingersoll Radiolite glow 
the time in the dark. You 
can see its spark across the 
widest room, and its lum- 
inosity lasts for years. 

Easy to attach. Can be used 
on Key Switches,, also. If 
your dealer doesn't sell them, 
send us his name and we'll 
supply you. Price 25c. In 
Canada, 35c. 

ROBT. H. INGERSOLL & BRO. 
315 Fourth Ave. New York 

Chicago San Francisco Montreal 





With Bayonet and Bond 



NO one ever can know how 
narrowly the United States 
escaped a war of many 
years' duration, on our own con- 
tinent, when General Joffre and 
General Foch turned the Germans 
back at the Marne in 1914. 

No one can quite know how 
long it will be before the menace 
of the Hun will be wiped out com- 
pletely. At least, however, we 
know that the splendid work has 
been begun by our own troops 
"Over There," and begun magnifi- 
cently. 

And now is the time to keep it 
going. A strong push now may 
result in ending the war, with all 
its costliness and hardships, in 
months, instead of years. 

Our armies are there, and have 
proved dependable, as we knew 
they would. Now, it is up to the 



American people — each and every 
resident of this favored land — to 
do something for the Fourth Lib- 
erty Loan. 

By buying Liberty Bonds we 
can pay our debt to France, and 
at no cost to ourselves. By buy- 
ing Liberty Bonds we can pay our 
debt to little Belgium, who stood 
like David against Goliath in de- 
fense of the world. We can pay 
our debt to our own boys on the 
fighting lines today. 

And all without cost to our- 
selves ! Nay ! More than that. 
By paying our debts of honor, 
patriotism and loyalty, we benefit 
ourselves by saving money for 
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Buy U. S. Government Bonds 
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y 



k ) \\ 




The Bulwark of Freedom 

Beginning a Discussion of the Cohesive Forces at Work Among the Subject 

Nationalities of Central Europe 

I. Emergent Democracies 
By Herbert Adolphus Miller 



PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, OBERLIN COLLEGE 



Since this series of articles was begun, Professor Miller has been named, by concerted choice of the repre- 
sentatives of the national groups concerned, as director of the Committee for the Federation of Mid-Eu- 
ropean States, the plan of which is described in this article. — Editor. 



SELF-DETERMINATION of nations is a phrase to 
conjure with. It means justice in a sense new to the 
world. It means permanent peace by creating in 
Europe a barrier against autocratic aggression. It 
means new problems insoluble by the old political science. It 
means cooperation instead of coercion. It means a shifting 
of emphasis from governments to peoples. It means a new 
map of Europe. 

It has been difficult for Americans to become conscious of 
their intimate connection with the war in Europe. Even now 
we are only half conscious of our real and vital relation to 
the struggle. To most of us, President Wilson's emancipa- 
tion proclamation for the small nations has seemed like an 
abstract declaration of principle, to which we have given our 
enthusiastic but unintelligent support. We fail to realize the 
fact that the subject nations of Central Europe, to which the 
proclamation most directly applies, do not lie entirely along the 
eastern frontier of Germany, but are a very vital part of our- 
selves. Not only is approximately one-tenth of the total popu- 
lation of these nations in the United States, but this one-tenth 
constitutes more than one-twelfth of our own total population. 
Hence the problem of Central Europe is part and parcel of 
the problem of American life, and far more significant than 
has been generally understood. Among these representatives 
of the Central European nationalities in America we must 
include not only those persons enumerated by the last cen- 
sus as claiming a mother-tongue not politically recognized, 
but also their children, and even grandchildren — the second 
and third generation in whom traditions of subjection have 
bred common aspirations. On an average, therefore, the cen- 
sus figures may be multiplied by two or three. 

We have called our immigrants uncomplimentary nick- 
names, and thought of them as dull laborers — people who 
The Survey, October 5, 1918, Volume 41, 



would work cheaply according to our standards, but who had 
been coming over here solely because by their own standards 
wages in America were munificent. We have complained be- 
cause they have not learned English, and we have feared that 
political corruption and social contamination would attend 
their incursion into American life. It is true that many of 
these people have come here for economic advantage, but that 
is not an adequate explanation of their presence among us. 
Again and again I have asked immigrant laborers how they 
liked America, and again and again the answer has been : 
"America is free." 

Nationalism is a modern phenomenon, but it has become 
one of the forces with which all future civilization must 
reckon. It has sprung into being in its present form so rap- 
idly that it has been difficult to recognize it as one of the most 
potent forms of social consciousness. It is akin to patriotism 
as generally understood, but draws its lines according to the 
group consciousness of a common language, common tradi- 
tions, or a feeling of unity of blood through some common 
ancestor. It has no necessary relation with political boun- 
daries, but rather with historic or even imaginary boundaries. 
From the point of view of economic advantage and personal 
advancement, it is often utterly irrational ; but we must learn 
that sentiment is a far more powerful force than self-interest. 
This is more easily understood since America went into the 
war than before. The ideal note which President Wilson has 
sounded so clearly makes life itself seem relatively insignificant 
as compared with the realization of ideals. The conscious- 
ness of this sentiment has been new to most of us in this 
country, but it has been the very breath of life to ten millions 
of our newer Americans. We have feared these national as- 
pirations in our immigrants as something divisive and un- 
American. The jingo spirit among us, together with ig- 
No. 1. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 5 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



norance, has been urging that all immigrants must forget the 
past and become Americans, and this through the one door of 
the English language, for the learning of which but scant op- 
portunity has been provided. Nothing could be more absurd. 
It is the purpose of this series of articles to show the mean- 
ing of this self-determined national freedom to the achieving 
of which President Wilson has pledged this nation, and to 
show also that it is "indispensable to the safety of the 
world." 

The Struggle for National Self-Respect 

Houdini tells us that, like all other magicians, he secures his 
successes by riveting attention on something other than what 
he is actually doing. Just now all eyes are fixed on the west- 
ern front in Europe; while it may well be true that the real 
issues of the struggle are being determined by forces at work 
on the eastern front. A glance at the map shows that Eastern 
and Western Europe are divided by a line of small nations ex- 
tending from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, their western 
boundaries forming an unbroken line from Petrograd to 
Trieste. We shall consider specifically the Baltic provinces, 
consisting of the Esthonians, Letts, and Lithuanians ; the Poles ; 
the Czecho-Slovaks ; the Ukrainians or Ruthenians; the Ru- 
manians; and the Jugo-Slavs. 

The common peculiarity of these peoples is that they have 
had rulers alien in language and culture, who have tried 
forcibly both to control and to assimilate them. Most of the 
immigrants of these nationalities in America have left their 
European homes because of a very deep resentment against 
what they think to be the most unjust invasion of their sacred 
rights. What they have developed as groups is individuality, 
which is the basis of character ; and if they were to be con- 
strained suddenly to repudiate this heritage before something 
organic and deep-seated had taken its place, the result would 
be most colorless and un-American. In cases where this has 
happened the result has been complete moral breakdown. As 
Professor Royce has shown, character finds its best fruition in 
loyalty, which is the devotion of a person to a cause ; and the 
cause of these peoples has been the struggle for an opportunity 
to develop their own personalities. 

There are two kinds of domination, political and cultural, 
which, if forcibly imposed, are most hateful. For example, 
the Esthonians are a Finnish people with a German aris- 
tocracy under Russian rule, while the Letts and Lithuanians 
have, respectively, a German and a Polish aristocracy with a 
Russian rule. The peasant who resents these two domina- 
tions is struggling to stand forth in his own individuality ; 
and in his fight thus to attain his own self-respect, we find 
ourselves challenged to offer him our respect as well. 

It is this struggle for national self-respect which is the basis 
of the present avalanche of nationalism. Nationalism does 
not develop where there is no oppression or obstruction ; and 
when the aspiration is satisfied it ceases to exist. The Swedes, 
for example, have never suffered oppression. In America their 
numbers more than treble those of the Bohemians ; but the 
Swedes have never been able to maintain a daily paper in their 
own language, while the Bohemians have eight. The chief 
symbols of national feeling are language or religion or both. 
Tenacious adherence to Old World language and religion are 
elements in our immigrant life which we are prone to consider 
obstructive to complete participation in American ideals; but 
in reality they are manifestations of the highest idealism. We 
find in the Bohemians of the Czecho-Slovak army a devotion 
to the ideal aims of the war which has put them in a class by 
themselves; and their love of their language has been one of 
the symbols of that deep loyalty which under stress of the 



opportunity of action has become more sternly articulate in 
their military prowess. 

Any such separatism, therefore, as may develop in the course 
of a people's progress toward self-realization is a necessary step 
in the evolution of a better political society. A chauvinistic 
nationalism may seem to its supporters an end in itself, para- 
mount and eternal ; its actual function is incidental within a 
larger development, a process of selection whereby the small 
group delineates itself and is welded for its differentiated ef- 
fectiveness in the universal group. Unless the interests of 
self-determined nationalism are harmonized with internation- 
alism, all the struggle will have been in vain. 

Internationalists have been predominantly those who have 
somewhat radical socialistic leanings, and it has been urged by 
many that international organization should follow the lines of 
class interests. This, however, would be a horizontal organiza- 
tion of society, artificially aiming to unite in a common cause 
all who have common economic interests. It is based on the 
tenet that the proletarian of any given national group has a 
nearer fraternal relation to the proletarian of another nation 
than he has to men of the other classes in his own nation. Na- 
tionalism, on the contrary, gives a perpendicular alignment, 
disregarding class lines, and making common cause of the 
symbols of unity in all the strata of a people, whether they be 
blood, language, or tradition. 

Without depreciating the problems which socialism and 
internationalism are trying to solve, we must face the fact 
that the nationalistic formation of a people represents not only 
a cross-section of society, but a cross-section of the life of indi- 
viduals. As the family, which is the primary social group, 
made up of individuals in various stages of development and of 
varying mental and physical equipment, offers, in respect of 
organization, a closer parallel to normal human society than 
any brotherhood, though based on the highest idealism, so 
nationalism implies a richer and more varied spiritual content 
than the colder and more abstract concept of internationalism. 
The ultimate internationalism, no doubt, will be one which 
preserves all the fundamental social values found in national- 
ism. 

Austria-Hungary : Polyglot 

It is interesting to observe that in the conflicts between these 
principles in the past four years we have seen the internation- 
alist yielding to the nationalist impulse; and we are obliged 
to pause and ask whether in the nature of things we were not 
trying to go at too rapid a pace toward an internationalism 
that was artificial and forced, instead of waiting for a uni- 
versal association that should be natural and voluntary. A 
few examples may be given. The Lithuanian Socialists be- 
longed to the Bolshevik group and were bitterly opposed to the 
Lithuanian nationalists. This gulf has been gradually clos- 
ing. One of the leaders of American Socialists in February 
was willing to go to prison rather than surrender his social- 
istic and internationalistic principles. In June he voluntarily 
entered our army, saying, "The Germans must be conquered." 
The editor of the Bohemian Socialist daily in Chicago has 
joined the Czecho-Slovak army in France. A number of 
men who are now holding prominent offices in the Czecho- 
slovak movement were once internationalist Socialists. They 
are convinced of a political urgency which has adjourned for 
the time theoretical problems of future social organization — 
that over and above these speculations is the practical prob- 
lem of winning the war and keeping the peace afterward. 

It is a good deal nearer to Berlin by way of Vienna than by 
way of the Rhine. If Germany can retain her eastern con- 
quests, with unlimited opportunity of expansion and domina- 



1 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, igi 



lion in the east, she will have won the war, no matter how 
much she may yield in the west. No matter what the peace 
terms may affirm, unless these peoples to the east, who have 
always been the pawns in the age-old intricate game of political 
frontier-making in Europe, are put strongly on their own feet 
and armed with self-respect and self-direction, there is no way 
in which the conditions of the treaty can be enforced. 

We are so familiar, in our thinking about nationalities, with 
the idea of a homogeneous political entity with a single pre- 
vailing language, that the military intelligence departments 
of the American cantonments, in making their census of the 
languages of the drafted men, have enrolled some as speaking 
"Austrian." It cannot be too insistently stated that there is no 
Austrian language, no Austrian literature, no Austrian race. 
The language and literature of the Austrian court are Ger- 
man, and the most rigorous measures have been taken to im- 
pose this language upon all the subjects of the empire. In a 
debate in the Austrian parliament a statesman who bore the 
significant name of Von Kaiserfeld declared, "Austria should 
be a German state in language and education." Another mem- 
her protested : "You desire to Germanize the empire ; you 
are not Austrian, you are German." Von Kaiserfeld replied 
angrily, "There are no Austrians in Austria, only Germans." 

There are eight official languages in Austria, and a bank- 
note with its polyglot inscription in multicolored ink is a sou- 
venir of Babel. It would have been more convenient, of 
course, if among these varied nationalities everybody had 
learned German. But why should they? They were in every 
case a conquered people, unwillingly under the domination of 
an unsympathetic and overbearing master. 

Out of the empire's total population of fifty-two millions, 
less than thirteen millions are Germans, while in Hungary, 
out of twenty-two millions, only ten millions are Magyars. 
The others — Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians, Rumanians, Jugo- 
slavs, Italians, and several other smaller groups — have been 
absolutely ruled by these two minorities, under a system of 
political legerdemain which operates as limited suffrage in 
Hungary and universal suffrage in Austria. This anomaly 
has been able to maintain its existence in recent years only by 
setting part against part. By playing religions, languages, and 
prejudices against one another, "an equilibrium of discontent" 
has been maintained. 

The history of Austria parallels in a lesser way what would 
be the condition of all the peoples in the east, should the Cen- 
tral Powers be successful in this war. At one time Austria's 
existence was justified as furnishing a bulwark against the 
Turk; but now, by vote of the people who by the overwhelm- 
ing weight of numbers are Austria, her boastful motto, 
Austria erit in orbe ultima — "Austria will last forever" — 
must be changed to Delenda est Austria — "Austria must be 
destroyed." 

This gage of defiance has been thrown down in the Austrian 
parliament itself by Deputy Stransky, a Czech member, who 
said: 

Austria will exist only so long as its people desire it. We now 
declare that with God's help we hope some day to smash it. Austria 
embodies century-old crimes against the liberty of mankind. Austria 
is not a state, but a nightmare centuries old, an Alp mountain of 
tyranny, and nothing else. Austria is a state without patriots and 
without patriotism; it is an absurdity; it is such a state that Czech 
soldiers sent against the enemy embrace him and join him for the 
formation of new regiments and divisions against Austria. 

A graduate of the university of Budapest, commenting on 
the conditions of a national system of education the outcome of 
which has been to make honorable men deliberately commit 
themselves to treason, depicts as follows his training as a 
Magyar: 



"THE WILL OF THE PEOPLES 
OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY" 

RESOLUTIONS 

Adopted at a Mass Meeting Held at Carnegie Hall, 

New York city, 

September 15, 1918. 

Ljy E, representatives in America of the subject peoples 
whose national territories adjoining one another ex- 
tend in Central Europe from the Baltic to the Adriatic, and 
representing the national groups which have been held 
against their will and with brutal persecution, under the 
oppressive domination of ruling powers that have exercised 
the right of an unnatural and enforced ascendancy, are 

RESOLVED , that we hereby give expression to our pro- 
found gratitude and appreciation of the just, humane, and 
unmistakable position of the government of the United 
States, and of the governments of the European nations zvith 
whom America bears arms in the common cause of democ- 
racy, regarding the right and the need of our peoples for 
a self-determined national freedom, to securing which the 
wise and far-seeing leadership of the president of the United 
States, Woodrow Wilson, has consecrated this nation, and 
the establishment of which is indispensable to the safety of 
the world. 

And we, assembled in Carnegie Hall, on the fifteenth of 
September, 1918, representatives of the millions dwelling on 
this soil who have enjoyed under the government of the 
United States the liberties denied us in the lands of our birth, 
are hereby 

RESOLVED, that the peace of the world and the de- 
mands of justice require the reconstitution of a united and 
independent democratic Poland; and further be it 

RESOLVED, that since the majority of the inhabitants 
of Austria-Hungary, to wit, Poles, Czecho-Slovaks, Ukrain- 
ians, Rumanians, Jugo-Slavs, and Italians, have been unjustly 
and cruelly governed by a ruling minority of Germans and 
Magyars, we demand the dissolution of the present empire 
and the organization of its freed peoples according to their 
own will; and further be it 

RESOLVED, that we pledge ourselves to undertake in 
solemn union the task of wresting from the dynastic and 
political aggressors of our liberties the unconditional relin- 
quishment of the sovereignty unjustly and violently exer- 
cised over us, and to this end to set aside for the present 
time those proper political, religious, and other differences 
which may inhere in the individual constitution and tradi- 
tion of our respective peoples, devoting ourselves utterly to 
the common cause of our own freedom and the freedom of 
the world; and further be it 

RESOLVED, that this present affirmation of loyal and 
brotherly cooperation between peoples of our nations shall 
be published broadcast, and that a copy of it shall be scut 
to His Excellency, Woodrow Wilson, president of the 
United States, and copies to the representatives of the Allied 
and neutral countries, to the Committee on Public Informa- 
tion, and to the public press. 



I remember, in the house of my parents we used sometimes to have 
Slovak servants. We were very democratic and treated them almost 
as our equals — as servants. But, of course, being a Slovak, that 
was different. Being a Slovak, that was a sort of a practical joke. 
A gentleman would never have thought of being born a Slovak. 
Slovaks were so ridiculously meek and docile, and they spoke 
Magyar with a perfectly funny accent. 

I entered the gymnasium with the notion that a gentleman might 
be a Magyar, a German, or even a Jew; but a Slovak? The idea! 

We were taught that Slavs were hardly human. Some of them, 
like Russian generals and pan-SIavist agitators (whatever they were), 
were devils incarnate. The rest, the bulk of the Russian people, 
Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Serbs, were simply an inferior and un- 
civilized race and worse. The Poles were the exception that con- 
firmed the rule. They were a chivalrous and unfortunate nation, 
lovers of music, wine, and fighting, like the Magyars. But even 
they displayed Slavonic characteristics in being unable to organize 
a strong state, and it was quite natural that they should have fallen 
the prey of such a genius as Frederick of Prussia. 

I remember with what resentment our class first learned the 
fact . . . that when the Magyars invaded the Hungarian plain 
from the north, the Moravian Slavs had the damned impudence to 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



be already there! Our sense of the fitness of things was greatly 
relieved when we were told that their army was beaten to shreds. 

Our teacher in history — by the way, an Armenian from Transyl- 
vania — always emphasized the fact that one of the best stunts ever 
perpetrated by the Magyar nation was the historic stroke of driving 
a wedge into the body of Slavdom that in the ninth century was 
stretching from the Baltic to the Aegean, thereby separating North 
and South Slavs forever. This was not only fine sport, but ad- 
mirable statesmanship as well. Among those most immediately 
benefited by the event were the Slovaks, who thus got a chance to 
live under Magyar rule and enjoy the blessings of Magyar civiliza- 
tion, and whom we Magyars intended, in the long run, to elevate 
to our own level by Magyarizing them altogether. 

Magyar civilization, we were told, was the heir and outpost of 
Rome on the eastern frontier of Europe. Latin culture was our 
precious heritage to defend against German violence, Slav barbarism, 
and Mahometan conquest. Had Latin not been the official language 
of the country until 1825, and one of the strongest bulwarks against 
the Germanizing tendencies of the Hapsburgs? 

The Rumanians of Transylvania, who claimed that they were the 
direct descendants of the Roman legions, were, of course, a lot of 
preposterous liars. Imagine the Wallach yokels speaking of Roman 
culture! Why, our teachers would tell us, they lived like swine in 
their huts on the Transylvanian hills, were poor, dirty, and illiterate, 
and rightly, too, because they were born stupid and lazy. 

We were told that Slovaks, Rumanians, Serbs, and Croats were 
enjoying perfect liberty and equality, and ought to be enthusiastic 
for Magyar rule. We were also told that to Magyarize them was 
to promote their own interest, because by becoming Magyars they 
would enjoy privileges from which, as Slovaks or Rumanians, they 
were naturally barred. Not one in ten of us began even faintly to 
suspect that the two statements implied a contradiction. 1 

The Need of Natural Relationships 

The proposed political disruption of an empire that has 
never been more than a union of force means simply a re- 
organization of these peoples into natural and voluntary re- 
lationships. It is quite obvious that the Germans of Austria, 
who are contiguous and homogeneous with those of the Ger- 
man Empire, belong with them. The Magyars, too, would 
from sheer necessity first seek some alliance with the Ger- 
mans, although their traditional hatred of German domina- 
tion is quite as bitter as that of the other peoples in Austria- 
Hungary. But having been united with Austria in 1867 by 
that "marriage of convenience" known as the Ausgleich, they 
have simply imitated their former oppressors, and for fifty 
years have been generating a justifiable hatred against them- 
selves on the part of the other peoples of Hungary; so that 
it is easier now for them to cooperate with the Germans, whom 
they have hated, than with the subject peoples who have come 
to hate them. 

Eventually, however, the Magyars must come to see that 
their interests lie with those other nations in the task of de- 
fense against Teutonic domination. Hungary must unite 
with the Slavic peoples to form a bulwark against Germany, 
as Austria was once organized against the Turk. But the 
method of union must be absolutely different. The question 
of method need not come up for present discussion, because 
free people will cooperate for their own safety. As Professor 
Masaryk, first president of the de facto Czecho-Slovak gov- 
ernment, has said, "When they are free the nations will fed- 
erate because they must ; but the first problem is to get them 
free." 

Many fear that the creation of new small states will mean 
a spread of the chaotic and volcanic conditions that have pre- 
vailed in the Balkans and broken out at intervals in in- 
ternecine strife, with the result that these states have become 
a symbol of political instability. Without exonerating the 
Balkan nations themselves from some responsibility, the old 
diplomacy of the Great Powers which kept alive both real and 
artificial antagonisms among them, for the sake of maintain- 
ing the "balance of power," has made them much more sinned 
against than sinning. 

1 Eugene S. Bagger, "A Rotten Education," The Public, August 3, 1918. 



The rate of political and social progress of a group can never 
be predicted, and no two groups will be exactly parallel in 
their development. A country may in a generation make 
centuries of progress. Japan is an illustration. There are 
forces at work in Rumania by which this miracle could be 
performed. The Czecho-Slovaks, who have been despised by 
Germans and been deemed unworthy of consideration by any- 
body up to the present time, have nevertheless produced and 
followed a leader like Professor Masaryk, whose democratic 
ideals and practical statesmanship are on a level with Presi- 
dent Wilson's; and Professor Masaryk is now the accepted 
leader of the movement for the freedom of the small 
nations. 

It is absurd to look forward immediately to complete qui- 
escence in these states. They will have innumerable prob- 
lems to solve, problems of internal and external relationships, 
habits of thought and feeling to overcome and reorganize, an- 
tipathies and prejudices which cannot be uprooted instantly. 
There must be long periods of education and of practical ex- 
perience; but just as the individual must develop the sense 
of social solidarity by a long process of give-and-take, of ex- 
pansion and inhibition, so the integration of states can result 
only from a protracted training in the responsibility of sov- 
ereignty. 

The problems of reconstruction after the war will be com- 
mon to all states, differing merely in kind and intensity. The 
only satisfactory and final solution possible lies in letting each 
state work out its own salvation. The assumption that any 
state can determine the interest of another against its wishes, 
no matter how backward that other may be, must be rele- 
gated forever to the past. One of the problems of the indi- 
vidual and of society is how to be free without being foolish. 
What we need is, first, faith that foolishness will disappear 
under the necessities of freedom, and, second, patience while 
the process of transition is being accomplished. 

There are, however, certain positive forces inherent in the 
peoples of these nations to which we can look with great con- 
fidence. The Poles, Czecho-Slovaks, Ukrainians, and Jugo- 
slavs all are members of the Slavic family; and while the 
Esthonian, Lettic-Lithuanian, and Rumanian languages trace 
their origin to different sources, the vocabularies of these peo- 
ples contain many Slavic words, and their blood and their cus- 
toms are tinged with Slavic. Up to the present time, Slavic 
values have had little consideration in world-affairs ; but they 
are bound to play an immense part in the future. It has never 
been possible for Teutonic aggression to destroy them. The 
very safety of the world from this Teutonic idea of force may 
depend on the natural antipathy of the Slavic habit of mind 
to the Teutonic. All the German writers for years have in- 
sisted that the most characteristic Slavic institutions were a 
menace to progress; and this is because progress from the 
German point of view must be based on Machtpolitik. 

The Spirit of the Czecho-Slovak 

A personal letter from Bohemia written more than a year 
before the outbreak of the war, by a Bohemian who for thirty 
years had been a professor of German in a German gym- 
nasium, says: "I am not pessimistic enough to give up all 
hope that Providence may have some good things in store for 
the Slavs. What keeps me up is a certain hazy impression that 
human development may some time be in want of a new 
formula, and then our time may come. I conceive ourselves 
under the sway of the German watchword which spells 
'force,' and, as watchwords come and go like everything else 
human, perhaps the Slav may sometime be called on to intro- 
duce another, which I should like to see spelled 'charity'." 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 1918 



This attribute as a natural characteristic of any people may 
for the present seem to be under a cloud. But local demo- 
cratic institutions are without any question more spontaneous 
and universal among Slavs than among any other people. The 
ground of hope for the ultimate salvability of Russia and its 
contribution to civilization must grow out of its local demo- 
cratic organizations, the zadruga, mir or commune, soviet, and 
zemstvo. At present, there is much blindness and prejudice 
because these institutions happen to be controlled by the un- 
practical and disorganizing party of the Bolsheviki. There 
is no more necessary relation between Bolshevism and the 
soviet than between free trade or protection and the party 
system in American politics. The strain of political readjust- 
ment is greater than the soviet can bear until it has been 
through the trial by fire. The democratic organization of 
the army failed completely under the Bolsheviki, but is per- 
fectly successful in the Czecho-Slovak army, showing that 
democracy is a matter of education and purpose', rather than 
of form. This spirit among the Czecho-Slovaks has made the 
problem of discipline unique. In the Czecho-Slovak army in 
France discipline is entirely voluntary, except so far as con- 
formity is demanded to French law. In the camp in Connec- 
ticut where the Czecho-Slovaks have been mobilized, awaiting 
transportation to France to the number of about one hundred 
a week, there has been no constituted authority which can be 
exercised over them. Recently there was a disturbance in the 
camp because a Slovak miner had got drunk. The two-hun- 
dred-odd men were called together after supper in military 
form, those who were leaving the next day for France on one 
side, and those who would stay for a week more on the other. 
The business manager of the camp told them of the man who 
had got drunk and got into trouble with one of his fellows. 
He called attention to the fact that this incident reflected on 
all Czecho-Slovaks and was a disgrace to the company. The 
culprit came forward and offered an explanation and apology. 
The man with whom he had quarreled came forward and 
made his statement. They shook hands and returned to the 
ranks. Then other men came forward, and, addressing the 
rest as brothers, gave vigorous temperance addresses, after 
which about one-third voted to swear off drinking entirely ; 
and then it was unanimously voted that every man's baggage 
be searched, and if a bottle of liquor was found, it was to be 
broken. This action, which was entirely spontaneous, shows 
what a people animated by a great motive, which sets aside 
personal inclination, can do. 

His Military Contribution 

Unquestionably society will have some temporary difficul- 
ties with the disintegrating and almost anarchistic tendencies 
of the Slavs ; but on the whole, in regard to these peoples of 
the future, we have reason for both hope and gratitude, rather 
than fear, since there have been preserved and nurtured in 
what we call barbarism traits of peculiar value for the solu- 
tion of complex impending social, political, and economic prob- 
lems. We may find in the social structure which is to be 
built in the coming century the fulfilment of the prophecy, 
"The stone which the builders rejected is become the head 
of the corner." 

The significance for Europe of these nationals in America is 
the fact that through their thinking and their activities there 
runs an infusion of democratic ideas, got from living here 
under American institutions, which will inevitably be trans- 
ferred to Europe, and which will make it impossible for them 
to endure arbitrarily imposed forms of government and ob- 
solete social institutions. 

There is a further significance for both Europe and America 



in the actual military contributions of these people. Poles in 
America have been giving hundreds of thousands of dollars 
for the support of their own army,- and sending their boys 
into both our army and their own. One Polish priest had 
two hundred and ninety-eight families in his parish ; only two 
men have been drafted from his community, for twenty-seven 
were already enlisted in the United States army and twenty- 
three in the Polish army. 

Of the Czecho-Slovaks who are citizens of the United 
States, great numbers have gone into our army, and this group 
has at the same time been sending a steady stream of men to 
the Czecho-Slovak army in France. In all parts of the coun- 
try they have been raising money for their cause. The Bo- 
hemians of Chicago immediately after the last Liberty Loan 
campaign, in which they bore their full share, held a bazar 
which netted fifty thousand dollars for the drive for Czecho- 
slovak independence. A Bohemian workman divided his sav- 
ings of $1,800 equally between his mother and the Czecho- 
slovak National Council, and enlisted at ten cents a day to 
fight in the Czecho-Slovak army for the liberation of his na- 
tive Bohemia. This incident is typical of many such instances, 
as is also that of a little farming community in North Dakota, 
where, on June 16, the Bohemian farmers auctioned off their 
horses and live stock to each other and raised ten thousand 
dollars for the cause. 

Building the Bulwark 

The 180,000 Rumanians in America who have come from 
Austria, although they are technically enemy aliens, are 100 
per cent anti-Austrian, and have twenty-seven local societies 
organized for the purpose of raising funds and recruiting vol- 
unteers for a Rumanian legion as soon as it shall be authorized. 

A single community of Jugo-Slavs in this country stands 
ready to furnish 400 men, all of them emigrants from a cer- 
tain vulnerable section of southern Austria, to act as guides in 
their native region, when the campaign for the dismember- 
ment of the Hapsburg empire shall be carried to the actual 
lands for which the struggle is being waged. 

As a reaction among Americans to all these activities, we 
find some fear expressed that many of our immigrants may 
return to their native countries after the war, if those coun- 
tries are made free. It is impossible to foresee just what kind 
of movement of population will take place; but I can think 
of nothing more valuable for the world than that many of 
the leaders in these movements for national freedom, men who 
have been thoroughly trained in American citizenship, should 
go back and play a part in the reconstruction of Central and 
Eastern Europe. 

Each of the nationalities participating in this struggle for 
the re-establishment of its ancient liberties has a national coun- 
cil which came into existence for the purpose of making its 
aspirations and activities effective in an actual working or- 
ganization. The councils have a recognized status both in 
Europe and America. The Will of the Peoples of Austria- 
Hungary was the significant title of a meeting held at Car- 
negie Hall in New York city on Sunday, September 15, at 
which were adopted resolutions (printed on page 7) which 
have been formally presented to President Wilson by official 
representatives of all the nationalities who participated in the 
declaration. 

In the same week a committee of representatives of the 
various national councils was formed into an official organi- 
zation looking to a federation of all these nationalities. Cen- 
tral offices will be in Washington, and the committee will 
meet in regular conferences for the study of the common prob- 
lems of the several peoples. These men, as spokesmen of the 



10 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



various groups of nationals, are actuated by the urgent and 
sincere purpose of adjusting the differences, at bottom more 
apparent than real, that have nevertheless long inhibited 
effective inter-communication among nations that are in reality 
linked by fundamental common interests. Moving events 
have set this conference the unique task — a task vital for the 
hopes of peoples whose struggles to win back their ancient 
liberties have for centuries been balked by the casuistries of 
the politically powerful — of answering once for all the 
baneful pre-judgment that even if they should achieve free- 
dom as individual nations, they could not keep the peace 
among them. 

The potential meaning of this committee cannot be esti- 



mated. It is the answer to those who felt that the existence 
of Austria was the only guaranty of the stability of Central 
Europe. This is the metamorphosed Austria in which there 
is no Austria. It is the beginning of democratic and frank 
relationships among peoples whose history is a long recollec- 
tion of national feuds kindled and kept alive by an intricate 
secret diplomacy in which the birthrights of nationalities were 
played away as pawns of power. It is a demonstration of the 
method of arbitration in open council of the claims of respon- 
sible nations. It means a solid front of free, united nations, 
ranged in mutually protective formation in a long sentry-line 
from the Baltic to the Adriatic. It means the basis of a ra- 
tional and enduring peace. 



Shall Charity Organization Societies 
Change Their Name? 



By Frederic Almy 

SECRETARY THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY OF BUFFALO 



WHEN the name charity organization society was 
first used by the London society in 1869, charity 
was still unorganized, and when the work was 
begun in this country by the Buffalo Charity 
Organization Society in 1877, the name was still fit. Today 
the work of such societies is not limited to dependent families, 
and the organization of charity which they began is now 
shared by many other societies. As secretary for twenty-five 
years of the Buffalo society, I am attached to its name, and 
old names should not be lightly altered, but I feel the weight 
of the arguments for a new name which were presented last 
May at Kansas City by Francis H. McLean. 

The executive committee of the American Association for 
Organizing Charity then recommended a change of its name, 
and the trial for a year, as a sub-title, of the name Family 
Welfare League. At about the same time, the Charity Or- 
ganization Institute of 1918 strongly recommended among 
other things, "a re-naming of the societies in such a way as to 
make their specialty, family case work, more widely under- 
stood in the community than at present." Various names 
were suggested, of which my own favorite is Family Welfare 
Society. A wrong name can hamper good work. Charity 
organization societies have not always been modest, and if a 
name which was originally fit becomes bumptious and too 
large to be true, it should be changed. Personally, I should 
like to get away from both "charity," which our clients dis- 
like, and from "organize," which to many seems cold ; and 
the word "family" is fortunately broad enough to include 
community work. In a small town where there is a blanket 
society which is man of all work, the name charity organiza- 
tion society may still be fit and good, but even in small towns, 
Family Welfare Society may be fitter and better. 

Mr. de Schweinitz's article in the Survey for September 
28 [New Names for Old, page 712] gives the arguments 
against the present name, but makes no suggestion for a new 
name. Mr. McLean's report at Kansas City has much that 
seems to me convincing. He says in part: 

In the first place, let us ask ourselves whether the community or 
the family is and is going to be our unit. I think it will be agreed 
that the latter is, and is going to be increasingly so, rather than 
the former. There was an earlier period in our history when we 
did assume, more or less consciously, that we were really respon- 
sible to a very great degree for community organization and de- 



velopment in the social field, for practical leadership in all move- 
ments for the improvement of social conditions. But organizations 
of all kinds have come into being to dispute any assumption of 
monopoly of responsibility. These include rapidly developing social 
agencies of all kinds doing an actual day-to-day work, as well as 
woman's clubs, departments of social conditions, of chambers of com- 
merce, etc. Finally, there have come into being Central Councils 
of Social Agencies involving all the groups mentioned above. This 
movement is at the present time receiving increasing impetus from 
local Councils of Defense and similar war bodies. It is certain, in 
my mind, that federated organizations of this sort are going to 
rapidly develop. Some will lead on to financial federation, some 
will not, but the movement itself is inevitable. I cannot see but 
that community organization in the social field is now no more an 
exclusive possession of our societies than it is of other agencies. 
This does not mean that we will not always have our large part 
to play in community movements for betterment, but it does mean 
that we will no longer assume to be the organizer of all movements, 
the coordinator of all activities, except, it may be said, in those 
communities in which there are no other social or semi-social agen- 
cies whatever. But even there we shall encourage and welcome 
the creation of other centers of influence, and that they will be de- 
veloped in time there is no doubt. We shall be part of a larger 
whole. 

Whenever and wherever we depart from the family as our start- 
ing point and returning point we will occupy increasingly illogical 
positions. Pretending to be the community organizer we will face 
councils of social agencies or other individual social agencies (where 
there are no councils), the first of which are logically the organ- 
izers and coordinators, the latter of which have the right to demand 
why they have not responsibilities equal to ours. All our social 
agencies doing a day-to-day work, as distinguished from semi-social 
organizations such as woman's clubs, are focussed around what? 
Their name indicates more clearly that focussing than ours does. 
They refer to the care and interests of particular classes of persons, 
such as children (or particular groups of children, etc.), or they 
refer to a particular social movement, such as the repression and 
prevention of tuberculosis or the advancement of public health. 

If we attempt a better focussing, it is certain that we would deny 
that we could adequately describe our activities in terms of any 
particular social movement, because we are interested and partici- 
pate in all of them or most of them from time to time. Why are 
we interested participants? Because somehow they do have their 
bearing upon family well-being. Have we not come back to our 
real focussing point? It is the family in our case, not any particular 
group. . . . 

Dr. Samuel W. Dyke quotes in one place what Mr. Bryce once 
wrote: "One might almost say that the Family is the fundamental 
and permanent problem of human society. ..." 

I cannot conceive of this being other than a far bigger program 
than we have ever had. It includes, indeed, all that we have hither- 
to done, excepting that it withdraws us from any false positions 
we may be occupying as sole community organizers, positions al- 
ready heavily assailed and justly so. It brings us to community 
conferences as a movement working with and studying family 
problems as a whole, which means that we are concerned in all 
community movements affecting family life. 



Derby 



Incidents of the British Labour Congress 
By An English Correspondent 



IF an unsophisticated citizen of the United States had 
come to Derby on September 1 or thereabouts he would 
have spent the first hours of his visit asking questions. 
He would have wanted to know why it was that with 
paper at famine prices leaflets were falling on delegates like 
"blessed rain from Heaven." He would have wanted to 
know why it was that the secretary of the Seamen's and Fire- 
men's Union should erect a large marquee in the Market 
Square and invite all who cared to do so to take lunch with 
him without charge. He would have wanted to know what 
the prime minister of Australia was doing at this lunch (be- 
sides eating his share of it) and why, himself a labor leader, 
he should go out of his way to revile ideals which generations 
of working men in all countries had agreed to keep sacred. 

He would have wanted to know why, if the leaders of Brit- 
ish trades unionism thought it proper to boycott this lunch, 
veteran Sam Gompers, whom, as representing the United 
States, everybody delighted to honor, thought it proper to be 
present at it. He might even have wanted to know who paid 
for the lunch, and whether the function of a brass band, which 
made much noise during the proceedings, was to conceal the 
paucity of the applause called forth by the somewhat acidulous 
eloquence of Mr. Hughes. 

It would not be possible to answer all the questions of such 
a visitor, but one might tell him in general terms that the 
trade union world was increasing its power and prestige by 
leaps and bounds; that it now numbered nearly five million 
adherents, including three-quarters of a million women, and 
that the inrush was continuing and quickening; that all but a 
few of these members would have votes under the representa- 
tion of the people act, and that, in consequence, the political 
power of the unions would also be increased and might, in the 
future, be decisive ; that this prospect was leading to many at- 
tempts to "wobble" labor and would probably produce an 
epidemic of free lunches, at most of which the prime minister 
of Australia (who had become so devoted to the British 
Islands that he had apparently forgotten his own) might be 
expected to be present. As for Sam Gompers, one would say 
that after all he had not spoken as ferociously as our yellow 
press had led us to expect him to do ; that doubtless he had 
failed as yet accurately to take his bearings, and that when 
he had done so, his native acumen would probably lead him 
to select his luncheon parties with greater care. 

And with this prelude one would leave the visitor to enter 
the congress in the sure hope that with open eyes and ears 
he could not fail to arrive at just conclusions. It is as little 
possible as it is desirable to refer to all or many of the reso- 
lutions swiftly adopted by the Congress. But the address of 
the chairman calls for notice of such questions as the dispute 
on passports, the attempts to form a purely trade union po- 
litical party, the antagonism which threatens to separate the 
congress from the Labour Party on the one hand and from 
the General Federation of Trade Unions on the other, the 
question most of all of the war policy of British labor. A 
few words on each of these may, therefore, be proffered to 
readers of the Survey. 

li ever modesty, sincerity and disinterestedness spoke out 



of the mouth of a man it spoke out of the mouth of J. W. 
Ogden. Ogden is not a lion of the world of labor, but he is 
endeared to it by qualities of the head and the heart. Lanca- 
shire weavers, of whom he is one, are said to say little and 
think a lot. That certainly is Ogden's way. One feels in 
listening to him that he talks merely because he has some- 
thing imperative to say. And again like the weavers, he ab- 
hors rhetoric or any type or degree of over-emphasis or exag- 
geration. In his address to the congress appear the candor 
and exactitude of his mind and the care, even the pains, with 
which he has worked his way to convictions. 

Havelock Wilson and his colleagues have never loved the 
political Labour Party, and now, aided by Mr. Hughes and 
some scores of camp followers, they are seeking under various 
pretences to disrupt it. Ogden, without mentioning them, 
sent a heavy censure in their direction. Experience had taught 
him that unless working men act together in politics they can- 
not act together successfully in industry. 

On another subject, that of the struggle now threatening 
to become bitter between craft and industrial unions, Ogden 
had something to say which may interest unions in the United 
States. Between the conflicting claims of these types of union, 
the Parliamentary Committee of Congress has some jurisdic- 
tion, but it is not enough to enable them to penetrate the 
tangle of overlapping federations, confederations and amalga- 
mations and the interests and jealousies that have grown up 
in these. The policy of the President was one that might be 
derided if its author were less experienced, sober and shrewd. 
The policy of the formation of one all-embracing trade union 
within which, with experts to help them, the wage-earners can 
place themselves in their natural logical groups. 

But it is on the overhanging issues of war and peace that 
Ogden's speech was of most effect. That there is any weak- 
ening in the determination of the British democracy to at- 
tain the objects for which the nation entered the war, or any 
attempt in dealing with the labor movement in enemy coun- 
tries to trespass on the functions of central government, he 
denied. The labor movement, however, has the power to 
render moral support to the armies that fight for democracy 
as it has the duty to assist mankind to achieve righteousness 
and peace. The "awful work" of the sword has been done 
for four years and it is still to do. Labor can no longer be 
supine. Ogden stands, therefore, for an immediate confer- 
ence between the several labor movements, not to negotiate a 
peace, which is a function of central government, but to ex- 
change views, remove misunderstandings and perhaps show 
governments the way to reunite humanity over the chasm in 
which its youth and happiness are rapidly perishing. "God- 
speed to the International," cried Ogden, and the solemnized 
audience uttered a nearly audible "Amen." 

This admirable speech, in which anyone who desires to may 
find the heart of British labor laid bare, prepared the way for 
a discussion on peace in which the standing committee sub- 
mitted a resolution. The resolution, which reaffirmed the 
demand of the Blackpool congress twelve months earlier for 
an international conference, requested the labor parties of 
the Central Powers to table their answer to the statement of 

11 



12 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



war aims which was drawn up last year by the Inter-Allied 
Labour Conference and called upon the government to open 
negotiations as soon as the enemy, voluntarily or by com- 
pulsion, evacuated France and Belgium, lost nothing by being 
committed to J. H. Thomas. Thomas has visited the United 
States, and American labor leaders are acquainted with his 
buoyant and virile personality. His present commanding place 
in labor politics is due as much to his insight and generalship 
as to his extraordinary energy and staying power. It owes a 
little also to the sense of fun which made him during the con- 
gress a thorn in the flesh of Havelock Wilson and the de- 
stroyer of most of that gentleman's platitudes. At a great 
open-air "pro-ally demonstration" Thomas turned up in the 
audience, and after Havelock Wilson had uttered his usual 
plea for a five years' boycott of Germany, went on to the 
platform ostensibly to support that proposition. Poor Wil- 
son's face grew longer as the speech of his supporter pro- 
ceeded. At the end of the meeting when the crowd had for- 
gotten the "boycott" and were cheering rapturously for a 
league of nations, it would have made an inimitable "Melan- 
cholia." 

Later when the boycott resolution did duty once again and 
Wilson buttressed it with a sweeping attack on internation- 
alism and "peace by negotiation," Thomas made the hit of the 
week by reading a quotation from which it appeared that Wil- 
son himself, at a conference of his union subsequent to the 
sinking of the Lusitania, had resisted "from an international 
point of view" substantially the very resolution that he was now 
intemperately supporting. 

The Peace Resolution Adopted 
Moving the peace resolution, Thomas added to his successes 
in a speech of unusual dignity and power illumined by a 
declaration that British labor would not "sacrifice 1 a single life 
to add to the territory of the empire" and by a demand that 
we should state our terms/ once and for all so that they would 
not change with the war map as did the terms of the Ger- 
mans. Here again Wilson was an obscurantist, and though the 
resolution was in the nature of a compromise between the 
dominant groups in the congress, he struck at it viciously. His 
friends in other tussles, however, lightly abandoned him in 
this and the resolution was adopted with practical unanimity. 

Peace was again the theme when a day later delegates from 
the United States and Canada and from the Labour Party 
brought to the congress the fraternal greetings of their or- 
ganizations. Sam Gompers (the lunch forgotten) was nat- 
urally hero of this occasion and the patriarch was given an 
ovation such as any leader might treasure. His speech, as well 
as his presence, was cheered. British democracy counts the 
alliance with America as the biggest event not only of the 
war but of modern history, and Gompers could not too often 
refer to it. The Boer War and Home Rule are less pleas- 
ant themes, but on neither of them did the veteran speak 
too strongly for the taste of his audience. British labor does 
not equivocate either on Ireland or South Africa, and it would 
gladly concede to these nationalities the right it is asserting 
for others. 

Henderson, who followed Gompers, frankly admitted that 
the British and American labor organizations were not in ac- 
cord on the proposed international labor conference. Their aims 
were, however, identical, and the difference in method might 
be minimized or removed at the forthcoming Allied Labor 
Conference in London. Henderson in resounding sentences 
came near to repeating his great triumph of twelve months 
ago. He was magnificent in repudiating the aspersions on the 
determination of British labor, magnificent in glorifying the 



imperialism, magnificent most of all in proclaiming the benefi- 
cence of the sovereignty soon to be wielded by a league of 
nations. Henderson left these capital questions for a mo- 
ment to strike obliquely at the proposal to form a separate 
trade union political party, and to debate on this subject it is 
now time to turn. 

It should be noted that those who have initiated the pro- 
posal are chiefly trade union leaders who in the past have de- 
nied the necessity for any political labor party at all. Have- 
lock Wilson and W. J. Davis, for instance, are ancient mem- 
bers of the Liberal Party whose attitude to labor candidates 
has been one of consistent hostility. Their case against the 
British Labour Party was then that it was too narrow and sec- 
tarian — now that the party has altered its constitution and 
admits individual members who subscribe to the party objects 
as well as those who come in indirectly as members of trade 
unions or Socialist organizations. The party is too wide! Mr. 
Davis expressed horror that out of four labor candidates 
adopted for Birmingham, one was a lawyer and two were doc- 
tors without understanding that the precise object of en- 
larging the scope of the party was to bring into it men of the 
professional classes exactly as such men are brought into the 
Socialist and labor parties on the continent. The debate soon 
betrayed its unreality and showed Mr. Wilson making one 
more attempt for some obscure purpose of his own, to frus- 
trate the hopes which the new Labour Party is inspiring in 
all parts of the United Kingdom. That the congress knew 
how to reward- his plotting was shown by the contemptuous 
dismissal of thd* resolution. 

The quarrel between the General Federation of Trade 
Unions and the combined Labour Party and Trade Union 
Congress is attributable to the greater activity of the former 
body in the realm of international affairs. Due to this ac- 
tivity is a prominence abroad which is not supported either by 
the membership of the Federation or the part assigned to it in 
the British trade union scheme. The function of the federa- 
tion is to facilitate the insurance of unions against the heavy 
liabilities of strikes. Insofar as it goes beyond this function, 
it collides with the Trade Union Congress, which is the body 
entitled to pronounce on industrial issues, or with the Labour 
Party which similarly has jurisdiction in political affairs. The 
confusion between these bodies led recently to a struggle for 
the body of Sam Gompers, Mr. Appleton of the Federation 
and Mr. Bovverman of the Parliamentary Committee of 
Trade Union Congress busily arranging conferences for the 
distinguished visitor that conflicted with each other. 

The Passport Question 

The question of passports raised the congress to much indig- 
nation. Delegates could see a certain reason in the refusal to 
permit British labor leaders to meet or treat with members 
of enemy communities, but they could see none at all in the 
denial of a passport to enable their elected representative, 
Margaret Bondfield, to transmit their greetings to the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor. They resent, too, the hypocrisy of 
the 'denial; admitted that a regulation prohibits women and 
children from traveling overseas save in cases of exceptional 
and urgent necessity, they point out that the regulation had 
been waived in the case of Mrs. Pankhurst. Why was the 
government more solicitous for the safety of Miss Bondfield 
than for that of Mrs. Pankhurst? or, alternately, in what was 
the business of Mrs. Pankhurst, who represents nobody but 
herself, more "exceptional and urgent" than the business of 
Miss Bondfield, the representative of four and a half millions 
of wage-earners? 

It was with justice that delegates alleged a claim on the 



crusade which the two nations are pursuing together against part of the government to decide exactly what type of trade 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 1918 



13 



union opinion they would allow to be represented in America 
and with an elementary exercise of proper spirit that steps 
were taken to contest the claim. 

On the whole it was a great and encouraging congress, great 
in its unprecedented numbers and encouraging in that it kept 
its faith and its equilibrium and refused to be led away from 
the great objects which trade unionism has immediately to 
gain. It was, however, also a congress of undercurrents which 
Havelock Wilson busily kept in motion. The lavish expen- 
diture of money, his own or somebody else's, by this worthy 
arouses both comment and suspicion which is not lessened by 



Thomas' revelation of the suddenness of the spender's con- 
version to the policy of the economic boycott. What, to put it 
bluntly, is Mr. Wilson after? There are many replies to this 
question, but the reply having most support was suggested by 
a representative of the shop stewards, who told Mr. Wilson 
that there was "political faking" behind his crusade, and de- 
plored the circumstances that "the dead bodies of seamen 
should be used in playing the low-down game of tariff re- 
form." 

Havelock Wilson is one of the many dangers of which the 
trade union movement must beware. 



Greetings to the Students' Army 

Training Corps 



By Edward T. Devine 



FIVE HUNDRED colleges and universities become 
this week military posts; and the War Department 
becomes in the European sense a ministry of edu- 
cation. A hundred and fifty thousand of the boys 
called to arms by the new draft law, who have the high-school 
education essential to an officer, begin their military service 
with three months, six months, or a full academic year at 
college according as they are respectively twenty, nineteen, or 
eighteen years of age. The college to which they come, how- 
ever, is not that of the traditional four-year or even the modi- 
fied three-year curriculum. They come to college not that 
they may be made into scholars but that they may be made 
into soldiers. They, like their grandfathers of sixty-one, will 
not for long seek truth amid the dust of books to be content 
at last "with the cast mantle she hath left behind her." Of 
these boys someone will say, as Lowell said of his college 
brothers in their search for truth, that they 

fought for her, 
At life's dear peril wrought for her, 
So loved her that they died for her. 

* * * * * 

They followed her and found her 
Where all may hope to find, 
Not in the ashes of the burnt-out mind, 

But beautiful, with danger's sweetness round her. 

It will be their high privilege "To front a lie in arms and not 
to yield." 

The War Department begins exceedingly well its career as 
administrator of higher education. It demands of the in- 
structors in the Students' Army Training Corps neither ora- 
tory nor propaganda, but teaching and thoughtful discussion. 
The war issues are to be presented clearly, soberly, and truth- 
fully. There is to be no bombastic exaggeration. The po- 
litical issues are to be presented by competent teachers whose 
patriotism is not constrained but spontaneous and genuine — 
an inevitable result of their scholarship, not a limitation on it. 
The students are to choose courses such as accounting, 
astronomy, chemistry, drafting, economics, English, French, 
German, geography, government, history, hygiene, interna- 
tional law, mathematics, mechanics, military law, physics, 
topography and zoology, in addition to the required course on 
war issues; and if the word war appears before each of these 
topics, this is but to emphasize the shortness of time and the 
paramount obligation to make soldiers and leaders of soldiers 
of this choice material which for three, six, or nine months 
the nation is entrusting to the colleges. 



This combination of military instruction and discipline with 
academic atmosphere and teaching should make an excellent 
substitute for the various plans which the government has 
tried and discarded as a preparation for the technical training 
of officers in instruction camps. Its aim is sternly practical; 
for the army needs officers and needs them at once. These 
officers cannot be men whose minds are "sicklied o'er with the 
pale cast of thought." They must be leaders, knowing why 
they fight and why they lead men into the fighting, knowing 
it simply, clearly, confidently. They will not be called upon 
to discuss subtleties of remote issues, but the terrible truth of 
the issues at stake. They are to be a part of that one great 
army which has been created out of the old "regular" army, 
the "national guard" and all the other component parts of 
the military forces of the United States. They are to learn 
the lesson of that "instant and willing obedience" which is the 
essence of discipline in the British army and of every army. 
They are to make of themselves fit instruments of the na- 
tional will, remaining, of course, themselves worthy citizens 
of the nation, earning, by the supreme test when the time 
comes, the right to an honorable place in a society of free- 
men. 

Greeting, then, to the boys in all the colleges who in their 
country's uniform, with every sense alert, under the keen eye 
of the drill sergeant, and the no less keen eye of the college 
instructor, are to be hurried through their unconventional 
college courses. Their incentives to study are unprecedented. 
All distractions are eliminated. Body, soul and uniform, 
they are consecrated to study. If they make a good showing 
they go on into officers' training camps. Otherwise they go back 
into the ranks. They might easily have a worse fate than to 
fight in the ranks by the side of many a man as good as they, 
but, nevertheless, the motive is one not to be despised. 

Their country, not the particular college which they attend, 
is their real alma mater. Nevertheless, if the college, even in 
the swift few months, does not subtly entangle a little of the 
affectionate loyalty of these ardent young men, if there does 
not take shape in the mind of many a cadet the thought that 
some time — after the war — he will come back to the university 
in response to its old summons to a more leisurely and a more 
intimate companionship with science and learning, if they re- 
member the military instruction but not the other things 
taught in the S. A. T. C., then the generous conception of 
the government and the colleges would in so far have failed. 
It will not fail. 



Burda Faroshi 



A Close View of the Trade in Women in India 
By Colin A, MacPherson 



OF THE INDIAN POLICE 



IN western countries "trade in women" is synonymous 
with the "white-slave traffic." A somewhat similar traf- 
fic exists in India, and occasionally instances of the worst 
possible description come to light in the big cities. The 
form, however, that is peculiar to India is the established trade 
to provide actual wives. In India, chiefly in the north, the 
men outnumber the women to a marked degree, especially the 
remarriageable ones. To an actual excess in men must be 
added the fact that polygamy and the prohibition of widow 
marriage are still common features of Indian social life ; hence, 
it will be seen at once that the problem of obtaining wives is 
an acute one. 

The discrepancy in numbers is ascribed to female infanticide 
in the past. Although this form of crime no longer flourishes 
openly, still it is sufficiently in evidence in many places to 
necessitate the application of the female infanticide act. This, 
like so many social-reform measures, is susceptible to gross 
abuse of its well-intentioned provisions at the hands of un- 
scrupulous subordinates. Under it the parents of a female 
infant are subject to very close supervision. Its birth must 
be reported immediately. Should it suffer from any of the ills 
that infant flesh is heir to, a report must be promptly made, . 
and an official medical man called in to attend it. When it is 
understood that nothing is more resented by the average 
Indian than any interference with his privacy, the possibility 
that blackmail will be levied by ill-paid underlings becomes 
something more than a probability. Thus in applying the act, 
although the necessity for protecting the lives of helpless 
female infants must be the first consideration, great care must 
also be exercised to ensure that the facts as reported are really 
such as demand this stringent remedy. 

Courtesy, World Outlook 




The active principles of female infanticide happily are com- 
paratively rare, but still the fact remains that among a great 
many communities the male child is less apt to succumb to 
infant maladies than the female. This is too marked to be a 
mere coincidence, and the only reasonable conclusion is that 
the "mothers' tender care" is exercised less on behalf of little 
girls than of boys. The difference in the sentimental value of 
boys and girls is shown by the fact that an Indian wife never 
prays to be blessed with children, but with sons. The greet- 
ing to a newly married couple in the extreme north is "May 
God give you a thousand sons." The ordinary point of view 
is aptly illustrated by the following true anecdote: An In- 
dian gentleman was paying a call on a missionary whose fam- 
ily consisted of four girls. The last two were twins and had 
been born ten days previously. No mention of the happy event 
was made by the visitor until he took his departure. He took 
the missionary by the hand and said, "Don't be down-hearted, 
it is God that sends the girls as well as the boys." 

In many parts of India, under present conditions, a daugh- 
ter is a commercial asset of considerable value, and the natural 
supposition would be that, as such, she would be carefully 
looked after. Not so, however. Sentiment comes a long way 
before profit in the East. There are towns and villages in 
India where conditions are so contradictory that the adminis- 
tration has to deal with both female infanticide and the trade 
in women. 

The trade itself is as carefully and fully organized as any 
modern business. It has branches and agents all working 
from a common center or head office. Traveling agents pro- 
cure a supply of suitable women from areas where women 
habitually do a great deal of manual labor and conditions of 



Courtesy, World Outlook 




Women at a Mela [religious fair] — handsomely dressed, 
but not of high caste 



Chandrim — The wives of headmen of the sweepers, one 
of the lowest castes 



14 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 1918 



15 



life are hard. They are usually by caste low down in the 
social scale. The agents offer them the prospect of a rise in 
life, and easy and comfortable conditions in place of an exist- 
ence of incessant toil. Those who accept the bait are taken 
to the central depot, where they are carefuly trained and 
tutored in the habits and customs of some particular caste or 
religion. This schooling often occupies as long as six months, 
and is necessary to obviate the risk of the women betraying 
their humble origin after marriage. When fully trained and 
equipped, they are taken to suitable towns and villages and 
sold to men wanting wives. 

A young and good-looking girl of high caste will fetch as 
much as six or seven hundred rupees. Three rupees roughly 
equal one dollar. It is interesting to note that on the north- 
west frontier the price of a wife and a rifle are the same : a 
first-class specimen of either realizes as much as fifteen hun- 
dred rupees. The young man of those parts often debates 
with himself, and sometimes even with his relations, whether 
it is better to buy a wife or a rifle. Once he possesses the 
latter, there is always a sporting chance that he may be able 
to shoot an enemy and take his wife and thus secure both for 
the price of one. 

The legal aspect of burda faroshi — trade in women — is 
somewhat complicated. The law protects the minor through 
various sections relating to kidnaping and abducting. It se- 
verely punishes the selling of minors for immoral purposes. 
It regards adultery on the part of the wife as a criminal of- 
fnce; but it does not look on th? selling of a woman of full 



age in marriage as a crime. The law for the protection of 
minors is easily and readily applied, but the charge of adultery 
must be made by the husband in person. Herein lies the diffi- 
culty. A woman from the South is induced by a trader to 
leave her husband and ultimately to live with another man 
in the North. The husband has no notion of where his wife 
has gone, and she, fully appreciating her improved surround- 
ings, naturally refuses to incriminate herself. The law is 
powerless. Where it can be proved, a very difficult matter, 
that the woman is not really of the caste to which she was rep- 
resented as belonging, action is possible on a charge of cheat- 
ing (obtaining money under false pretences). Here again the 
evidence of the buyer is necessary, and he is naturally unwill- 
ing to proclaim the fact that he has bought a wife from a 
doubtful source. In this sense of shame, which happily ex- 
ists, lies the greatest temporary remedy. In one district, an 
officer worked wonders by compiling a list of all those who 
had bought wives from the women-traders. When on tour 
he would enquire in the various towns and villages concerning 
these bought wives, and in similar ways managed to give more 
or less full publicity to all such transactions. The immediate 
local result was a considerable slump in the trade. 

Like so many matters in India connected with social reform, 
the true remedy lies in education. Through education the 
moral and ethical standards of the girls will be raised, and in 
no other way can they achieve the necessary knowledge to 
understand and the moral stamina to resist the insidious 
temptations paraded before them by these nefarious traders. 



Safety in War and Peace 

By George M. Price, M. D. 



DURING the latter part of September St. Louis 
was the scene of a gathering of representatives of 
a new national trust. This most formidable trust 
consists of a combination of 3,600 of the largest 
and most powerful industrial corporations in the United 
States, employing over six millions of workers, and openly 
avows its intention practically to monopolize the whole safety 
movement in this country. The United States government does 
not seem to frown upon this combination, but supports and 
abets it, as is evident from the following message from Presi- 
dent Wilson to the presiding officer: 

It is with sincere regret that I find it impossible to attend your 
Congress. I know the importance and the influential character of 
the membership of that council and should have deemed it a privilege 
to be present, and my hope is that its consultations will be attended 
with the most gratifying and harmonious results. 

The National Safety Council has for its purpose the organi- 
zation of industries with a view to prevent industrial and 
other accidents, to safeguard human life and to promote the 
health and welfare of workers, as well as to promote public 
safety in transportation and other public service. 

The iron and steel industries, through the United States 
Steel Corporation, the Bethlehem Steel Company and many 
others; the chemical industry, through the General Chemical 
Company, the Du Pont Powder Works and many others; 
the lumber trades, mines and quarries, textile industry, trans- 
portation, and many other branches of industrial and public 
life are represented in this council. The delegates to its 
seventh annual congress in St. Louis, numbering over one 



thousand, were the owners, directors and managers of the 
corporations, the employment and safety managers, medical 
and insurance heads of departments, and many other mem- 
bers of the companies having to do with the human factor 
in industry. 

Organized but six years ago by a handful of safety enthus- 
iasts at a meeting of safety engineers in Milwaukee, the move- 
ment grew rapidly until at present it represents a powerful 
national organization of the most progressive industrial and 
transportation corporations in the country. Forty-seven local 
councils have been organized, covering most of the states. 

The movement for national safety partly owes its origin 
and spread to the agitation, nearly a decade ago, for work- 
men's compensation. The reports of the various state com- 
missions appointed at that time, the findings of the Pittsburgh 
Survey, and the growing demand of labor organizations for 
relief from the injustice of the ancient liability laws, com- 
pelled many captains of industry to revise their old conceptions 
of the value of man-power, to recognize the paramount im- 
portance of the human factor in industry, and to listen to 
the demand for the careful safeguarding of machinery and 
the proper care of the workers. The lack of man-power since 
the war has undoubtedly tended to promote the movement. 

The work of the National Safety Council consists in spread- 
ing accident prevention propaganda, in assisting employers to 
solve various problems connected with the welfare of their 
workers and, in general, to control, guide and supervise a 
national movement for the betterment of industrial condi- 
tions and for the conservation of human life. From time to 



16 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



Safety Slogans 

of the 

National Safety Council 

ENLIST NOW— WE FIGHT TO SAVE LIFE, NOT 
TO TAKE IT 

LET'S GET SAFETY "OVER THE TOP" 

A NATIONAL IDEAL— OUR LIVES UNSTAINED 
BY CARELESSNESS 

SAFETY SAVES SICKNESS, SUFFERING, SAD- 
NESS 

PUT THE SKULL AND CROSS BONES LABEL ON 
CARELESSNESS 

LET US MOLD SAFETY INTO PUBLIC OPINION 

SAFETY FIRST IS CONTAGIOUS— CATCH IT 

WRECKLESS— NOT RECKLESS 

AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH A 
POUND OF COMPENSATION 

MAKE SAFE THE HIGHWAY FOR THE THRONG 

WAR MAKES HONORABLE CRIPPLES— CARE- 
LESSNESS UNHONORED ONES 

SAFETY MEANS MORE THAN PROPERTY— IT 
MEANS LIFE 

OUR AIM— SAFETY ON EARTH— IN THE AIR— BY 
LAND AND SEA 

MORE MEN ARE KILLED BY ACCIDENTS THAN 
BY WAR 

SAFETY IS REPLETE WITH HUMAN INTEREST 



time special safety campaigns are undertaken by the council, 
such as the recent one in Rochester, N. Y. 

Synchronizing with the congress, St. Louis joined in the 
movement for national safety by a uniquely conducted "safety 
week," consisting of intensive propaganda through the pulpit, 
press and public schools, and including special safety exhibits 
and activities by the police, fire and other municipal depart- 
ments. The most beneficial aspect of this effort was the de- 
termination of the whole city that no accidents should happen 
during safety week — a resolution which seems to have been 
successfully carried out from the fact that for the first four 
days of the week there wasn't one fatal accident, whereas a 
number of such accidents occurred on corresponding days 
last year. 

In a brilliant opening address, David Van Schaack, of the 
Aetna Life Insurance Company, president of the council, 
emphasized the purpose of the organization as conservation of 
the man-power of the country. He drew attention to the 
fact that the success of the military army in its task to win 
the war depends upon the care of the health and life of the 
industrial army at home. He pointed out that, while the 
ideal of industry is a maximum of production with a mini- 
mum of man-power, Americans were not too busy with war 
to neglect accident prevention. The intention of the national 
council, he said, was "to weave accident prevention into the 
warp and woof of American industry." . . . Industries, 
though pressed for output, yet must not fail in safety. . . . 
The safety movement is a business, but at the same time also an 
ethical movement, as industry recognizes the high duties it 
owes to the workers." He continued : 

The safety movement, as represented by the National Safety Coun- 
cil, has tremendously progressed during the last five years and where- 
as, five years ago, 35,000 workers were annually lost by accidents, 
which numbered over two millions annually, the number of fatal ac- 



cidents and those resulting in severe injury was reduced in the 
plants connected with the National Safety Council from 50 to 85 per 
cent. 

While the progress attained already was very gratifying 
his hopes for the future were still greater, especially as he 
was sure that the time is coming when safety will become 
a part of the curriculum of every elementary school, high 
school and university in the country. 

"Statistically we do not as yet know whether a man is dead 
or not of an accident" — such was the statement of Frederick 
L. Hoffman, of the Prudential Insurance Company, who re- 
ported for the Committee on Uniform Industrial Statistics 
and deplored the lack of uniformity in statistical recording of 
accidents. At present, he said, there is no uniformity in the 
recording of fatal accidents ; for instance, while one state may 
record a death as due to an accident only if death follows 
the same day or week, another considers the accident as cause 
even if death happens several months or years later. One of 
Mr. Hoffman's fourteen cardinal points to be adopted by all 
industrial corporations in the reporting of accidents was that 
death due to accident should be recorded as such when oc- 
curring within twenty-eight days from the time of the mishap. 

In no industry, perhaps, is the problem of overcoming 
hazards as imperative as in the chemical, because of its ab- 
normal expansion under war demands and because of the 
employment of a large number of unskilled workers. The 
attendance at the chemical section of the congress was com- 
prised mostly of chemical and mechanical engineers and owners 
and superintendents of plants of the General Chemical Com- 
pany, Du Pont Powder Works, Solvay Process Company, New 
Jersey Zinc Works and others. Mr. Fisk, of the New Jersey 
Zinc Works, deprecated all half-way measures and asked : 

Why should we not eliminate all hazards, no matter how much it 
costs, for, in the last analysis, the prevention of hazards is a matter 
of cost. The prevention of accidents is after all the best policy, espe- 
cially in view of the scarcity of labor. I remember the time when 
we could get all the men we wanted and now we have to cater to 
the men and must in the future make the job safe, and not only that, 
but also pleasant, for we must have well satisfied workmen. 

The hazards in the production and transportation of acids, 
alkalies, dusts, fumes and gases were discussed at the first 
meeting of the section, while the later sessions were devoted 
to the discussion of the hazards in the production and trans- 
portation of coal-tar products, solids and liquids. 

The problems created by the influx of women into industry 
were discussed in the special women's section of the council. 
Anna Burdick, special agent of the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Education, told of a survey by the United States De- 
partment of Labor, which showed that not' fewer than one 
and a quarter million of women were working in war-essential 
industries in January, 1918. In New York city alone, in 
171 plants investigated, 3,000 women had succeeded men, 
and the Pennsylvania Railroad Company has lately given 
employment to more than that number of women in jobs 
hitherto closed to them. Mrs. Burdick emphasized the need 
for a reorganization of educational systems, for the voca- 
tional education and intensive training of the women newly 
entering industries. "If the war is to be continued another 
three years," she said, "we must expect at least three and a 
half million more women in industry." 

Tracy Copp, director of the Women's Department of the 
Industrial Commission of Wisconsin, insisted that the excellent 
physical condition of workshops where women are employed 
must not be regarded as a substitute for shorter hours of work 
and better pay, but as an obligation upon industry. The state, 
she said, must take care of women workers just as it does 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 1918 



17 



of its military army; physical selection, proper training, medi- 
cal supervision and proper housing and feeding are as important 
in one instance as in the other. "There is a conspicuous 
similarity," she said, "in the things that make work desirable 
for women and the things that make work desirable for men. 
It is no longer a matter of doubt that the length of the work 
day and the earning possibility of it are as vital to women 
as to men. Crowded shops, dark and untidy shops, increase 
the accident hazard and materially affect the desirability to 
women of new work in unwholesome surroundings." She also 
spoke of the need for forewomen in plants where a large 
number of women are employed. 

Pauline Saunders, of the Service Department of the Na- 
tional Lamp Company, Cleveland, insisted upon a compre- 
hensive scheme of medical supervision of women in factories 
and workshops. She urged the advantages of visiting nurses, 
of first aid treatment, of proper ventilation, lighting and other 
safeguards for the health of the workers. 

The interest of the council extended far beyond technical 
matters of accident prevention. The Democratization of In- 
dustry was the interesting theme of an address to have been 
delivered by Charles M. Schwab, but Mr. Schwab was absent. 
The large audience gathered to hear him was partly com- 
pensated by an impassioned oration by Judge Ben Lindsey, 
of Denver, who just returned from France and who recited 
some of the horrors of war and the heroism of our boys over 
there. 

A special section discussed employes' benefits and the prob- 



HE CANT WIN^it WAR WITH 
HIS ARM Ifyft SLINp 





One of the posters used to promote the safety movement 

during "safety week" in St. Louis. In a poster contest, 

this won second brize 



this won second prize 



WHERE DANGER. LURK 



The safety movement is not a land lubber. This poster 
won third prize in the St. Louis "safety week" contest 

lems connected with them. The gentlemen connected with 
the welfare departments of the International Harvester Com- 
pany, the Eastman Kodak Company and other large corpora- 
tions outlined the principles upon which their employes' benefit 
associations are conducted. Most of them claimed that they 
have more money in their treasuries than they can utilize, 
while a representative of the Eastman Kodak Company 
claimed to have a surplus capital in the employes' benefit treas- 
ury of one million dollars. Most of those connected with 
the benefits, which in most cases are contributed by the em- 
ployes, complained that when they spent money for various 
social activities, such as clubhouses, baseball grounds, danc- 
ing socials, etc., many of the employes were dissatisfied. One 
or two speakers made the pertinent suggestion that the surplus 
money might be profitably spent to increase sick benefits. 
There was nobody to suggest that the employes be left to 
administer their own benefits as they saw fit. 

The same section later heard an address by H. L. Goodwin 
on The Conservation of the Human Eye, in which Mr. Good- 
win brought out the fact that during the past four years not 
fewer than eighty thousand people were blinded by accidents 
in industry and that 70 per cent of all workers suffer from 
some eye defect, which very frequently leads to accidents, more 
or less serious. 

The council was interested not only in the worker before 
he suffers accident, but also afterward. Dr. Jewett, of the 
United States Public Health Service, gave an account of 
observations made of reconstruction work in Germany and 
Austria in the early part of the war. He said that "four 



18 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 19 iS 



months after the war started vocational schools sprang up for 
the reconstruction of war cripples. Branches in carpentry, 
wood-working, leather and other industries were founded. 
After the soldiers finished their courses in the schools they 
were placed in factories specially constructed with necessary 
equipment for cripples. In the leather plant they were in- 
structed to hold leather pieces by a special device provided 
with a stump and to sew with the other hand where one hand 
was missing." 

Another speaker discussed the work being planned under 
the direction of the surgeon-general of the United States for 
the mental and physical restoration of men. The surgeon- 
general has already taken over a number of institutions and 
buildings where our men will be placed and given all the 
medical attention they need. It was estimated that it takes 
a year and a half to make a soldier back into a citizen. 
Soldiers are to be sent to technical schools, machine shops, 
electrical shops, etc., where they are to be provided with the 
best teachers possible. While in training the employer does 
not pay wages; the worker is still under the direct supervision 



and on the payroll of the government. The necessary organ- 
ization will endeavor to distribute the cripples in various in- 
dustries so that there will not be too many of them in one 
place. The responsibility of the state to industrial cripples 
was the subject of a discussion by Dr. Harry A. Mackey, 
Dr. Otto P. Geier and others. The re-education of those 
crippled in industry is a large problem ; state vocational schools 
should be established ; compensation ought to be paid to the 
injured men during their education; artificial limbs should 
be furnished at the expense of the state ; the state should have 
power of replacement of these men so as to enable them to 
earn a decent salary ; care should be exercised in placing men 
at less hazardous work — if a man has lost an eye in industry 
he should be placed in some work where the danger of losing 
the other eye is not so great. Dr. Geier declared that Penn- 
sylvania has forty-two thousand jobs waiting for the returned 
disabled soldiers. He said that the estimate was that only 
5 per cent of the disabled men need vocational training, and 
that the others would be able to return to their former occu- 
pations without any additional training. 




"HELP FATHER KNICKERBOCKER TO CLOTHE DESTITUTE BELGIUM AND 
NORTHERN FRANCE" 

From a poster of the New York County Chapter of the American Red 

Cross, which is collecting 100 tons of clothing as New York's quota of the 

5flOO Ions for which Mr. Hoover has cabled 







C092920 



A NEW DAY IN THE STEEL 
INDUSTRY 

TWO very important developments 
affecting labor policies in the steel 
industry were initiated last week. One 
was the adoption of the basic eight-hour 
day by the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, mentioned briefly in last week's 
Survey. The other was the announce- 
ment by the Midvale Steel & Ordnance 
Co. and the Lukens Steel Company, both 
having plants at Coatesville, Pa., that 
they desired to bargain collectively with 
their employes. 

The Midvale Company, which in- 
cludes the extensive Cambria plant at 
Johnstown, Pa., through a communica- 
tion signed by its president, A. C. Din- 
key, and posted at all the plants on Sun- 
day, September 22, invited the employes 
to meet with officers of the company to 
work out a scheme of representation. 
"We recognize," ran President Din- 
key's statement, "the right of wage- 
earners to bargain collectively with their 
employers, and we hereby invite all em- 
ployes to meet with the officers of their 
respective companies for the purpose of 
considering and, if practicable, adopting 
a plan of representation by the employes 
which shall be thoroughly democratic 
and entirely free from interference by 
the companies or any official or agent 
thereof." 

The announcement of the Lukens 
company, which made a similar pro- 
posal to its employes, read in part: "For 
the company to do its part toward win- 
ning the war we feel that with the co- 
operation and consent of its employes 
there should be established a plan for 
representation of the employes which in 
the future will govern all relations be- 
tween the company and its employes. 
. . . We realize that we are all la- 
boring under unusual conditions due to 
the war and, therefore, also recognize 
the right of wage-earners to bargain col- 
lectively with their employers. ..." 

It is understood that meetings have 
been held in accordance with these an- 
nouncements. Elected representatives of 
the Midvale company's employes met 



last week with officers of the company 
at Philadelphia and were there pre- 
sented with the plan that the company 
proposes as the basis for future rela- 
tions. This plan is now under consid- 
eration by the employes. 

So far as can be gathered from the 
announcement, the plan of these com- 
panies bears some resemblance to the 
Rockefeller Plan in Colorado and that 
of the Standard Oil Company at Bay- 
onne, N. J. Such an organization as 
that in Colorado does not result in full 
collective bargaining, but even if the 
Midvale plan goes no further than that 
it will be a long step away from the ab- 
solutistic regime that has prevailed in 
the steel industry for many years. 

Commenting on these movements, the 
Iron Age says: 

One of the strongest features in the pro- 
posal is the new contact it provides between 
company executives and the men in the 
works. ... It should break down to a de- 
gree the military system, too commonly prev- 
alent in industry, that puts a premium on 
a superintendent's or foreman's ability to 
drive his men. 

There will be widespread interest through- 
out the steel trade in the working out of the 
plans set on foot this week at Coatesville. 
Not enough has been done in this direction 
by manufacturers of iron and steel. They 
now have the gage thrown down to them 
for a real test of their willingness to make 
their industry a safe place for democracy. 

The significance of the adoption of 
the basic eight-hour day by the United 
States Steel Corporation is not yet fully 
apparent. That it will be followed in 
this course by the independent steel com- 
panies is generally assumed. It is clear, 
however, that this does not mean that 
the twelve-hour work day is to be abol- 
ished entirely and that the three-shift 
system is to prevail. At a time when 
all industries are having difficulty in find- 
ing men it is not likely that the steel 
companies are considering a 50 per cent 
increase in their working force. 

It is the basic eight-hour day that fig- 
ures in the announcements of the steel 
corporation. That is, a day's work, 
from the standpoint of computing wages 



is to be taken as constituting eight hours. 
Any work done beyond the eight-hour 
limit will be overtime and paid for at 
a higher rate. Just what this higher 
rate will be remains to be seen. 

Officers of the steel corporation have 
so far made no authoritative statement 
concerning the rate of the increase, nor 
have they explained how the plan will 
be applied to tonnage men, that is, men 
paid by the ton instead of by the hour. 

It is exceedingly interesting that the 
steel corporation should adopt the basic 
eight-hour day at this time. In spite of 
the fact that this does not mean a short- 
ening of the working day now, it does 
constitute a recognition of the eight-hour 
day that may have real significance when 
conditions change and men are not so 
hard to find. 

In 1912 a committee of stockholders 
of the United States Steel Corporation, 
appointed by Chairman E. H. Gary, 
made an investigation of labor conditions 
in the corporation and among the rec- 
ommendations favored a shortening of 
the working day. The next year the 
finance committee reported that any 
change at that time would be impracti- 
cable. Last week's announcement shows 
that progress has been made since then. 

THE PRESIDENT'S SPEECH 
TO THE WORLD 

PRESIDENT WILSON'S speech in 
New York city September 27, on 
the eve of the opening of the Fourth 
Liberty Loan campaign, touched sev- 
eral subjects with somewhat greater 
definiteness than previous utterances of 
his. Thus, the President spoke with 
more detail about a league of nations ; 
came out strongly against the employ- 
ment of any economic boycott after the 
war "except as the power of economic 
penalty" ; and called pointed attention 
of the diplomats of the world to the 
significance of demands from "plain 
workaday people" for exact statements of 
war aims. The people seem to think, 
said President Wilson, that they are 
getting answers to their questions only 
in "statesmen's terms." Throughout, 

19 



20 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, igi 




DOUBLE-DECKERS, OR TWO-STORY FLATS, EACH APARTMENT CON- 
SISTING OF KITCHEN AND THREE BEDROOMS 



the speech carried the suggestion that in 
it President Wilson was speaking not 
alone to the representatives of the Cen- 
tral Powers, but to the statesmen of the 
Entente as well. 

Thus did the President sum up again 
the issues of the war as they are now 
seen : 

Shall the military power of any nation or 
group of nations be suffered to determine 
the fortunes of peoples over whom they have 
no right to rule except the right of force? 

Shall strong nations be free to wrong na- 
tions and make them subject to their purpose 
and interest? 

Shall peoples be ruled and dominated, 
even in their own internal affairs, by arbi- 
trary and irresponsible force or by their own 
will and choice? 

Shall there be a common standard of right 
and privilege for all peoples and nations, 
or shall the strong do as they will and the 
weak suffer without redress? 

Shall the assertion of right be haphazard 
and by casual alliance or shall there be a 



common concert to oblige the observance of 
common rights? 

The President repeated his contention 
that there can be no peace obtained by 
any kind of bargain or compromise with 
the governments of the Central Powers, 
"because we have dealt with them al- 
ready and have seen them deal with 
other governments that were parties to 
this struggle, at Brest-Litovsk and 
Bucharest. They have convinced us 
that they are without honor and do not 
intend justice. . . . The German people 
must by this time be fully aware that 
we cannot accept the word of those who 
forced this war upon us. We do not 
think the same thoughts or speak the 
same language of agreement." 

Coming to the league of nations, 
President Wilson said that its consti- 
tution and the defining of its objects 
"must be a part, is in a sense the most 



essential part, of the peace settlement 
itself." He specified these particulars: 

First, the impartial justice meted out must 
involve no discrimination between those to 
whom we wish to be just and those to whom 
we do not wish to be just. It must be a jus- 
tice that plays no favorites and knows no 
standard but the equal rights of the several 
peoples concerned; 

Second, no special or separate interest of 
any single nation or any group of nations 
can be made the basis of any part of the set- 
tlement which is not consistent with the com- 
mon interest of all ; 

Third, there can be no leagues or alliances 
or special covenants and understandings 
within the general and common family of 
the League of Nations; 

Fourth, and more specifically, there can 
be no special, selfish economic combinations 
within the league and no employment of any 
form of economic boycott or exclusion except 
as the power of economic penalty by exclusion 
from the markets of the world may be vested 
in the League of Nations itself as a means 
of discipline and control; 

Fifth, all international agreements and 
treaties of every kind must be made known 
in their entirety to the rest of the world. 

Statesmen, said President Wilson, 
must follow the clarified common 
thought "or be broken." "I take that to 
be the significance," he continued, 

of the fact that assemblies and associations 
of many kinds made up of plain workaday 
people have demanded, almost every time 
they came together, and are still demanding 
that the leaders of their governments de- 
clare to them plainly what it is, exactly 
what it is, that they are seeking in this war, 
and what they think the items of the final 
settlement should be. They are not yet satis- 
fied with what they have been told. They 
still seem to fear that they are getting what 
they ask for only in statesmen's terms — only 
in the terms of territorial arrangements and 
divisions of power, and not in terms of 
broad-visioned justice and mercy and peace 
and the satisfaction of those deep-seated 
longings of oppressed and distracted men 
and women and enslaved peoples that seem 
to them the only things worth fighting a 
war for that engulfs the world. Perhaps 
statesmen have not always recognized this 
changed aspect of the whole world of policy 
and action. Perhaps they have not always 
spoken in direct reply to the questions asked 
because they did not know how searching 
those questions were and what sort of an- 
swers they demanded. 




COURTENAY SQUARE, WITH ITS DOUBLE ROWS OF TREES, TRELLIS PORCHES, AREA RAILINGS AND WIDE WINDOWS 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



21 




A BLOCK OF TENEMENTS, IN COMFORT AS IN STYLE A GREAT IMPROVEMENT ON NEARBY WORKMEN S HOMES 



But I, for one, am glad to attempt the 
answer again and again, in the hope that 
I may make it clearer and clearer that my 
one thought is to satisfy those who struggle 
in the ranks and are, perhaps above all 
others, entitled to a reply whose meaning 
no one can have any excuse for misunder- 
standing, if he understands the language in 
which it is spoken or can get someone to 
translate it correctly into his own. And I 
believe that the leaders of the governments 
with which we are associated will speak, as 
they have occasion, as plainly as I have tried 
to speak. I hope that they will feel free 
to say whether they think that I am in any 
degree mistaken in my interpretation of the 
issues involved or in my purpose with regard 
to the means by which a satisfactory settle- 
ment of those issues may be obtained. Unity 
of purpose and of counsel are as impera- 
tively necessary in this war as was unity of 
command in the battlefield ; and with per- 
fect unity of purpose and counsel will come 
assurance of complete victory. 

TENANTS OF ROYALTY IN 
LONDON 

THE Prince of Wales, as Duke of 
Cornwall, owns an estate at Ken- 
nington, on the southeastern side of Lon- 
don which, in common with other areas 
built up in Georgian times, has fallen 
sadly into decay, housing in crowded 
and ill-adapted tenements a mixed pop- 
ulation very different from that which 
originally occupied these well-spaced and 
substantially built homes. Similar areas 



in New York, Philadelphia, Boston and 
other American cities, will readily occur 
to the reader. 

To S. D. Adshead, a well-known city 
planner and architect, belongs the credit 
of having reconstructed this area in a 
most sympathetic adjustment to the 
needs of its present population without 
departing from the refined architectural 
character which has distinguished it for 
so long. He has made it a model of re- 
construction which will influence hous- 



ing projects throughout the country 
when, at the end of the war, the nation 
sets to work upon the long-neglected 
task of remodeling for modern purposes 
old city sections which are badly planned 
as well as deteriorated and which, in the 
nature of the case, cannot economically 
be improved on "garden city" lines. 
Where new areas are laid out, the en- 
deavor will be as far as possible to pro- 
vide dwellings in single houses sur- 
rounded by gardens. But continuous 




THE CIRCLE OR CIRCUS AT STREET INTERSECTIONS, A DISTINCTIVE 
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURE OF THE GEORGIAN PERIOD 



22 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5 , 191 




A QUADRANGLE OF HOSTELS FOR OLD TENANTS. THE LAWNS, FOUNTAINS AND ARCADE GIVE AN AIR OF WELL-BEING 



rows and blocks are a necessity where 
land values already are high. Mr. Ad- 
shead has shown that this does not pre- 
clude the possibility of generous squares, 
setting back of building lines, and inner 
courts. Several photographs showing 
Mr. Adshead's work are reproduced on 
this and the two preceding pages. 

The quadrangle of the old tenants' 
hostel, with its well-kept lawn, is an 
oasis of peace and quiet amid the noise 
and unrest of the metropolis. The two 
rows of limes in Courtenay Square will 
soon add shade and fragrance to the 
simple dignity of the closed-up lines of 
single houses which surround it. The 
shops and street crossings — the latter 
treated in the "circus" style of the pe- 
riod — are embellished by restrained or- 
namentation. 

The interior planning, both of indi- 
vidual houses and of double-deckers, is 
economical. One block of the latter en- 
joys a combined service of hot water. 
All the dwellings have electric light 
which, up to a certain consumption, is 
included in the rent, and baths. 

CHICAGO AND THE TRUSTEE 
TRACTION PLAN 

THE traction question seems to be a 
never-ending one with Chicago. It 
is a perennial generator of agitation and 
turmoil. In 1907, after years of discus- 
sion, settlement ordinances were passed 
by the city council and approved by the 
people on a referendum vote. Though 
not without their critics, these were gen- 
erally looked upon as a step in advance 
and were expected to constitute a solu- 
tion for twenty years at least, unless the 
city should decide to municipalize. They 
applied to the street railway system but 
not to the elevated lines. Under them, 
the surface line system was reconstruct- 
ed. There was a division-of-earnings 
scheme under which net profits, after the 



payment to the companies of 5 per cent 
on their recognized investment, were di- 
vided between the city and the com- 
panies, 55 per cent to the city and 45 
per cent to the companies. The city 
traction fund accumulated under this ar- 
rangement now amounts to nearly $25,- 
000,000. It was supposed to be kept as 
a purchase fund, and thus far remains 
intact except for limited expenditures 
from it for traction purposes. As soon 
as the reconstruction for which the ordi- 
nances provided took place, there was 
marked improvement in service, though 
overcrowding was never eliminated. 
Within the last few years, however, with 
the growth of population, complaints of 
inadequate service have been increasing. 
The 1907 ordinances provided that the 
city might take over the property at any 
time on six months' notice by paying the 
value, a provision which cannot be util- 
ized because of the constitutional limita- 
tion on the city's borrowing power. 

With little more than ten years gone 
bv, another solution is now proposed. 
The council has passed an ordinance, 
which cannot become effective until 
further enabling legislation has been 
passed by the general assembly of the 
state, providing for the unification of 
elevated and surface lines and their op- 
eration, in combination with subways 
hereafter to be built, upon the service-at- 
cost basis. They are to be operated, also, 
under trustee management. The ordi- 
nance goes to a popular vote at the No- 
vember election. If approved, it is ex- 
pected that the legislature will grant the 
enabling authority. 

Under the 1907 ordinances, the com- 
panies, to meet the demands of the situ- 
ation, suggested a plan of service im- 
provement, with unification of surface 
and elevated lines in cooperation with 
any subways that might be built, on the 
basis of a long-term franchise subject to 



the reservation to the city of the right to 
purchase whenever it should have the 
financial power to do so. The city coun- 
cil made provision for a commission of 
engineers to study the subject. This 
commission was composed of William 
Barclay Parsons and Robert Ridgway, 
of New York city, and Bion J. Arnold, 
of Chicago. The report of the commis- 
sion cost Chicago about a quarter of a 
million dollars." The physical plans pro- 
posed have been accepted as the basis of 
the program of service improvement em- 
bodied in the pending ordinance. But 
the suggestions of the commission with 
respect to questions of franchise policy 
were thrown into the discard. 

The ordinance embodying the new 
plan was passed by the city council in 
August by a vote of 48 to 20, and again 
over the Mayor's veto by 51 to 19. It 
was accepted by the companies. It is 
largely the work of Walter L. Fisher, 
special traction counsel for the commit- 
tee on local transportation of the city 
council. Mr. Fisher is also the author 
of the settlement plan embodied in the 
ordinances of 1907. The pending ordi- 
nance gives to the unified companies a 
grant of unlimited tenure, subject to 
termination by city purchase at any time. 
The grant runs to a corporation not for 
profit, controlled by nine trustees, select- 
ed in advance, who are to hold until 
1928, when three go out of office each 
year. As the terms of the trustees ex- 
pire, their successors are to be named by 
the city council. Thus by 1930 the op- 
eration of the property will fall to the 
hands of trustees selected entirely by the 
council — a plan described as one giving 
municipal operation without municipal 
ownership. Until the terms of the first 
trustees expire in 1928, 1929 and 1930, 
there will be no power of removal and 
the board itself will fill vacancies that 
may occur in its membership. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



23 



The advocates of the ordinance ask 
its approval by the people on the ground 
that it provides for a well-considered 
construction program and that it prom- 
ises radical improvement in service ; that 
it insures early and complete unification 
of all local transportation facilities; that 
it provides for service-at-cost under trus- 
tee management; and that it contains an 
amortization feature. 

Critics of the ordinance, many of 
whom favor the trustee plan in prin- 
ciple, object to this ordinance because of 
the high valuations placed upon the 
properties and because of the high rates 
of guaranteed returns for which it pro- 
vides. There is complaint, too, that the 
entire program has not yet been made 
public, the draft of the enabling legisla- 
tion to be sought from the general as- 
sembly not having been formulated. 
The strongest criticism, however, cen- 
ters around the personnel of the first 
board of trustees, particularly Messrs. 
Busby, Blair, and Budd, who are im- 
portant figures in the present manage- 
ment of the transportation lines of Chi- 
cago. 

The agreed valuation of the proper- 
ties at the outset is a little over $220,- 
000,000— approximately $ 1 50,000,000 
for the surface lines and $70,000,000 for 
the elevated system. The construction 
program of the next nine or ten years 
is expected to add considerably over 
$100,000,000 more to the investment. 
The capitalization is to apportion 60 
per cent to bonds and 40 per cent to 
debentures. The bonds are to bear the 
rate of interest that the market requires. 
Debentures are to carry guaranteed cu- 
mulative dividends of 8 per cent until 
1932, and thereafter 7 per cent. The 
trustees have the power to raise fares to 
any figure that may be necessary to meet 
the expenses and guarantees. The State 
Public Utilities Commission now exer- 
cises the same power. Any surplus earn- 
ings are to be used for amortization pur- 
poses. The money now in the city trac- 
tion fund is to be used for subway con- 
struction, upon which the city is to re- 
ceive 6 per cent as rental. 

The English-speaking daily newspa- 
pers in Chicago, with the exception of 
the Journal, are all for the ordinance. 
There is strong opposition from munici- 
pal ownership advocates and labor cir- 
cles. 

THE CONGREGATIONAL. 
IST'S LABOR NUMBER 

IN a Labor Number, just issued, 
the Congregationalist gives a diver- 
sified treatment of the labor problem. 
War-time labor changes are discussed by 
James Mullenbach, of Chicago. The 
writer praises the patriotic loyalty of 
the workers, commends the government's 
jffort to uphold labor standards, and yet 
finds conditions that can only cause dis- 
content. For while the increase in wages 



M 



Women's Hosiery 
and Underwear 

The selections of Hosiery mentioned below were 
purchased previous to the recent sharp advances 
and the prices quoted are below the present mar- 
ket values. 

White Wool Hose — (Illustrated) with Emerald, Purple 
and Gold clocks ------- $1.95 pair 

Black Cotton Hose — Good Medium 
weight ------- 65c pair 

Heavy weight - -..- - - 85c pair 

Fine Lisle Hose— Black, White and 
Bronze ----- 75c and 85c pair 
Black Cashmere Hose, $1.25 pair 
English Golf Hose— A recent impor- 
tation, in Heather and Gray mix- 
tures $2.50 pair 

Silk Hose— Cotton tops and soles, 
Black, White, Tan, Beige and 
Brown ------- $1.25 pair 

Pure Dye Silk Hose — Cotton Top 
and Sole ; Black, White, Brown, Gray, 
Taupe, Tan, Champagne - - - - - $1.65 pair 
Outsizes in Black and White - - - - $1.75 pair 
Black Silk Hose— White Cotton Sole - - $2.75 pair 

WOMEN'S RIBBED UNDERWEAR 

Combination — Silk Top and Lisle body, reinforced tail- 
ored top, Pink or White $2.25 

Combination — Medium weight, fine ribbed Cotton, tail- 

$2.75 

85c 

$1.00 

85c 

$1,35 




ored top, knee or ankle length 

Combination — Fine ribbed Cotton, reinforced 

Outsizes 

Vests — Swiss-ribbed fine Cotton - 

Vests — Swiss-ribbed spun Silk ... 



WS.S. 



Knickers — Pink or White, fine mercerized Cotton, $1.00 

A copy of our new Fall and Winter Cata- 
logue will be mailed gladly on request. 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

34th and 33d Streets 

Fifth Avenue 

New York 




Reg. Trade Mark 



fniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin 



has failed to keep pace with the rising 
cost of living, the worker knows that 
profiteers have been "working overtime 
and getting away with it." The writer 
is convinced that our autocratic indus- 
trial system, with its great gulf between 
employer and employes, is another and, 
indeed, the fundamental cause for labor 
restlessness. Democracy cannot be lim- 
ited, he says, to religious, political and 
international relationships, but must be 
applied also to our work — "where most 
of us live." The. firm which the writer 
serves as arbitrator— one of the nation's 
greatest clothing manufacturers — has 



had sufficient faith "in the doctrine of 
popular freedom and self-government 
when applied to industry" to "cooperate 
with the workers through their own 
chosen representatives, and to share 
power with them in the control of the 
industry." 

For the men in the shipyards, declares 
a minister, an eight-hour day is a "psy- 
chological necessity." This minister 
worked incognito as a shipyard laborer. 
He confesses that even he was subject to 
an "almost irresistible instinct" to loaf 
on the job, the eternal monotony of 
which proved irksome to his soul. 



24 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



Do You Know 

— what is being said in 
ENGLAND about "war 
after the war"? 

— the facts about German 
propaganda in SPAIN? 

— what the various Socialist 
parties in FRANCE stand 
for? 

The 

International 

Relations 

Section 

of 

The Nation 



will show the trend of public opinion 
abroad, maintain a liberal point of view 
on all international questions and offer 
the material for a sound understanding 
of the political and economic problems 
which the war has raised. In the field 
which these aims represent, it has no 
American competition. 

It will be edited by the staff of The Nation 
with the cooperation of correspondents 
in various quarters of the world and an 
advisory committee of prominent men in 
this country and abroad. 

First issue October fifth 
and fortnightly thereafter. 



THE NATION, 

20 Vesey Street, New York City. 
Please send The Nation for one year (or 
four months) to: 

Name 

City State 

Number Street 



Enclosed is for $4.00 

$1.00 
S. S-1J 



The annual subscription to The Nation 
($4.00) includes the new International 
Relations Section. A four months' in- 
troductory subscription may be had 
for $1.00. 



WAR AND THE CIVIL HOSPITALS 



The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the American Hospital Association 



THE American civil hospitals are passing 
through a crucial period. Many serious 
problems confront them. They are much 
disorganized; construction of new buildings 
is not permitted ; needed extensions are not 
allowed. The medical staffs of the hospitals 
have been wofully depleted. The best and 
most experienced physicians and surgeons 
have answered the call of the army and a 
large number of the most experienced nurses 
have left for the army. Of 2,300 graduates 
in medicine, not fewer than 1,900 internes 
have been lost by the hospitals. The num- 
ber of orderlies and other hospital employes 
who have been drafted is very large indeed. 
A yet greater disorganization is imminent: 
thirty thousand physicians have already en- 
tered the Medical Reserve Corps, and 
20,000 or 30,000 more will be needed. From 
50,000 to 75,000 nurses will be required for 
the army. 

These were some of the facts that con- 
fronted delegates to the twentieth annual 
convention of the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation, which met last week in Atlantic 
City. Dr. Arthur B. Ancker, president of 
the association, after calling attention to 
some of them, went on to say: 

The civil hospitals have unhesitating- 
ly accepted calls for war service. They 
expect further calls of various kinds. 
Official announcement has been made, 
however, by the surgeon-general of the 
army, that civil hospitals will not be 
used for the present by this department 
for the care of returned soldiers. Limited 
use is now being made of certain civil 
hospitals for this purpose. The ex- 
tension and development of existing civil 
hospitals, under government direction, 
has been advocated as a necessary policy 
instead of the present plan of using con- 
verted army posts and federal hospitals, 
and also the building and equipping of 
special military hospitals. The former 
would seem to be consistent with 
economy, and with efficiency of service 
to both the military and civil popula- 
tion. It would not result in the complete 
breaking up of the clinical and nursing 
organizations of the civil hospitals. It 
should cost less than for independent 
construction and new equipment. These 
policies are worthy of careful considera- 
tion. Wise statesmanship will prompt 
those representing the civil hospitals, 
individually and collectively, to antici- 
pate that the government will later 
make a wider use of civil hospitals for 
returned soldiers. If the war continues 
long, necessity will compel such action. 
It is our obvious duty to help the War 
Department foresee these hospital war 
needs, as well as the needs of the civil 
population, and to plan to meet them 
constructively. 

The surgeon-general's office was repre- 
sented at the convention by Col. Winford H. 
Smith, M. D., who acknowledged the debt of 
gratitude due to American hospitals for their 
practical service, and said that the surgeon- 
general understood the spirit of unrest 
among the hospital managers, but the con- 
ditions of war were such that it was im- 
possible for military hospitals to utilize, 
wholly or in part, the civil hospitals to a 
large extent. He said that facilities for 



500,000 beds were to be provided abroad, 
and for 200,000 beds in this country; that 
already 60,000 beds have been provided for. 

The methods of reconstruction and re- 
habilitation were such that, in his opinion, 
it is impossible to utilize existing hospitals. 
The surgeon-general does not intend to mili- 
tarize existing hospitals and colleges, but 
rather wishes to cooperate and affiliate with 
them. 

The Military Service Committee of the 
association, of which Dr. S. S. Goldwater 
is chairman and Richard P. Borden, of Fall 
River, Mass., secretary, disagreed with 
the attitude taken by the surgeon-general's 
office. According to this committee, the ex- 
isting civil hospitals could and should have 
been more utilized by the government, and 
it was their opinion that the government will 
finally be compelled to utilize the civil hos- 
pitals to a great extent. Dr. Goldwater ex- 
pressed the opinion that, with the needed 
conservation of building materials, and with 
the difficulty that will be experienced in con- 
structing hospitals for from 500,000 to 700,- 
000 beds, it will be almost impossible not to 
make more use of present hospital facilities. 
There is no reason, he said, why the large 
facilities of hospitals for operating, X-ray, 
laboratory and other purposes, should not be 
used. It is much less costly to enlarge the 
dormitory and ward facilities of present hos- 
pitals than to build new ones. He thought 
that in the large industrial centers it would 
also be possible to consolidate the work of a 
number of hospitals, thus releasing some ex- 
isting hospitals for military use. 

The opinion of the officers of the associa- 
tion was upheld by the experience of the 
Vancouver (Canada) General Hospital, 
where a very large number of returned 
soldiers are being treated at present, and 
where the civil hospital facilities have been 
utilized with great satisfaction to all con- 
cerned. Major Haywood, of Toronto, how- 
ever, found in his experience as head of a 
hospital in that city that it is very difficult 
to control returned soldiers in a civil hos- 
pital. Soldiers must have discipline, he 
said, and returned soldiers are very diffi- 
cult persons to discipline. They should not 
be allowed to get out of the control of the 
military arm, and should be treated in spe- 
cial military hospitals. 

The shortage of nurses was discussed also. 
With 700,000 hospital beds to be provided 
for, there will be a need for from 70,000 to 
75,000 trained nurses- The surgeon-general's 
office has called for 25,000 nurses by Jan- 
uary 1, 1919, and an additional 25,000 by 
July 1, 1919. According to Jane A. Delano, 
director of the Department of Nursing of 
the American Red Cross, there have already 
been enrolled in the Nurses' Reserve Corps 
17,197 trained nurses, over 14,000 of whom 
have actually gone into service. The thou- 
sand training schools in the country grad- 
uate, annually, about 15,000 nurses. Since 
1902, when training schools for nurses were 
established, there have been 98,000 grad- 
uates; a great many of these of course, are 
not available, and a large number of them 
are needed at present in the civil hospitals. 
There is no doubt, therefore, that the supply 
of trained nurses at present available is en- 
tirely inadequate; nor is it probable that an 
increased number of nursing pupils in the 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



25 



training schools, the special training given 
to college graduates at Vassar College, at 
the Western Reserve and other universities, 
would be sufficient to fill the gaps made in 
the ranks of trained nurses for military as 
well as civil purposes. 

The solution of the problem of shortage 
of nurses lies, according to Miss N. E. W. 
Goodrich, dean of the Army School of Nurs- 
ing, in the establishment of a new school of 
nursing by the surgeon-general's office. Ac- 
cording to Miss Goodrich, a large number 
of intelligent women are available who could 
and should take up the training for the nurs- 
ing profession. There are not fewer than 
705,000 women in high schools, with 134,000 
graduates annually; these and many of the 
college women could and should furnish the 
largest number of nurses needed. Already, 
she said, 500 high school graduates have en- 
rolled for the Army Nurse Corps, and there 
is an application list of over 8,000, of whom 
2,000 have been already accepted. By Jan- 
uary 1, 1919, Miss Goodrich claimed that 
5,000 pupil nurses will have been enrolled 
and will have begun their training. These 
pupils will get intensive training for three 
years in the various subjects, besides prac- 
tical training in the military hospitals; they 
will study public health and industrial nurs- 
ing. Their monthly allowance is $15 with 
uniforms and maintenance. They will be 
sent, for training, to the various military 
base hospitals, and arrangements for their 
training will also be made by the coopera- 
tion of civil hospitals. As to the problem 
what to do with these nurses in the future, 
Miss Goodrich claimed that there will be 
available employment for them, especially 
in the fields of public health, industrial and 
visiting nursing. 

Such optimistic opinions, held by those 
who have been at the head of the nursing 
profession for the last decade or more, were 
not shared by the officers of the association 
and its Military Service Committee, nor by 
many of the superintendents and managers 
of hospitals present. Mr. Borden contended 
that it will be absolutely impossible to re- 
cruit the needed number of nurses by the 
means proposed. He said that the solution 
of the problem lies not in the organization 
of an army school with 5,000 or even 10,000 
pupil nurses; that there will still be a short- 
age of from 25,000 to 50,000 nurses; that the 
training given to the pupils in the Army 
School for Nurses will not enable military 
hospitals to avail themselves of the service 
of these nurses within the next six months or 
a year. It was also felt, he said, that this 
plan is not just to the large number of in- 
telligent women who are lured into the nurs- 
ing profession without a very reasonable as- 
surance of a proper and efficient training in 
all branches of nursing, and a likelihood for 
remunerative employment after graduation. 

According to the opinion of those who are 
at the head of various hospitals, the only 
solution of the problem of shortage of nurses 
lies in the schools attached to the hospitals, 
for the training of hospital assistants. The 
number of these hospital assistants could be 
almost unlimited, for there would be no such 
educational requirements as t'.ose of the 
training school. These hospital assistants 
need not be trained for long periods, and six 
months' or a year's instruction in practical 
nursing, in hospitals, would probably be suffi- 
cient to fit them for assistantships and for 
nursing in military hospitals. Especially 
would this be sufficient in such branches of 
nursing as, for instance, attendance upon the 
returned crippled and wounded soldiers 
nursing convalescent soldiers, etc., for which 
the largest number of nurses will be re- 
quired. An additional benefit of this scheme 
would be the possible use of these hospital 

[Continued on page 2j\ 




S/CNiTARY 



Conserving Public Health 
SAVING BUTTER FATS 

Probably you have watched a waiter in a hotel or 
restaurant fish around in a bowl with a fork or his 
fingers for a portion of butter to be served to you. And 
you wondered how many hands had handled the but- 
ter before it reached you. If you thought about it at 
all you must have concluded that to have an uncovered 
bowl exposed to dirt and handling was not a very sani- 
tary way to serve butter. 

Now-a-days the leading hospitals, hotels, restau- 
rants, clubs, steamships and dining cars use the 
SANITARY BUTTER SERVING MACHINE 
which, in addition to its efficiency, absolutely precludes 
the possibility of spreading disease germs due to the 
butter being touched by the hands, exposed to dirt, or 
coming in contact with ice and water. 

The SANITARY BUTTER SERVING MA- 
CHINE has been endorsed by the Food Administra- 
tion because it conserves butter fats. This machine 
has demonstrated a saving as high as 33^ per cent in 
butter and helped solve the labor problem by doing 
away with the icing and cutting of butter before meals. 
So there is an economic as well as sanitary reason for 
its use. 

Your club, favorite hotel, or restaurant, the settle- 
ment house or institution you are interested in should 
serve butter in this, the most sanitary, efficient and 
economical way. 

Write for Particulars 

BUTTER SERVING MACHINE CO. 

(Incorporated ) 

303 Fifth Avenue New York City 



26 T H E SU RV EY F O R O CT O B ER 5 , 1 9 1 



HIRING and FIRING 



A Booklet Issued by the Industrial Service 
Bureau, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 



THIS statement of the problems involved in se- 
curing and selecting an adequate number of em- 
ployes has been prepared by Lee K. Frankel, 
Ph.D., Third Vice-President, and ALEXANDER 
FLEISHER, Ph.D., Supervisor, Welfare Division, 
with the co-operation of LAURA S. SEYMOUR. 

It seeks to develop from the experience of a large 
number of successful and progressive organizations, 
suggestions which will be of help to others. All the 
methods mentioned have proven of value. The 
company is using many in dealing with its own 
21,000 employes. 

This booklet is the first of a series dealing with 
the Human Factor in Industry. The Industrial 
Service Bureau welcomes correspondence on ques- 
tions relating to the subject. 



You can secure a copy by addressing the 
WELFARE DIVISION 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company 

1 MADISON AVENUE, NEW YORK CITY 

[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



27 



War and the Civil Hospitals 

[Continued from page 25] 

assistants within six months from the be- 
ginning of training. Moreover the gradua- 
tion of a large number of hospital assistants 
will not create the same problem of what to 
do with them in the future, as many of them 
would probably not enter the nursing pro- 
fession, while others may take it up by 
thorough additional training. 

One of the many reasons for a shortage 
of nurses was alleged by Mrs. Greeley, coun- 
sel for the Committee for National Defense, 
to be the unsatisfactory status of the nurses. 
Mrs. Greeley claimed that the status of 
nurses in the hospitals abroad is very un- 
satisfactory. They have no rank, are not 
always properly treated, and often suffer 
many humiliations due to the fact that 150,- 
000 hospital orderlies abroad are trained to 
respect only rank or the insignia of rank, 
and do not give obedience to anyone without 
them. In Canada and Australia, this evil 
has already been remedied, and she urged the 
association to support the bill before Con- 
gress [see the Survey for September 21, page 
698] which provides for the giving of rela- 
tive rank to the nurses, without commission 
or pay, the rank proposed ranging from sec- 
ond lieutenant for assistant nurses to major 
for directors and superintendents of the 
Nurses' Army Corps. 

Hospitals and health insurance was the 
subject of a discussion opened by John A. 
Lapp, director of investigation of the Ohio 
Health and Old Age Insurance Commission. 
Seven states already have insurance com- 
missions, said Mr. Lapp, three of which re- 
ported in favor of and one against health 
insurance. The rest have not yet reported. 
The irreducible benefits of health insurance 
are cash payments and medical treatment. 
The present medical treatment, he said, given 
by state workmen's compensation laws, is 
very inadequate, the most liberal in this re- 
spect being the federal law. The Penn- 
sylvania law is the most illiberal, since it 
allows medical benefit only during fourteen 
days, with a maximum cost of $25. 

The object of health insurance, said Mr. 
Lapp, is the rehabilitation of men. There 
was a time when man power was cheap, and 
many men were thrown onto the industrial 
scrap heap. Now the opinion has at last 
prevailed that man power must be conserved. 
The prevention of disease and the rehabili- 
tation of industrial workers are the corner- 
stones of health insurance. There is no 
doubt that hospitals must and will be the 
centers of all rehabilitation, but they should 
not be expected to assume the cost; charity 
is no longer needed. If health insurance is 
to be adopted, the hospital facilities of the 
country must be greatly enlarged. Mr. Lapp 
spoke of malingering, which is often men- 
tioned as an objection to the introduction 
of health insurance. This objection is ab- 
surd, according to Mr. Lapp, there being 
only a fraction of 1 per cent of malingerers 
under the health insurance act in England. 
The association has not taken a stand on the 
health insurance question, but has appointed 
a committee to determine the various points 
which must be insisted upon by it whenever 
insurance laws are enacted. 

Many other subjects were discussed in the 
various sections of the association. In the 
section on Out-Patient work, Michael M. 
Davis, Jr., of Boston, discussed Avoiding 
Venereal Disease. The Relation of Social 
Service to the Successful Treatment of 
Venereal Diseases in Hospitals and Dis- 
pensaries was the topic of an address by 
Ida M. Cannon, chief of social service, 
Massachusetts General Hospital. A Social 
Worker at a Mission Desk was the theme 
presented by Janet Thorington, registrar of 
[Continued on page 2q] 




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FARM LOAN DEPARTMENT 

F. W. THOMPSON. Vice-President (in Charge) 
112 West Adams Street, Chicago 



JIIC- 






EXpttal and Surplus -Eleven Million Dollars 



vi^A 



HAND SCREWS and CLAMPS 

Have you had trouble in finding the proper 
clamp for your requirements ? 

In our 16-page catalog of Hand Screws and Clamps 
we show a very large variety for every conceivable 
purpose. We have them of Wood, Iron and Steel, 
plain and adjustable, rapid acting, etc. For carpen- 
ters, wood workers, machinists, etc. 

Catalog No. 153 upon request 

HAMMACHER SCHLEMMER & CO. 

HARDWARE, TOOLS and SUPPLIES 



NEW YORK, SINCE 184 



4TH AVE. 



and 13TH ST. 



Teaching Material for the Autumn 

WAR AND FAMILY SOLIDARITY 
By MARY E. RICHMOND 

A brief gathering together of Red Cross Home Service 
experience under the following sub-topics: Unstable Hus- 
bands and Fathers, Unstable Wives and Mothers. The 
Recently Married. The Unmarried Soldier or Sailor, The 
Responsible Head of a Family, What We Can Do. 12 
pages with cover. Price, 5 cents. 

SOCIAL CASK WORKERS AND BETTER 
INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS 
By SHELBY M. HARRISON 

An interesting setting forth of the relation between in- 
dividual work, case by case, and social reform. Its sub- 
headings include: The Case Method of Teaching, Case 
Committees as Educational Centers, Relation Between Labor 
Conditions and Social Conditions. The Case Worker's Con- 
tribution to Industrial Improvement. 2 4 pages with cover. 
Price, 10 cents. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION 

130 East 22nd Street, New York City 



For Your Private Library — Alphabetic 
Index For Clippings On Social Work 

Do you save from The Survey, newspapers, 
and other sources, clippings and references 
on social work? 

BESTOOL subject index will control this in a 
logical manner, by simple alphabetical arrangement. 
Adaptable to any file. Address Bestool System, 
West New Brighton, N. Y. 



Rye Beach School for Backward 
Children 

311 Post Road, Rye, N. Y. 

For Information Address 
Mrs. Anna T. Berault 



28 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, igi 



Home and Institutional Economics 

FOR OUR READERS INTERESTED IN HOME ECONOMICS, 
HOME MAKING AND INSTITUTION , MANAGEMENT. 



Kousefurnishing 
Warerooms 

(Established 1835) 

KITCHEN UTENSILS 

Cutlery. China, Glassware. 

HOUSECLEANING ARTICLES 

Brushes, Brooms, Dusters, Polishes (or Floors, 
Furniture and Metals. 

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REFRIGERATORS 

METAL LINED, GLASS LINED, 
ENAMELED STEEL LINED, 

THAT ARE 

gAHfTARY, EFFICIENT, ECONOMICAL. 



49th St. and Sixth Aie. Hew York 



HIGGINS' 



Drawing Inks 
Eternal Writing Ink 
Engrossing Ink 
Taurine Mucilage 
Photo Mounter Paste 
Drawing Board Paste 
Liquid Paste 
Office Paste 
Vegetable Glue, etc. 

Are the Finest and Best Inks 
and Adhesive* 

Emancipate yourself from corrosive 
and ill-smelling inks and adhesives 
and adopt the Higzins' Inks and 
Adhesives. They will be a revela- 
tion to you, they are so sweet, clean, 
well put up, and withal so efficient. 

AT DEALERS 
CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO.. Manufacturers 

Branches: Chicago, London 
271 Ninth Street Brooklyn, N. Y. 




ENGLISH-ITALIAN PHRASE BOOK 

FOR SOCIAL WORKERS 
A phrase book for social workers, teachers, physi- 
cians and nurses. Heavy cover paper. Postpaid, 
7.i cents. Physicians' Supplement, 25 cents a copy. 
Remit by check or money order; payable to 
ANNA T. WALLER (Morristown, New Jersey) 



How 200 Children Live and Learn 

By R. R. Reeder 

Superintendent of the Cottage Homes and School of 
the Orphan Asylum Society in the City of New York. 

An illuminating study of life and education in a 
cottage institution. 

Price $1.25. By mail, $1.35 

THE SURVEY 

112 East 19 Street New York 



Essential to Health and 
Comfort 

Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
the Mattress. 

No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
equipped without Mattress Protectors. 

A sheet in itself cannot properly protect the Mattress. 

During sleeping hours the body in complete repose 
throws off waste tissues and gases, much of which 
penetrate the sheet and are absorbed by the Mattress 
if not properly protected. 

Our Quilted Mattress Protectors are made from pure 
white wadding incased in bleached white muslin 
easily washed whenever necessary. 



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Insist on seeing our trade 
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sior Quilted Mattress 
Protector — on each Pro- 
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' None genuine without 
Trade Mark" 



Excelsior Quilted Mattress Co. 

15 Laight Street, New York, N. Y. 



HOUSES SUPPLYING INSTITUTIONAL TRADE 



Dry Goods 

FREDERICK LOESER 8s CO. 
484 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Groceries 

SEEMAN BROS. 
Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 

r A mrrDTicrA/rrvT'i 



Hardware, Tools and Supplies 
HAMMACHER, SCHLEMMER & CO. 
Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 

Electric Clock Systems 

LOCKWOOD & ALMQUIST.Inc. 
112 East 19th Street, New" York City 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, iQ' 



29 



WORKERS WANTED 



THE YOUNG WOMEN'S HEBREW 
ASSOCIATION of Mount Vernon, N. Y., 
requires a superintendent. Experience as an 
organizer of girls' work absolutely essential. 
State qualifications and salary expected. 
Apply Mrs. Arthur Solomon, Tuckahoe, 
P. O. 

WANTED— Secretary for state organiza- 
tion, interested in industrial conditions for 
women. Address 2880, Survey. 

WANTED— MATRON or housekeeper, 
preferably an assistant superintendent in 
a school for Jewish delinquent girls, one 
hour's ride from New York City. Address 
2885 Survey. 

WANTED— County agents for dependent 
children ; salary $1200. Only women of train- 
ing and experience eligible. Address Miss 
H. Ida Curry, State Charities Aid Associa- 
tion, 105 East 22nd Street, New York City. 

WANTED — by college professor and his 
wife, both social workers, a trained dietitian 
to take complete charge of cooking, buying 
and serving of food and management of 
household. Kindergartener lives in family 
and has charge of three children. Both en- 
joy all privileges of family with standard- 
ized hours and opportunity for recreation 
and advancement. Possibility of developing 
community kitchen. Address 2887 Survey. 

DAY NURSERY and Temporary Home 
in Eastern city desires trained nurse as 
social worker; $60 a month and mainte- 
nance. Address 2889, Survey. 

GENERAL VISITOR by organization 
interested in care of delinquent women, 
must be experienced case worker, woman 
preferably between the age of 25 and 40, 
must be Episcopalian. Apply Room 152, 2 
East 24th St. 'Phone Gramercy 1510. 

WANTED — A trained statistician with a 
broad vision. Write the National Social 
Unit Organization, 1820 Freeman Ave- 
nue, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



EXPERT in placing out and boarding 
children seeks position. Graduate of School 
of Philanthropy. Many years' experience 
in various fields of social activities. Will- 
ing to start with $2,000; leaving the city no 
objection. Address 2883, Survey. 

YOUNG LAWYER, draft exempt, po- 
litically prominent as campaign manager, 
desires temporary or permanent connection ; 
experienced organizer and director ; capable 
executive; able speaker; successful in sub- 
scription drives; publicity and advertising 
experience ; moderate remuneration. Ad- 
dress 2872, Survey. 

REFINED WOMAN, experienced in ca- 
tering to public, wants position as executive 
manager of manufacturers cafeteria or 
lunch-room. Ten years' institutional ex- 
perience. Have had course in institutional 
organization and administration and in food 
administration at Columbia University, New 
York City. Have training as social worker. 
Economical manager. Have had present 
position for years. References. $1,800 to 
start. Address 2884, Survey. 

WELL EDUCATED YOUNG WOMAN 
desires position as superintendent in chil- 
dren's institution having filled similar ca- 
pacity. Address 2886 Survey. 



War and the Civil Hospitals 

[Continued from page 27] 

the Boston Dispensary. There were papers 
on hospital construction, planning of hos- 
pitals, heat and power plant economy in hos- 
pitals, etc. The American Dietetic Asso- 
ciation and the American Association of 
Hospital Social Workers also held meetings 
during the convention. 

The association adopted the following im- 
portant resolutions at its final session: 

1. That male employes of hospitals, 
when necessary to their institutions 
should, whenever possible, be exempted 
from the army. 

2. That the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation should cooperate with the govern- 
ment in its work for venereal disease 
control. 

3. That civil hospitals be urged to 
train a large number of hospital assis- 
tants. 

4. That the United States government 
be urged to conserve the medical staff 
of hospitals by organizing a special civil 
hospital medical corps. 

5. That exemption of physicians from 
the draft be standardized for the local 
boards. 

6. That the American Hospital Asso- 
ciation endorse the survey of available 
nurses undertaken by the Red Cross. 

7. That army nurses in captivity be 
entitled to full pay. 

8. That the Army Training School for 
Nurses should insure a complete train- 
ing, and that the welfare of the nurse 
be guarded. 

9. That, for the sake of hospital con- 
servation, the existing hospital facilities 
be utilized, to avoid duplication, espe- 
cially the operating, X-ray and labora- 
tory equipments. 

10. That Congress be urged to exempt 
donations to hospitals from inheritance 
tax. 

G. M. P. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

More Recipes for Fifty. By Francis Lowe 
Smith. Whitcomb & Barrows. 225 pp. 
Price $1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.60. 

A History of the United States for Gram- 
mar Schools. By Reuben Gold Thwaites 
and Calvin Noyes Kendall. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 511 pp. Price $1.20; by mail 
of the Survey $1.40. 

The War-Workers. By E. M. Delafield. 
Alfred A. Knopf. 295 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of the Survey $1.62. 

Choosing a Play. By Gertrude E. Johnson. 
H. W. Wilson Co. 38 pp. Price $.45; by 
mail of the Survey $.48. 

One Hundred-Portion War Time Recipes, 
Wheatless, Economical, Tested. By 
Bertha E. Nettleton. J. B. Lippincott. 43 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.04. 

The Business of the Household. By C. W. 
Taber. J. B. Lippincott Co. 438 pp. Price 
$2; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 

The Future of German Industrial Exports. 
By S. Herzog. Doubleday, Page & Co. 
196 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.10. 

Hygiene of the Eye. By Win. Campbell 
Posey. J. B. Lippincott Co. 344 pp. Price 
$4; by mail of the Survey $4.20. 

Home and Community Hygiene. By Jean 
Broadhurst. J. B. Lippincott Co. 428 pp. 
Price $2; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 

EXPERIENCED WOMAN desires posi- 
tion as matron or housemother in children's 
home. References. Address 2888, Survey. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions; 
copy unchanged throughout the month 

Order pamphlets from publishers 

An Accounting System for a Cooperative Store. 
By Earl Browder. 16 pp. 5 cts. Published by 
The Cooperative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

For Value Received. A Discussion of Industrial 
Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted from the 
Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 St., New York. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. Arguments free on request. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. S cts. Surrey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 73 Devon- 
shire St., Boston. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June); $3 official organ for the 
American Physical Education Association. Orig- 
inal articles of scientific and practical value, 
news notes, bibliographies and book reviews. 
American Physical Education Association, 93 
Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

A Bibliography of Social Service. By F. Ernest 
Johnson, Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, 105 E. 22 St., N. Y. C. Price 
$10 per hundred. 10 cents per copy. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hygiene. 
50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; pub- 
lished by National Organization for Public Health 
Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman; illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad. 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



WOMAN with six years' successful ex- 
perience as headworker in settlement seeks 
position as executive. Address 2890 Survey. 



I am Public Opinion I 

ALL men fear me! I declare that Uncle Sam 
shall not go to his knees to bed you to buy 
his bonds. That is no position for a fighting man. 
But if you have the money to buy and do not buy, 
I will make this No Man's Land for you! 

I will judge you not by an allegiance expressed 
in mere words. 

I will judge you not by your mad cheers as our 
boys march away to whatever fate may have in 
store for them. 

I will judge you not by the warmth of the tears 
you shed over the lists of the dead and the injured 
that come to us from time to time. 

I will judge you not by your uncovered head and 
solemn mien as our maimed in battle return to our 
shores for loving care. 

But, as wise as I am just. I will judge you by 
the material aid you give to the fighting men who 
are facing death that you may live and move and 
have your being in a world made safe. 

I warn you — don't talk patriotism over here un- 
less your money is talking victory Over There. 

I am public opinion I As I judge, all men stand 
or fall! 

Buy U. S. Gov't Bonds 4th Liberty Loan 

Contributed through Div. of Advertising: 

United States Gov't Comm. on Public 

Information 




This space contributed for the Winning of the War by 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company 
Rochester, N. Y. 



30 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Survey 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply, and pamph- 
lets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



WARTIME SERVICE 

i i T TO IV the Survey can serve" 
L± was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory 
is one of several steps in carrying 
out this commission. The executives 
of these organizations will answer 
questions or offer counsel to individ- 
uals and local organizations in ad- 
justing their work to emergent war- 
time demands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Athletics. Amer. Phy. Education Assn. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Nat. Child Welf. Assn. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child-Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

General War-Time Commission of the Churches. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs. Nlww. 
Consumers 1 , Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 

COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Boaid of the Ywca. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 
Electoral Reform, Ti. Aprl. 
Employment, Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 
Eugenics, Er, Rbf. 
Exhibits. Aaspim, Ncpb. 
Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Race Betterment Foundation. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Mass. Soc. for Smial Hygiene. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Rbf. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics. Ahea. 
Home Work, Nci.c. 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws, Nlucan. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws, Aall, Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Puss. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 
Negro Training, Hi, Nlucan, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa, Wees. 
Prostitution, Asha, Mssh. 
Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 
Public Health, Nophn. 
Race Betterment, Er. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Er, Nlucan, Rbf. 
Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbvwca, Nwwcymca, Apea, Wccs. 



REMEDIAL LOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha, Mssh. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Mssh. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 

Natl. League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. 

Nwwcymca, Pola, Wccs. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of Ywca. 
Gwcc, Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 



WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Council, 
Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S.. Gwcc. 
War Camp Community Service. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 

LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; main-' 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 



AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 

B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations. 






SE 



J 

2 SECTIONS 




SECTION 1 



SOKC/W 



RECONSTRUCTION SERIES NO. i 



&"/ 



VOL. 41— No. 1 



Survey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 street, New York 



Workshop Committees 



OCTOBER 5, 1918 



"~\& f 



* L 



Suggested Lines of Development / y 



2918 



By C. G. Ren old 






&r 



[Reprinted in America by the Survey by permission of the author, one of the great north of England employers] 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 

SECTION I 

Scope of workers' shop organisations; management ques- 
tions which could be devolved, wholly or in part. 

1 . Questions in connection with which shop organisations 
would primarily benefit the workers. 

(a) Collective bargaining. 

(b) Grievances. 

(c) General shop conditions and amenities. 

(d) General social amenities. 

2. Questions on which joint discussion would primarily be of 
advantage to the management 

(a) Interpretation of management to workers. 

(b) Education in shop processes and trade technique. 

(c) Promotion. 

(d) Education in general business questions. 

SECTION II 

Types of Organisation. 

1 . Requirements to be satisfied. 

(a) Keeping in touch with the trade union. 

(b) Representation of all grades. 

(c) Touch with management. 

(d) Rapidity of action. 

2. Influence of various industrial conditions on the type of or- 
ganisation of shop committees. 

(a) Type of labour. 

(b) Stability and regularity of employment. 

(c) Elaboration of management organisation. 

3. Some schemes suggested. 

(a) Shop stewards' committee. 

(b) Social union. 

(c) Welfare committee. 



SECTION III 

Summary and conclusions of sections I and II. 



PREFACE TO ENGLISH EDITION 

SOME time ago I was asked to prepare a memorandum 
on the subject of Workshop Committees, for presen- 
tation to the British Association, as a part of the report 
of a special sub-committee studying industrial unrest. 
The following pages contain the gist of that memorandum, 
and are now issued in this form for the benefit of some of 
those interested in the problem who may not see the original 
report. 

I have approached the subject with the conviction that the 
worker's desire for more scope in his working life can best 
be satisfied by giving him some share in the directing of it ; 
if not of the work itself, at least of the conditions under which 
it is carried out. I have tried, therefore, to work out in some 
detail the part which organisations of workers might play in 
works administration. And believing as I do, that the exist- 
ing industrial system, with all its faults and injustices, must 
still form the basis of any future system, I am concerned to 
show that a considerable development of joint action between 
management and workers is possible, even under present con- 
ditions. 

Many of the ideas put forward are already incorporated 
to a greater or lesser degree in the institutions of these works, 
but these notes are not intended, primarily, as an account of 
our experiments, still less as a forecast of the future plans 
of this firm. Our own experience and hopes do however, 
form the basis of much here written, and have inevitably 
influenced the general line of thought followed. 

C. G. Renold, 



Hans Renold Limited, Manchester. 



Burnage Works. 






INTRODUCTION 



THROUGHOUT the following notes it is assumed 
that the need is realised for a new orientation of 
ideas with regard to industrial management. It is 
further assumed that the trend of such ideas must 
be in the direction of a devolution of some of the functions 
and responsibilities of management on to the workers them- 
selves. These notes, therefore, are concerned mainly with 
considering how far this devolution can be carried under 
present conditions, and the necessary machinery for enabling 
it to operate. 

Before passing, however, to detailed schemes, it is worth 
considering briefly what the aims of this devolution are. 

It must be admitted that the conditions of industrial life 
fail to satisfy the deeper needs of the workers, and that it 
is this failure, even more than low wages, which is responsible 
for much of their general unrest. Now the satisfaction to be 
derived from work depends upon its being a means of self- 
expression. This again depends on the power of control 
exercised by the individual over the materials and processes 
used, and the conditions under which the work is carried out, 
or in the case of complicated operations, where the individual 
can hardly be other than a "cog in the machine," — on the 
willingness, understanding, and imagination with which he 
undertakes such a role. In the past the movement in industry, 
in this respect, has been all in the wrong direction, namely, a 
continual reduction of freedom, initiative, and interest, in- 
volving an accentuation of the "cog-in-the-machine" status. 
Moreover, it has too often produced a "cog" blind and un- 
willing, with no perspective or understanding of the part it 
plays in the general mechanism of production, or even in any 
one particular series of operations. 

Each successive step in the splitting up and specialising of 
operations has been taken with a view to promoting efficiency 
of production, and there can be no doubt that efficiency, in a 
material sense, has been achieved thereby, and the productivity 
of industry greatly increased. This has been done, however, 
at the cost of pleasure and interest in work, and the problem 
now is how far these could be restored, as, for instance, by 
some devolution of management responsibility on to the 
workers, and how far such devolution is possible under the 
competitive capitalist system, which is likely to dominate in- 
dustry for many long years to come. 

Under the conditions of capitalist industry any scheme of 
devolution of management can only stand provided it in- 
volves no net loss of productive efficiency. It is believed, 
however, that even within these limits, considerable progress 
in this direction is possible, doubtless involving some detail 
loss, but with more than compensating gains in general effi- 
ciency. In this connection it must be remembered that the 
work of very many men, probably of most, is given more or 
less unwillingly, and even should the introduction of more 
democratic methods of business management entail a certain 
amount of loss of mechanical efficiency, due to the greater 
cumbersomeness of democratic proceedings, if it can succeed 
in obtaining more willing work and cooperation, the net gain 
in productivity would be enormous. 

Important and urgent as is this problem of rearranging 
the machinery of management to enable responsibility and 
power to be shared with the workers, another and preliminary 
step is even more pressing. This is the establishing of touch 
and understanding between employer and employed, between 
management and worker. Quite apart from the many real 
grievances under which workers in various trades are suffering 
at the present time, there is a vast amount of bad feeling, due 
to misunderstanding, on the part of each side, of the aims and 
motives of the other. Each party, believing the other to be 



always ready to play foul, finds in every move easy evidence 
to support its bitterest suspicions. The workers are irritated 
beyond measure by the inefficiency and blundering in organisa- 
tion and management which they detect on every side, and 
knowing nothing of business management cannot understand 
or make allowance for the enormous difficulties under which 
employers labour at the present time. Similarly, employers 
are too ignorant of trade union affairs to appreciate the prob- 
lems which the present "lightning transformation" of industry 
present to those responsible for shaping trade union policy ; 
nor is the employer generally in close enough human touch to 
realise the effect of the long strain of war work, and of the 
harassing restrictions of personal liberty. 

More important therefore than any reconstruction of man- 
agement machinery, more important even than the remedying 
of specific grievances, is the establishing of some degree of 
ordinary human touch and sympathy between management 
and men. 

This also has an important bearing on any discussion with 
regard to developing machinery for joint action. It cannot 
be emphasized too strongly that the hopefulness of any such 
attempt lies, not in the perfection of the machinery, nor even 
in the wideness of the powers of self-government granted to 
the workers, but in the degree to which touch and, if possible, 
friendliness can be established. It should be realised, for in- 
stance, by employers, that time spent on discussing and ven- 
tilating alleged grievances which turn out to be no grievances, 
may be quite as productive of understanding and good feeling 
as the removal of real grievances. 

Passing now to constructive proposals for devolution of 
management, the subject is here dealt with mainly in two 
stages. 

Under Section I., some of the functions of management 
which most concern the workers are considered, with a view 
to seeing how far the autocratic (or bureaucratic) secrecy and 
exclusiveness which usually surround business management, 
as far as workers are concerned, is really unavoidable, or how 
far it could be replaced by democratic discussion and joint 
action. The conclusion is that there is no reason inherent in 
the nature of the questions themselves why this cannot be done 
to a very considerable extent. 

Section II deals with the second stage referred to, and 
considers the machinery needed to make such joint action, as 
is suggested in Section I, workable — a very different matter 
from admitting that in itself it is not impossible! The ap- 
parent complication of such machinery is doubtless a difficulty, 
but it is not insuperable, and is in practice less formidable 
than it seems at first sight. It must be' realised, however, that 
the degree of elaboration of the machinery for joint working, 
adopted by any particular industry or firm, must be in rela- 
tion to the elaboration of the existing management system. It 
would be quite impossible for many of the refinements of dis- 
cussion and joint action suggested to be adopted by a firm 
whose ordinary business organisation was crude, undeveloped, 
and unsystematic. This point is more fully dealt with in this 
section. 

Section III contains a summary of the scheme of Commit- 
tees contained in Section II, showing the distribution to each 
committee of the various questions discussed in Section I. 

In Section IV some comments are made, based on actual 
experience of an attempt to institute machinery of the kind 
discussed, and some practical hints are given which may be of 
assistance to others. 



3 



SECTION I 



Scope of Workers' Shop Organisations; Management questions 
which could be devolved, wholly or in part 



IT is proposed in this section to consider the activities 
which organisations of workers within the workshop 
might undertake without any radical reorganisation of 
industry. What functions and powers, usually exercised 
by the management, could be devolved on to the workers, 
and what questions, usually considered private by the man- 
agement, could be made the subject of explanation and con- 
sultation? The number of such questions as set out in this 
section may appear very formidable, and is possibly too great 
to be dealt with, except by a very gradual process. No 
thought is given at this stage, however, to the machinery which 
would be necessary for achieving so much joint working, the 
subject being considered rather with a view to seeing how far, 
and in what directions, the inherent nature of the questions 
themselves would make it possible or advisable to break down 
the censorship and secrecy which surround business manage- 
ment. 

In the list which follows, obviously not all questions are 
of equal urgency, those being most important which provide 
means of consultation and conciliation in regard to such 
matters as most frequently give rise to disputes, namely, wage 
and piece-rate questions, and to a lesser degree, workshop 
practices and customs. Any scheme of joint working should 
begin with these matters, the others being taken over as the 
machinery settles down and it is found practicable to do so. 
How far any particular business can go will depend on the 
circumstances of the trade, and on the type of organisation 
in operation. 

Through machinery for conciliation in connection with 
existing troubles, such as those mentioned, must be the first 
care, some of the other matters suggested in this section — e.g., 
safety and hygiene, shop amenities, etc. — should be dealt with 
at the earliest possible moment. Such subjects, being less 
controversial, offer an easier means of approach for establish- 
ing touch and understanding between managers and men. 

The suggestions in this section are divided into two main 
groups, but this division is rather a matter of convenience 
than an indication of any vital difference in nature. The sug- 
gestions are arranged in order of urgency, those coming first 
where the case for establishing a workers' shop organisation 
is so clear as to amount to a right, and passing gradually to 
those where the case is more and more questionable. The 
first group, therefore, contains all those items where the case 
is clearest and in connection with which the immediate bene- 
fits would fall to the workers. The second group contains 
the more questionable items, which lie beyond the region 
where the shoe actually pinches the worker. These questions 
are largely educational, and the immediate benefit of action, 
considered as a business proposition, would accrue to the man- 
agement through the greater understanding of management 
and business difficulties on the part of the workers. 

1. Questions in connection with which Shop 
Organisations would primarily benefit the 
Workers 

Tins group deals with those matters where the case for es- 
tablishing shop organisations, to meet the need of the workers, 
is clearest. 

(a) Collective Bargaining 

There is a need for machinery for carrying this function 
of the trade union into greater and more intimate workshop 
detail than is possible by any outside body. A workshop 



organisation might supplement the ordinary trade union ac- 
tivities in the following directions: — 

1. Wages 

(Note. — General standard rates would be fixed by negotiation 
with the trade union for an entire district, not by committees of 
workers in individual works.) 

To ensure the application of standard rates to individuals, 
to see that they get the benefit of the trade union agreements. 

When a scale of wages, instead of a single rate, applies to a 
class of work (the exact figure varying according to the ex- 
perience, length of service, etc., of the worker) to see that such 
scales are applied fairly. 

To see that promises of advances (such as those made, for 
instance, at the time of engagement) are fulfilled. 

To see that apprentices, on completing their time, are raised 
to the standard rate by the customary or agreed steps. 

2. Piece-Work Rates 

(It is assumed that the general method of rate fixing — e. g., the 
adoption of time study or other method — would be settled with the 
local trade unions.) 

To discuss with the management the detailed methods of rate 
fixing, as applied either to individual jobs or to particular classes 
of work. 

Where there is an agreed relation between time rates and 
piece rates as, for instance, in engineering, to see that individual 
piece rates are so set as to yield the standard rate of earning. 

To discuss with the management reduction of piece rates 
where these can be shown to yield higher earnings than the 
standard. 

To investigate on behalf of the workers complaints as to 
inability to earn the standard rate. For this purpose all the 
data and calculations, both with regard to the original setting 
of the rate and with regard to time booking on a particular job, 
would have to be open for examination. 

Note. — It is doubtful whether a shop committee, on account of 
its cumbersomeness, could ever handle detail, individual rates, ex- 
cept where the jobs dealt with are so large or so standardised as to 
make the number of rates to be set per week quite small. A better 
plan would be for a representative of the workers, preferably paid 
by them, to be attached to the rate-fixing department of a works, to 
check all calculations, and to look after the workers' interests gen- 
erally. He would report to a shop committee, whose discussions 
with the management would then be limited to questions of principle. 

3. Watching the Application of Special Legislation, Awards, or 
Agreements — e. g., 

Munitions of war act, dilution, leaving certificates, etc. 
Recruiting, exemptions. 

After-war arrangements, demobilisation of war industries, re- 
storation of trade union conditions, etc. 

4. Total Hours of Work 

To discuss any proposed change in the length of the standard 
week. This could only be done by the workers' committee of 
an individual firm, provided the change were within the stand- 
ards fixed by agreement with the local union or those custom- 
ary in the trade. 

5. New Processes or Change of Process 

Where the management desire to introduce some process 
which will throw men out of employment, the whole position 
should be placed before a shop committee to let the necessity be 
understood, and to allow it to discuss how the change may be 
brought about with the least hardship to individuals. 

6. Grades of Worker for Types of Machine 

Due to the introduction of new types of machines, and to the 
splitting up of processes, with the simplification of manipula- 
tion sometimes entailed thereby, the question of the grade of 
worker to be employed on a given type of machine continually 
arises. Many such questions are so general as to be the subject 
of trade union negotiation, but many more are quite local to 
particular firms. For either kind there should be a works com- 
mittee within the works to deal with their application there. 

(b) Grievances 

The quick ventilating of grievances and injustices to indi- 
viduals or to classes of men, is of the greatest importance in 
securing good feeling. The provision of means for voicing 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5 , 1 9 18 



such complaints acts also as a check to petty tyranny, and is a 
valuable help to the higher management in giving an insight 
into what is going on. 

A shop committee provides a suitable channel in such cases 
as the following: — 

Alleged petty tyranny by foremen. 

Hard cases arising out of too rigid application of rules, etc. 
Alleged mistakes in wages or piece work payments. 
Wrongful dismissal, e.g., for alleged disobediance, etc., etc. 

In all cases of grievances or complaints it is most important 
that the body bringing them should be of sufficient weight 
and standing to speak its mind freely. 

(c) General Shop Conditions and Amenities 

On all those questions which affect the community life 
of the factory, the fullest consultation is necessary, and con- 
siderable self-government is possible. 

The following indicate the kind of question: — 

1. Shop Rules 

Restriction of smoking. 
Tidiness, cleaning of machines, etc. 
Use of lavatories and cloakrooms. 
Provision, care and type of overalls. 
Time-booking arrangements. 
Wage-paying arrangements, etc., etc. 

2. Maintenance of Discipline 

It should be possible to promote such a spirit in a works that, 
not only could the workers have a say in the drawing up of Shop 
Rules, but the enforcing of them could also be largely in their hands. 
This would be particularly desirable with regard to: — 

Enforcing good time-keeping. 

Maintaining tidiness. 

Use of lavatories and cloakrooms. 

Promoting a high standard of general behaviour, etc., etc. 

3. Working Conditions 

Meal hours, starting and stopping times. 
Arrangements for holidays, etc. 
Arrangement of shifts, night work, etc. 

4. Accidents and Sickness 

Safety appliances and practices. 
Machine guards, etc. 
Administration of First Aid. 
Rest room arrangements. 
Medical examination and advice. 

5. Dining Service 

Consultation re requirements. 
Criticisms of and suggestions re service. 
Control of discipline and behaviour. 
Seating arrangements, etc. 

6. Shop Comfort and Hygiene 

Suggestions re temperature, ventilation, washing accommo- 
dation, drying clothes, etc. 

Provision of seats at work, where possible. 
Drinking water supply. 

7. Benevolent Work 

Shop collections for charities or hard cases among fellow 
workers. 

Sick club, convalescent home, etc. 
Saving societies. 

(d) General Social Amenities 

A works tends to become a centre of social activities having 
no direct connection with its work, for example : — 

Works picnics. 

Games, e. g., cricket, football, etc. 

Musical societies. 

Etc., etc. 

These should all be organised by committees of the workers 
and not by the management. 

2 Questions on Which Joint Discussion Would 
Primarily be of Advantage to the Management 

In this group are those questions with regard to which there 
is no demand put forward by the workers, but where dis- 
cussion and explanation on the part of the management would 
be desirable, and would tend to ease some of the difficulties 
of management. The institution of works committees would 



facilitate discussion and explanation in the following in- 
stances : — 

(a) Interpretation of Management to Workers 

In any case of new rules or new developments, or new 
workshop policy, there is always the greatest difficulty in 
getting the rank and file to understand what the management 
is "getting at." However well-meaning the change may be 
as regards the workers, the mere fact that it is new and not 
understood is likely to lead to opposition. If the best use is 
made of committees of workers, such changes, new develop- 
ments, etc., would have been discussed, and explained to them, 
and it is not too much to expect that the members of such 
committees would eventually spread a more correct and sym- 
pathetic version of the management's intentions among their 
fellow-workers than these could get in any other way. 

(b) Education in Shop Processes and Trade Technique. 

The knowledge of most workers is limited to the process 
with which they are concerned, and they would have a truer 
sense of industrial problems if they understood better the 
general technique of the industry in which they are concerned, 
and the relation of their particular process to others in the 
chain of manufacture from raw material to finished article. 

It is possible that some of this education should be under- 
taken by technical schools, but their work in this respect can 
only be of a general nature, leaving still a field for detailed 
teaching which could only be undertaken in connection with 
an individual firm, or a small group of similar firms. Such 
education might well begin with the members of the commit- 
tee of workers, though if found feasible it should not stop 
there, but should be made general for the whole works. Any 
such scheme should be discussed and worked out in conjunc- 
tion with a committee of workers, in order to obtain the 
best from it. 

(c) Promotion 

It is open to question whether the filling of any given 
vacancy could profitably be discussed between the manage- 
ment and the workers. 

In connection with such appointments as shop foremen, 
where the position is filled by promoting a workman or "lead- 
ing hand," it would at least be advisable to announce the 
appointment to the workers' committee before making it gen- 
erally known. It might perhaps be possible to explain why a 
particular choice had been made. This would be indicated 
fairly well by a statement of the qualities which the manage- 
ment deemed necessary for such a post, thereby tending to 
head off some of the jealous disappointment always involved 
in such promotions, especially where the next in seniority is 
not taken. 

It has of course been urged, generally by extremists, that 
workmen should choose their own foremen by election, but 
this is not considered practical politics at present, though it 
may become possible and desirable when workers have had 
more practice in the exercise of self-management to the limited 
degree here proposed. 

One of the difficulties involved in any general discussion of 
promotions, is the fact that there are so many parties con- 
cerned, and all from a different point of view. For example, 
in the appointment of a foreman, the workers are concerned 
as to how far the new man is sympathetic and helpful, and 
inspiring to work for. The other foremen are concerned 
with how far he is their equal in education and technical 
attainments, social standing, length of service, i.e., as to 
whether he would make a good colleague. The manager is 
concerned, among other qualities, with his energy, loyalty to 
the firm, and ability to maintain discipline. Each of these 
three parties is looking for three different sets of qualities, 
and it is not often that a candidate can be found to satisfy 
all. Whose views then should carry most weight — the men's, 
the other foremen's, or the manager's? 

It is quite certain, however, that it is well worth while 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 



i o i 



making some attempt to secure popular understanding and 
approval of appointments made, and a worker's committee 
offers the best opportunity for this. 

It would be possible to discuss a vacancy occurring in any 
grade with all the others in that grade. For example, to 
discuss with all shop foremen the possible candidates to fill 
a vacancy among the foremen. This is probably better than 
no discussion at all, and the foremen might be expected, to 
some extent, to reflect the feeling among their men. Here 
again, the establishing of any such scheme might well be dis- 
cussed with the committee of workers. 
(d) Education in General Business Questions 

This point is still more doubtful than the preceding. Em- 
ployers continually complain that the workers do not under- 
stand the responsibilities and the risks which they, as em- 
ployers, have to carry, and it would seem desirable therefore 
to take some steps to enable them to do so. In some directions 
this would be quite feasible, e.g.: 

1. The reasons should be explained and discussed for the estab- 
lishment of new works departments, or the re-organisation of 
existing ones, the relation of the new arrangement to the general 
manufacturing policy being demonstrated. 



Some kind of simplified works statistics might be laid before a 
committee of workers. For example: 

Output. 

Cost of new equipment installed. 

Cost of tools used in given period. 

Cost of raw material consumed. 

Number employed. 

Amount of bad work produced. 

Reports of activities of other parts of the business might be laid 
before them. 

(1) From the commercial side, showing the difficulties to be 
met, the general attitude of customers to the firm, etc. 

(2) By the chief technical departments, design office, labora- 
tory, etc., as to the general technical developments or difficul- 
ties that were being dealt with. Much of such work need not 
be kept secret, and would tend to show the workers that other 
factors enter into the production of economic wealth besides 
manual labour. 

Simple business reports, showing general trade prospects, might 
be presented. These are perhaps most difficult to give in any 
intelligible form, without publishing matter which every man- 
agement would object to showing. Still, the attempt would be 
well worth making, and would show the workers how narrow 
is the margin between financial success and failure on which 
most manufacturing businesses work. Such statistics might, per- 
haps, be expressed not in actual amounts, but as proportions of 
the wages bill for the same period. 



SECTION I] 



Types of Organisation 



HAVING dealt in the previous section with the 
kinds of questions, which, judged simply by their 
nature, would admit of joint discussion or 
handling, it is now necessary to consider what 
changes are needed in the structure of business management 
to carry out such proposals. The development of the neces- 
sary machinery presents very considerable difficulties on ac- 
count of the slowness of action and lack of executive pre- 
cision which almost necessarily accompany democratic organi- 
sation, and which it is the express object of most business 
organisations to avoid. 

The question of machinery for joint discussion and action 
is considered in this section in three aspects: — 

1 . The requirements which such machinery must satisfy. 

2. The influence of various industrial conditions on the type of 
machinery likely to be adopted in particular trades or works. 

3. Some detailed suggestions of shop committees of varying scope. 

I. Requirements to be Satisfied 

(a) Keeping in Touch with the Trade Unions 

It is obvious that no works committee can be a substitute 
for the trade union, and no attempt must be made by the 
employer to use it in this way. To allay any trade union 
suspicion that this is the intention, and to ensure that the 
shop committee links up with the trade union organisation, 
it would be advisable to see that the trade union is represented 
in some fairly direct manner. This is specially important for 
any committee dealing with wages, piece work and such other 
working conditions as are the usual subject of trade union 
action. 

In the other direction, it will be necessary for the trade 
unionists to develop some means of working shop committees 
into their scheme of organisation, otherwise there will be the 
danger of a works committee, able to act more quickly through 
being on the spot, usurping the place of the local district com- 
mittee of the trade unions. 
(Z>) Representation of all Grades 

The desirability of having all grades of workers represented 
on works committees is obvious, but it is not always easy to 
carry out owing to the complexity of the distribution of labour 
in most works. Thus, it is quite common for a single depart- 
ment, say in an engineering works, to contain several grades 



of workers, from skilled tradesmen to labourers, and possibly 
women. These grades will belong to different unions, and 
there may even be different, and perhaps competing, unions 
represented in the same grade. Many of the workers also 
will not be in any union at all. 

(c) Touch with Management 

As a large part of the aim of the whole development is to 
give the workers some sense of management problems and 
point of view, it is most desirable that meetings between works 
committees and management should be frequent and regular, 
and not looked on merely as means of investing grievances or 
deadlocks when they arise. The works committee must not 
be an accidental excrescence on the management structure, 
but must be worked into it so as to become an integral part, 
with real and necessary functions. 

(d) Rapidity of Action 

Delays in negotiations between employers and labour are 
a constant source of irritation to the latter. Every effort 
should be made to reduce them. Where this is impossible, 
due to the complication of the questions involved, the works 
committee should be given enough information to convince 
it of this, and that the delay is not a deliberate attempt to 
shirk the issue. 

On the other hand, the desire to attain rapidity of action 
should not lead to haphazard and "scratch" discussions or 
negotiations. These will only result in confusion, owing to 
the likelihood that some of those who ought to take part or 
be consulted over each question will be left out, or have in- 
sufficient opportunity for weighing up the matter. The pro- 
cedure for working with or through works committees must, 
therefore, be definite and constitutional, so that, everyone 
knows how to get a grievance or suggestion put forward for 
consideration, and everyone concerned will be sure of receiving 
due notice of the matter. 

The procedure must not be so rigid, however, as to pre- 
clude emergency negotiations to deal with sudden crises. 

2. Influence of various industrial conditions on 
the type of organisation of Shop Committees 

There is no one type of shop committee that will suit all 
conditions. Some industries can develop more easily in one 
direction and some in another, and in this subsection are 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5, 191 



pointed out some of the conditions which are likely to influence 
this. 

(a) Type of Labor 

The constitution of works committees, or the scheme of 
committees, which will suitably represent the workers of any 
particular factory, will depend very largely on the extent to 
which different trades and different grades of workers are 
involved. 

In the simplest kind of works, where only one trade or 
craft is carried out, the workers, even though of different 
degrees of skill, would probably all be eligible for the same 
trade union. In such a case a purely trade union organisa- 
tion, but based of course on works departments, would meet 
most of the requirements, and would probably, in fact, be 
already in existence. 

In many works, however, at least in the engineering in- 
dustry, a number of different "trades" are carried on. For 
instance, turning, automatic machine operating, blacksmith- 
ing, pattern-making, foundry work, etc. Many of these 
trades are represented by the same trade union, though the 
interests of the various' sections are often antagonistic, e.g., 
in the case of turners and automatic machine operators. Some 
of the other trades mentioned belong to different unions al- 
together. In addition to these "tradesmen," will be found 
semi-skilled and unskilled laborers. For the most part these 
will belong to no union, though a few may belong to labouring 
unions which, however, have no special connection with the 
engineering unions. In addition to all these, there may be 
women whose position in relation to men's unions is still un- 
certain, and some of whose interests will certainly be opposed 
to those of some of the men. 

The best way of representing all these different groups will 
depend on their relative proportion and distribution in any 
given works. Where women are employed in any consider- 
able numbers it will probably be advisable for them to be rep- 
resented independently of the men. For the rest it will prob- 
ably be necessary to have at least two kinds of works commit- 
tees: one representing trade unionists as such, chosen for con- 
venience by departments, the other representing simply works 
departments. The first would deal with wages and the type 
of question usually forming the subject of discussion between 
employers and trade unions. The other would deal with all 
other workshop conditions. The first, being based on trade 
unions, would automatically take account of distinctions be- 
tween different trades and different grades, whereas the sec- 
ond would be dealing with those questions in which such dis- 
tinctions do not matter very much. 

(b) Stability and Regularity of Employment 

Where work is of an irregular or seasonal nature and work- 
ers are constantly being taken on and turned off, only the very 
simplest kind of committee of workers would be possible. In 
such industries probably nothing but a trade union organiza- 
tion within the works would be possible. This would draw 
its strength from the existence of the trade union outside, 
which would, of course, be largely independent of trade fluc- 
tuations, and would be able to reconstitute the works commit- 
tee as often as necessary, thus keeping it in existence, even 
should most of the previous members have been discharged 
through slackness. 

(c) Elaboration of Management Organisation 

The extent to which management functions can be dele- 
gated, or management questions and policy be discussed with 
the workers depends very largely on the degree of complete- 
ness with which the management itself is organised. Where 
this is haphazard and management consists of a succession of 
emergencies, only autocratic control is possible, being the only 
method which is quick-acting and mobile enough. There- 
fore, the better organised and more constitutional (in the 
sense of having known rules and procedures) the manage- 
ment is, the more possible is it for policy to be discussed with 
the workers. 



3. Some Schemes Suggested 

The following suggestions for shop organizations of workers 
are intended to form one scheme. Their individual value, 
however, does not depend on the adoption of the scheme as a 
whole, each being good as far as it goes. 
(a) Shop Stewards Committee 

As pointed out in the last sub-section, in a factory where 
the trade union is strong, there will probably be a shop stew- 
ards or trade union committee already in existence. This is, 
of course, a committee of workers only, elected generally by 
the trade union members in the works, to look after their in- 
terests and to conduct negotiations for them with the man- 
agement. Sometimes the stewards carry out other purely 
trade union work, such as collecting subscriptions, obtaining 
new members, explaining union rules, etc. Such a committee 
is the most obvious and simplest type of works committee, and 
where the composition of the shop is simple, i.e., mainly one 
trade, with no very great differences in grade, a shop stewards 
committee could deal with many of the questions laid down 
as suitable for joint handling. 

It is doubtful, however, whether a shop stewards commit- 
tee can, or should, cover the full range of workers' activities, 
except in the very simplest type of works. The mere fact 
that, as a purely trade union organisation, it will deal pri- 
marily with wages and piece-work questions, will tend to in- 
troduce an atmosphere of bargaining, which would make the 
discussion of more general questions very difficult. Further, 
such a committee would be likely to consider very little else 
than the interests of the trade union, or of themselves as trade 
unionists. While this is no doubt quite legitimate as regards 
such questions as wages, the more general questions of work- 
shop amenities should be considered from the point of view 
of the works as a community in which the workers have com- 
mon interests with the management in finding and maintain- 
ing the best conditions possible. Moreover, in many shops, 
where workers of widely differing grades and trades are em- 
ployed, a shop stewards committee is not likely to represent 
truly the whole of the workers, but only the better organised 
sections. 

The shop stewards committee, in the engineering trade at 
least, is fairly certain to constitute itself without any help 
from the management. The management should hasten to 
recognise it, and give it every facility for carrying on its busi- 
ness, and should endeavor to give it a recognised status and 
to impress it with a sense of responsibility. 

It would probably be desirable that shop stewards should 
be elected by secret ballot rather than by show of hands in 
open meeting, in order that the most responsible men may be 
chosen, and not merely the loudest talkers or the most popu- 
lar. It seems better, also, that stewards should be elected 
for a certain definite term, instead of holding office, as is 
sometimes the case now, until they resign, leave the firm, or 
are actually deposed. The shop stewards committee, being 
primarily a workers' and trade union affair, both these points 
are outside the legitimate field of action of the management. 
The latter's willingness to recognize and work through the 
committee should, however, confer some right to make sug- 
gestions even in such matters as these. 

The facilities granted by the management might very well 
include a room on the works premises in which to hold meet- 
ings, and a place to keep papers, etc. If works conditions 
make it difficult for the stewards to meet out of work hours, 
it would be well to allow them to hold committee meetings in 
working hours at recognised times. The management should 
also arrange periodic joint meetings with the committee, to 
enable both sides to bring forward matters of discussion. 

The composition of the joint meeting between the commit- 
tee of shop stewards and the management is worth considering 
shortly. In the conception here set forth the shop stewards 
committee is a complete entity by itself; it is not merely the 
workers' section of some larger composite committee of man- 
agement and workers. The joint meetings are rather in the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5 , 1 9 18 



nature of a standing arrangement on the part of the manage- 
ment for receiving deputations from the workers. For this 
purpose the personnel of the management section need not be 
fixed, but could well be varied according to the subjects to 
be discussed. It should always include, however, the highest 
executive authority concerned with the works. For the rest, 
there might be the various departmental managers, and, some- 
times, some of the foremen. As the joint meeting is not an 
instrument of management, taking decisions by vote, the num- 
ber of the management contingent does not really matter 
beyond assuring that all useful points of view are repre- 
sented. 

Too much importance can hardly be laid on the desirability 
of regular joint meetings, as against ad hoc meetings called 
to discuss special grievances. According to the first plan, 
each side becomes used to meeting the other in the ordinary 
way of business, say once a month, when no special issue is at 
stake, and no special tension is in the air. Each can hardly 
fail to absorb something of the other's point of view. At a 
special ad hoc meeting, on the other hand, each side is apt to 
regard as its business, not the discussion of a question on its 
merits, but simply the making out of a case. And the fact 
that a meeting is called specially means that expectations of 
results are raised among the other workers, which make it 
difficult to allow the necessary time or number of meetings 
for the proper discussion of a complicated question. 

Where women are employed in considerable numbers along 
with men, the question of their representation by stewards 
becomes important. It is as yet too early to say how this 
situation can best be met. If they are eligible for member- 
ship of the same trades unions as the men, the shop stewards 
committee might consist of representatives of both. But, con- 
sidering the situation which will arise after the war, when 
the interests of the men and of the women will often be op- 
posed, this solution does not seem very promising at present. 

Another plan would be for a separate women's shop stew- 
ards committee to be formed, which would also meet the 
management periodically and be, in fact, a duplicate of the 
men's organization. It would probably also hold periodic 
joint meetings with the men's committee, to unify their poli- 
cies as far as possible. This plan is somewhat cumbersome, 
but seems to be the only one feasible at present on account of 
the divergence of interest and the very different stage of de- 
velopment in organisation of men and women. 

(b) Social Union 

Some organisation for looking after recreation is in exist- 
ence in many works, and if not, there is much to be said for 
the institution of such a body as the social union here described. 

Although the purpose which calls together the members 
of a works community is, of course, not the fostering of so- 
cial life and amenities, there is no doubt that members of such 
communities do attain a fuller life and more satisfaction from 
their association together, when common recreation is added to 
common work. It may, of course, be urged against such a 
development of community life in industiy, that it is better 
for people to get away from their work and to meet quite an- 
other set in their leisure times. This is no doubt true enough, 
but the number of people who take advantage of it is probably 
very much less than would be affected by social activities con- 
nected with the works. The development of such activities 
will, in consequence, almost certainly have more effect in 
spreading opportunities for fuller life than it will have in re- 
stricting them. Moreover, if the works is a large one, the 
differences in outlook between the various sections are perhaps 
quite as great as can be met with outside. For this reason 
the cardinal principle for such organisations is to mix up the 
different sections and grades, especially the works and the 
office departments. 

The sphere of the social union includes all activities other 
than those affecting the work for which the firm is organised. 
This sphere being outside the work of the firm, the organisa- 



tion should be entirely voluntary and in the hands of the 
workers, though the management may well provide facilities 
such as rooms and playing fields. 

Two main schemes of organisation are usual. In the 
first a general council is elected by the members, or, if pos- 
sible, by all the employes, irrespective of department or grade. 
This council is responsible for the general policy of the social 
union, holds the funds, and undertakes the starting and su- 
pervising of smaller organisations for specific purposes. Thus, 
for each activity a club or society would be formed under the 
auspices of the council. The clubs would manage their own 
affairs and make their own detail arrangements. 

It is most desirable that the social union should be self- 
supporting as far as running expenses go, and should not be 
subsidized by the management, as is sometimes done. A small 
subscription should be paid weekly by every member, such 
subscription admitting them to any or all clubs. The funds 
should be held by the council, and spent according to the 
needs of the various clubs, not according to the subscriptions 
traceable to the membership of each. This is very much bet- 
ter than making the finances of each club self-supporting, since 
it emphasizes the "community" feeling, is very simple, and 
enables some forms of recreation to be carried on which could 
not possibly be made to pay for themselves. 

The second general type of social union organisation in- 
volves making the clubs themselves the basis. Each levies its 
own subscriptions and pays its own expenses, and the secre- 
taries of the clubs form a council for general management. 
This is a less desirable arrangement because each member of 
the council is apt to regard himself as there only to look after 
the interests of his club, rather than the whole. The starting 
of new activities is also less easy than under the first scheme. 

(c) Welfare Committee 

The two organisations suggested so far, viz., shop stewards 
committee and social union, do not cover the whole range of 
functions outlined in Section I. In considering how much of 
that field still remains to be covered, it is simplest first to mark 
off, mentally, the sphere of the social union, viz., social ac- 
tivities outside working hours. This leaves clear the real 
problem, viz., all the questions affecting the work and the 
conditions of work of the firm. These are then conceived as 
falling into two groups. First there are those questions in 
which the interests of the workers may be opposed to those 
of the employer. These are concerned with such matters as 
wage and piece rates, penalties for spoiled work, etc. With 
regard to these, discussion is bound to be of the nature of 
bargaining, and these are the field for the shop stewards com- 
mittee, negotiating by means of the periodical joint meetings 
with the management. 

There remains, however, a second class of question, in 
which there is no clash of interest between employer and em- 
ployed. These are concerned mainly with regulating the 
"community life" of the works, and include all questions of 
general shop conditions and amenities, and the more purely 
educational matters. For dealing with this group a com- 
posite committee of management and workers, here called the 
Welfare Committee, is suggested. 

This would consist of two parts: 

1. Representatives elected by workers. 

2. Nominees of the management. 

The elected side might well represent the offices, both tech- 
nical and clerical, as well as the works, and members would 
be elected by departments, no account being taken of the 
various grades. Where women are employed it would prob- 
ably be desirable for them to elect separate representatives. If 
they are in departments by themselves, this would naturally 
happen. If the departments are mixed, the men and women 
of such departments would each send representatives. 

The trade union or unions most concerned with the work 



8 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 5 , 191 



of the firm should be represented in some fairly direct way. 
This might be done in either of two ways : 

1 . If a shop stewards committee exists, it might be asked to send 
one or more representatives. 

2. Or each of the main trade unions represented in the works 
might elect one or more representatives to represent their 
members as trade unionists. 

The management section should contain, in general, the 
highest members of the management who concern themselves 
with the running of the works; it would be no use to have 
here men in subordinate positions, as much of the discussion 
would deal with matters beyond their jurisdiction. More- 
over, the opportunity for the higher management to get into 
touch with the workers would be too important to miss. It 
is doubtful whether there is any need for the workers' sec- 
tion of the welfare committee to meet separately, though 
there is no objection to this if thought desirable. In any case 
a good many questions can be handed over by the joint meet- 
ing to sub-committees for working out, and such sub-commit- 
tees can, where desirable, consist entirely of workers. 



It may be urged that the welfare committee is an unneces- 
sary complication, and, either that its work could be carried 
out by the shop stewards committee or that the work of both 
could be handled by a single composite shop committee of 
management and workers. In practice, however, a commit- 
tee of the workers sitting separately to consider those inter- 
ests that are, or appear to be, opposed, with regular deputa- 
tions to the management, and a composite committee of work- 
ers and management sitting together to discuss identical in- 
terests would seem the best solution of a difficult problem. 

Everything considered, therefore, there seems, in many 
works at least, to be a good case for the institution of both 
organizations, that of the shop stewards and that of the wel- 
fare committee. The conditions making the latter desirable 
and possible would seem to be: — 

1. A management sufficiently methodical and constitutional to 
make previous discussion of developments feasible. 

2. The conditions of employment fairly stable. 

3. The trades and grades included in the shop so varied and in- 
termixed as to make representation by a committee of trade 
union shop stewards incomplete. 



SECTION III 



Summary and Conclusions of Sections I and II 



GATHERING together the views and suggestions 
made in the foregoing pages, it is felt that three 
separate organizations within the works are neces- 
sary to represent the workers in the highly de- 
veloped and elaborate organisms which modern factories tend 
to become. 

It is not sufficient criticism of such a proposal to say that 
it is too complicated. Modern industry is complicated and 
the attempt to introduce democratic ideas into its governance 
will necessarily make it more so. As already pointed out, the 
scheme need not be accepted in its entirety. For any trade or 
firm fortunate enough to operate under simpler conditions 
than those here assumed, only such of the suggestions need be 
accepted as suit its case. 

The scope of the three committees is shown by the follow- 
ing summary: 

(a) Shop Stewards Committee 

Sphere. Controversial questions where interests of employer 

and worker are apparently opposed. 
Constitution. Consists of trade unionist workers elected by 
works departments. 

Sits by itself, but has regular meetings with the manage- 
ment. 
Examples of Questions Dealt With: 
Wage and piece rates. 

The carrying out of trade union agreements. 
Negotiations re application of legislation to the workers 
represented, e. g., dilution, exemption from recruiting. 

The carrying out of national agreements re restoration of 
trade union conditions, demobilisation of war industries, etc. 
Introduction of new processes. 
Ventilation of grievances re any of above. 
Etc., etc. 



(b) Welfare Committee 

Sphere. "Community" questions, where there is no clash be- 
tween interests of employer and worker. 
Constitution. Composite committee of management and 
workers, with some direct representation of trade unions. 

Sits as one body, with some questions relegated to sub-com- 
mittees, consisting either wholly of workers or of workers and 
management, according to the nature of the case. 
Examples of Questions Dealt With: 
Shop rules. 

Such working conditions as starting and stopping times, 
meal hours, night shift arrangements, etc. 
Accident and sickness arrangements. 
Shop comfort and hygiene. 

Benevolent work such as collections for charities, hard 
cases of illness or accident among the workers. 
Education schemes: 
Trade technique. 
New works developments. 
Statistics of works activity. 
Business outlook. 
Promotions — explanation and, if possible, consultation. 
Ventilation of grieves re any of above. 

(c) Social Union 

Sphere, Social amenities, mainly outside working hours. 
Constitution. Includes any or all grades of management and 
workers. 

Governing body elected by members irrespective of trade, 
grade, or sex. 
Examples of activities: 

Institution of clubs for sports— cricket, football, swim- 
ming, etc. 

Recreative societies — orchestral, choral, debating, etc. 
Arranging social events — picnics, dances, etc. 
Provision of games, library, etc., for use in meal hours. 
Administration of club rooms. 



This supplement reprinted together with comments by the author on difficulties revealed in 
instituting a scheme of shop committees on the general lines described, will be reprinted by the 
Survey in pamphlet form. 



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7> 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 
—Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y. Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
Bona in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 9S Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y; 801 Franklin Bank Bldg., Philadelphia. Ad- 
vocates a rational and fundamental reform in elect- 
ing representatives. Pamphlet free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — 105 W. 40 St., New York. For the re- 
pression of prostitution, the reduction of venereal 
diseases, and the promotion of sound sex education. 
Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Associate Membership, $2.00; Annual, $5.00; 
Sustaining, $10.00. Memberships include quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
genl sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Miss Grace 
W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

strengthen America Campaign, Charles Stelzlc. 

mgr. 

GENERAL WAR-TIME COMMISSION OF THE 
CHURCHES — Constituted by the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America. Robert E. 
Spee-, ch'm; William Adams Brown, sec'y; Gay- 
lord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordinates the work of 
denominational and inter-denominational war-time 
commissions; surveys camp conditions; promotes 
erection of inter-church buildings; other general 
wai-time work. 105 East 22 Street, New York. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— T. E. Gregg, principal; 
G. P. Phenix, vice-pTin.; F. K. Rogers, treas. ; 
W. H. Scoville, sec'y; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visi's, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Coi.ducts National Americanization program. 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object — To promote an intelligent interest in so- 
cialism among college men and women. Annual 
membership, $2, $5 and $25; includes quarterly, 
The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR SO- 
CIAL HYGIENE, INC.— 50 Beacon St., Boston; 
pres., Charles W. Eliot; acting sec'y, L. V. In- 
graham, M.D. Circulars and reading list upon 
request. Quarterly Bulletin 25 cents a year. Mem- 
berships: Annual, $3; Sustaining, $10; Life, $100. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
lieid Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 

— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Originates and publishes exhibit mate- 
rial which visualizes conditions affecting the health 
and education of children. Cooperates with com- 
munities, educators and organizations through ex- 
hibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq„ 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Julia C. Lathrop, pres., Washington, D. C; Wil- 
liam T. Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. General organization to discuss principles 
of humanitarian effort and increase efficiency of 
agencies. Publishes proceedings annual meetings. 
Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 46th annual meeting 
June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. Main divisions and 
chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C. E.-A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
the Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene, Maj. Frankwood E. Williams, 
M. O. R. C. 

Organization of Social Forces, William J. Norton. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in America, 
Graham Taylor. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
■ — Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state, and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed 
by settlement work; seeks the higher and more 
democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE ON URBAN CONDITIONS 
AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 200 
Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates conditions of 
city life as a basis for practical work; trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMEN'S SERVICE 

■ — Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 

Tean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 75 cents a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bui 
letins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 

—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St., 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 

NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectariap. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph. D., ass't sec'y; 381 Fourth Ave., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave , 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'm; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labot. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 
— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Public Ownership League of America, 
1438-1440 Unity Building, 127 N. Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— 

Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment 
Conference, the Eugenics Registry,' and lecture 
courses and various allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, 
pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-educa- 
tion for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. 
Publishes reports on reconstruction work here and 
abroad, and endeavors to establish an enlightened 
public attitude towards the physically handicapped. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health. Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

WAR CAMP COMMUNITY SERVICE— 1 Madison 
Ave., New York. Conducted by the Playground 
and Recreation Association of America under the 
War Department and Navy Department Commis- 
sions on Training Camp Activities, to mobilize all 
the resources of the communities near the camps 
for the benefit of the officers and men. The War 
Camp Community Service stimulates, coordinates 
and supplements the social and recreational activi- 
ties of the camp cities and towns. Joseph Lee, 
pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 



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The War Brought Home to 

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October 12, 1918 



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MAX EASTMAN 

summing up for the defense in the second Masses trial last week, said to the jury — 

On Free Speech 

"I do not ignore the right of a state to pass extraordinary laws in an emergency. 
I do not ignore the right of a government to defend its armies with a military and war time 
censorship. I am not a bigoted or fanatical advocate of the mere abstract principle of free 
speech. I simply say that when a government avails itself of this right of war-time censor- 
ship in order to suppress and whip into jail as criminals the candid and sincere spokesmen of 
a political minority which is opposed to its policies, then that government is violating not only the 
principles of the United States Constitution but the spirit and the principle of free government as 
they have existed from the beginning." 

On the St. Louis Resolution 

"I venture to predict that the St. Louis resolution will live, and will occupy a place in the 
soberly- written history of these times not without tranquil honor. And as a member of the party 
that adopted it, and as an American citizen who still dares to believe in his rights, I have no 
hesitation in telling you that I endorsed that resolution. ... I had no hand in writing the St. Louis 
resolution, and it contains modes of statement that would not be mine. But as for the prin- 
ciples that it proclaimed with courage in a time of stress, they are my principles." . . . 

"I am not afraid to go to the penitentiary for the better part of my life, if my principles have 
brought me to it. I have decided, after experimenting a little in the inside of my own mind and 
heart, that I am more afraid to betray those principles." 

The Jury Voted Eight to Four for Acquittal 

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War Brought Home to New Jersey 

The Human Side of the Munitions Tragedy 
and Some of the Underlying Problems of Relief 

By Edward T. Devinc 



THE assistant district-attorney, whose home in South 
Amboy had suffered like others in the disaster of Oc- 
tober 4, came into the town on Sunday on a special 
pass — not to look after his home, but to see the 
coroner and his gruesome charge of charred fragments of 
bodies, in order to make sure that everything possible was 
being done to identify the victims. The assistant district-at- 
torney and the assistant coroner were old friends, of course, 
and called each other by their first names ; but it was not as 
fellow-officials or as old friends that they greeted and parted 
from each other. "You see, I came over for the Red Cross," 
said the assistant district-attorney. "You know what they 
are. They want to get word to the families." "Sure," said 
the coroner, "tell them we are going to box these bodies 
now and hold them until Tuesday, and that we will give the 
Red Cross women every bit of information we've got." 

Such is the place which the American Red Cross has gained 
by its war work and its work in disasters. It is not merely a 
relief agency competing with others, but the whole nation 
mobilized on a voluntary basis, with public officials, hospitals, 
relief societies, the press, and other organs of community 
action taking their appropriate place. 

The explosions in the Gillespie shell-loading plant at Mor- 
gan, near South Amboy, N. J., on Friday night, Saturday and 
Saturday night of last week do not rank among the world's 
great disasters, but they are a tragic re- 
minder that carrying on war ranks 
among the dangerous occupations and 
that the warnings of the experts as to 
necessary precautions in the handling of 
TNT have not been unnecessary. 

South Amboy, when I saw it Satur- 
day evening, was empty except for sol- 
diers and sailors. It had been evacuated 
in the same way and to about the same 
extent as many a French and Italian 
town whenever a German or Austrian 
offensive was drawing near. There were 
a few people left. There always are. 
An old woman refusing to leave because 



October 12, 1918 Vol. 1,1, No. 2 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East l'J street, New York 

Robert W. de F crest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Charles D. Norton, 

treasurer; Arthur P. Kellogg, secretary. 

10 cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 

postage, $1.50; Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March S, 1879. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage prox-ided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorised on 
June 26, 1918. 



of her rheumatism, or her pets, or an obstinate love of home, 
is a very familiar problem for Red Cross workers and soldiers 
on the western front. She was in evidence in South Amboy. 
At eight o'clock two women remained. One, with her brother, 
intelligent and dignified native Americans, preferring to re- 
main, nevertheless yielded to the persuasive pleading of a 
circuit judge and the sergeant of the Home Guards. The 
other, whose son refused to go away from the house, remained 
with him, triumphant to the last over all civil, military, and 
judicial blandishments. 

The houses were not flat, as we had been assured all the 
way from Newark that they would be ; but their windows and 
doors were shattered, plaster broken, chimneys down or unsafe. 
Lights were out, of course, and business houses gaping open. 
Churches were badly injured, but water mains and sewers 
were intact. The orders that houses should not be occupied, 
and that any one who was allowed in town at all should walk 
in the middle of the street rather than on the sidewalk, re- 
sponding to a sentinel's challenge at every block, were amply 
justified by the condition of the houses and by the known and 
possible dangers from the continuing explosions. The number 
of the dead was still unknown and probably forever will be. 
Injured persons had been already distributed to hospitals in 
Plainfield, Lakewood, Perth Amboy, and other towns; and 
refugees everywhere within a radius of thirty miles, with the 
largest number at Elizabeth. 

South Amboy lies across the southern- 
most part of lower New York bay, sep- 
arated from Staten Island by Arthur 
Kill, united to Tottenville, S. I., by a 
ferry across this kill, long familiar to 
motorists as a convenient route between 
New York and Philadelphia. 

The estuary of the Raritan river sep- 
arates the point on which South Amboy 
stands from Perth Amboy to the north, 
and a long bridge, unharmed by the ex- 
plosions, crosses the river. It is not a 
mushroom war munitions town. The 
DuPonts had a plant there before the 



The Survey, October 12, 1918, Volume 41, No. 2. 112 East 19 street, New York city 



35 



36 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



war; but essentially it is a Pennsylvania railway coal transfer 
point. This has been its chief industry, and as long ago as 
when the last United States census was taken it had a popu- 
lation of over seven thousand. 

Some of the Sufferers 

Naturally the feverishly flourishing shell-loading plant drew 
into its day and night shifts all kinds of labor — men and 
women, boys and girls, native Americans and immigrants. Of 
the first five refugee families with whom I talked the first 
and fourth were Americans — New Jersey born and bred ; the 
second was of Polish origin, the third Hungarian, and the 
fifth Irish. The Hungarian laborer was sixty-nine years old 
and had come to Herkimer Falls as a young man of twenty- 
four. The Irishman was a pensioned veteran of the Civil 
War. Both the Irishman and the Hungarian owned the 
houses in which they lived and gave me particulars of the 
terms of their contract .with the building and loan society 
through which they had acquired the ownership. The Hun- 
garian had refused to leave South Amboy because of his chick- 
ens, and was accepting the hospitality of the Red Cross can- 
teen and a bench in a square by St. Mary's Church when not 
allowed to sleep at home. The Irishman was indignant at 
not being allowed to return. He had been told that his $5,000 
home was not worth a hundred dollars, but although he had 
had a hard crack on the skull from a flying bit of timber, he 
wanted to get back to see about it. 

Pathetic incidents of human interest crowd the memory of 
the two days spent in South Amboy and in the surrounding 
towns where relief work was going on: the lonely nine-year- 
old boy at the Y. M. C. A. who could not eat, although he 
was hungry, because his people were lost, until the sympa- 
thetic official from the Department of Public Charities of 
New York, who had a bereavement of his own to quicken his 
understanding, moved over by him and engaged him in talk ; 
the father who, with one child, called every hour or so at the 
Red Cross headquarters to inquire for his wife and the two 
other children and alarmed the Red Cross attendant by giv- 
ing the child in his charge strong coffee to drink at every 
call ; the man at Elizabeth who could not get permission to 
go back to Perth Amboy, although his wife and children, for 
some mysterious reason, had been sent back without him; the 
Pennsylvania Railway engineer who pleaded in vain at the 
mayor's office for a pass, urging that his train could not be 
sent out until he got there ; the devoted priest who, in ac- 
cordance with the traditions of his high calling, insisted on 
going into places of the greatest danger to administer the 
last rites to any who even then might be dying in the midst 
of the fires and the explosions. But we must leave out such 
incidents if there is to be any account of the relief work. 

First of all it must be recognized that the feeding and shel- 
ter of the ten thousand or more refugees was not the work of 
any organization. If it were only a question of taking care 
for one night or for a week of several thousand neighbors 
driven from their homes by fires or explosions no pre-ar- 
ranged organization would be necessary in any American or 
European community. Spontaneous offering of private homes 
and of such available public buildings as may be necessary — 
churches, schoolhouses, fire-engine houses, armories, Y. M. C. 
A. buildings — serve every purpose and are the very best 
means of meeting such needs. This, in fact, is what was 
done in Perth Amboy, Woodbridge, Railway, Plainfield, West- 
field, Roselle, Metuchen, Boundbrook, New Brunswick, Red- 
bank, Elizabeth, Newark and elsewhere. Hundreds of 
private residences were thrown open with characteristic Ameri- 
can hospitality. Food was called for, and whatever food re- 



strictions may be supposed to have been in force, it was at 
once forthcoming in superabundance. In fact, several^ local 
relief stations found their greatest embarrassment in knowing 
just what to do with their surplus food supplies; just as the 
Red Cross at one stage seemed likely to be embarrassed in 
knowing what to do with more than seventy social workers 
and considerably more than that number of smartly uniformed 
and capable motor drivers. Whether these spontaneous im- 
mediate responses to sudden human need are afterwards im- 
puted to the American Red Cross, or to mayors' committees, 
or Board of Trade or Chamber of Commerce or Mercy Com- 
mittee makes very little difference, except possibly for the 
precedent in connection with some future disaster, and except 
for the bearing on the chance to do the later rehabilitation 
work which is now regarded as a natural and essential part of 
any such disaster relief. 

All honor, then, to the citizens of New Jersey, to officials 
from governor to coroner, to home guards and coast guards 
and militia reserves, to business men and untiring women who, 
whether they wore Red Cross brassards or veils or had no 
mark at all, jumped at once to the rescue. The army and 
navy did their share, of course, the most important of all, per- 
haps, in the preservation of order on the first days and in the 
fighting of fire ; but also by furnishing tents, cots, blankets, 
and rations. Major Armstrong, commander at Camp Rari- 
tan, is perhaps the only regular army officer who should be 
mentioned, but Sergeant Fred M. P. Pearse of the New Jer- 
sey Reserves, who had charge of the Red Cross canteen in 
South Amboy, was an efficient and sympathetic figure. Oliver 
W. Ramsey, chairman of the local committee in Perth Am- 
boy, and Mrs. Ramsey, his wife; Mr. T. D. Waring, of the 
Red Cross chapter ; Judge George S. Silzer, of Metuchen ; 
Jan Van Herwerden and Marie T. Bristor, chairman and 
secretary, respectively, of the Red Cross chapter at Rahway ; 
Mrs. Charles D. Freeman at Woodbridge, of the State Com- 
mittee of Mercy ; Vance Roberts and M. N. Leavett, of the 
Elizabeth Chamber of Commerce; William Sefton, the food 
commissioner, and Helen Clark, of the charity organization so- 
ciety, who, with Librarian George, organized the clerical staff, 
and Mrs. O'Reilley, chairman of the Red Cross canteen at 
the Elizabeth armory, are workers whose names may be men- 
tioned without criticism even though the list is known to be 
very far from complete. 

The Later Tasks of Relief 

Informal spontaneous response to such elementary needs as 
are thrown to the surface by a calamity of this kind, vitally 
necessary as it is and wholly creditable as it is, does not fully 
meet the need. The immediate participation of the Red Cross 
is of value because by taking part from the beginning the best 
foundation is laid for the rehabilitation work of the later stage 
of relief operations. However, the impression must not be 
left that even in the first forty-eight hours the activity of the 
Red Cross is not of value. The prime consideration is that 
there shall be enough to eat, a place for every one to sleep, 
medical care for the sick and injured, and any necessary 
transportation facilities. Probably all these would have been 
provided by the New Jersey communities under the natural 
leadership of local citizens. It must be said, however, that 
the two women's organized motor corps, that of the American 
Red Cross under Major Smiley and that of the Motor Corps 
of America under Major Bastedo — if I have the names 
wrong, or the rank of either commanding officer, I respect- 
fully salute and apologize — rendered superb service. There 
were many volunteer automobiles — hundreds of them — but 
the presence of these uniformed, disciplined, disconcertingly 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, igi 



37 



efficient drivers, scouring the roads to pick up straggling 
refugees, carrying the sick to hospitals, shifting as many as 
possible of the able-bodied to the places to where the military 
or civil authorities might happen at the moment to want 
t hem — this, I think, is the salient and unprecedented feature 
of the Perth Amboy relief organization in its first few days. 
The Red Cross sent not merely automobiles and drivers, but 
truck loads of food supplies from New York city and ex- 
perienced relief workers, doctors and nurses. 

The relief workers were needed chiefly, as I have inti- 
mated, because after all refugees had returned to their homes, 
after the news had disappeared from the first page of the 
dailies, after the hastily collected food had all been eaten or 
disposed of and the highways had resumed their normal ap- 
pearance, there would still be some serious work to do. What 
will that work be in this instance? 

To answer this several lines of inquiry have already been 
undertaken by the Red Cross people. 

First of all, it will be necessary to find out about the needs 
of the families in which the wage-earners have been killed. 
As yet it is not known how many there are- There is still 
hope that some of the missing may be found, even though the 
fact of their failing to appear may create a strong presumption 
of their death. 

State and Federal Compensation 

Both New Jersey and the United States government have 
compensation laws. Under the New Jersey law the depen- 
dent families of the killed would be entitled to a maximum 
allowance of ten dollars a week for a period of three hundred 
weeks, a permanently disabled workman to a like amount for 
four hundred weeks. Two uncertainties might arise, although 
the general purpose of the compensation law is to eliminate 
uncertainties. The first is whether the missing member of the 
family has really been killed. Of fifteen bodies actually re- 
covered at this writing only two could be identified. While 
the policy of either state or federal commission would un- 
doubtedly be liberal, actual proof of death might be difficult. 
The second uncertainty might be as to whether the disaster 
was an accident. Under New Jersey decisions it might not 
be so in case it was "designed" by some one. The probability 
that such a view would be taken, however, seems not to be 
very great. If the accident had occurred a year ago there 
might have been a third uncertainty in case of financial in- 
solvency. Under the New Jersey law as amended last year, 
however, all employers are required to carry insurance, and 
although there is no state insurance fund, it is to be assumed 
that the casualty companies can meet any obligations arising 
from the disaster. 

If the victims are held to be civil employes of the federal 
government on the ground that the loading company is only 
the agent of the government, their families will fare much 
better. The widow if there are dependent children may re- 
ceive a maximum of sixty-six and two-thirds dollars, and this 
not for five years and ten months but for life. The federal 
law, passed in 1916 on the initiative of the American Asso- 
ciation for Labor Legislation, has become far more important 
than even its promoters could have anticipated, because of the 
enormous expansion of federal activities during the war. 

The inadequacy of the New Jersey scale of compensation is 
brought into lurid relief by this disaster. When the law was 
passed this ten dollars a week was supposed to represent roughly 
60 per cent of the average wages of industrial workers. It 
represents probably less than 20 per cent of the wages of the 
munitions workers. Five years and ten months is not a long 
time to care for a family whose wage-earner has been killed, 
even if the income is as much as 60 per cent of the wages at 
death. When it sinks to a sum which scarcely represents one 



day's wages in the week, and disappears altogether in less 
than six years, even though the children may yet be far under 
the working age, it seems like a mockery. 

Those who are completely disabled, as by the loss of both 
eyes or both arms or legs, are guaranteed by the New Jersey 
law, ten dollars a week for seven years and nine months. After 
that their blindness or incapacity has no relief from the com- 
pensation law. 

■ 

The Repair of Houses 

Obviously whether compensated under the state or under 
the federal law, there may be a considerable supplementary 
work for the Red Cross in connection with the families of the 
dead and the injured. Happily the number of the latter as- 
well as of the former seems to be much less than was at first 
feared. On Sunday there were reported to be altogether only 
some fifty surgical cases from the scene of the accident in 
various hospitals at Lakewood, Plainfield, Long Branch, New- 
ark and Perth Amboy. There were some acute medical cases, 
but perhaps not more than would occur normally in the same 
population. The Red Cross workers hastened to obtain care- 
ful records of all cases in which a legitimate claim for assist- 
ance might arise because of the death of or injury to any mem- 
ber of the family. The epidemic of Spanish influenza became 
more acute under the abnormal conditions calling for help 
from doctors and nurses. 

The second serious problem arises in connection with the 
repair of houses. South Amboy was a prosperous community. 
Every one capable of work was naturally working at full ca- 
pacity as a patriotic duty if from no other motive. Wages 
were high and employment constant, scarcely interrupted even 
by the frightful disaster. Already workers have been called 
back to duty. If the houses had been entirely destroyed, as 
was feared at first, there might have been difficulty in pro- 
viding shelter, but since water and sewers were in working 
order, and gas and electricity were quickly restored, there need 
be no delay in taking up the work on the repair of houses. 
Since repairs rather than rebuilding are needed to make 
the houses habitable, the ultimate cost can probably be dis- 
tributed and borne without difficulty by the owners. Never- 
theless there will be some families who no longer have work- 
ers for the munitions plant to whom other forms of aid may 
be given. Some furniture may have to be replaced. There 
may be some looting in spite of the vigilance of the Home 
Guards. Some readjustments will be necessary. It would 
ill become the American Red Cross, which has dealt gener- 
ously with refugees from Belgium, invaded France and north- 
ern Italy, not to respond with the utmost liberality to any 
real needs arising among these civilian war victims. 

Although the American Red Cross has been described as 
the whole nation mobilized on a voluntary basis, it requires, 
of course, organization and direction. The natural spokesman 
in the case of this disaster was Alexander M. Wilson, in 
charge of civilian relief in the Atlantic division. When he 
directed Thomas J. Riley to go to Perth Amboy to take 
charge on behalf of the Red Cross this was not to be under- 
stood as sending a representative of New York or Brooklyn 
to aid in a local New Jersey relief operation. New Jersey 
and New York are alike in the Atlantic division, and what 
concerns one community concerns all. Dr. Riley was heartily 
welcomed by the local relief workers and officials, and com- 
plete harmony of action was in evidence from the begin- 
ning. 

The Health Department and the Department of Public 
Charities, the Association for Improving the Condition of the 
Poor, the United Hebrew Charities, the Brooklyn Bureau of 
Charities and the Charity Organization Society of New York 
city were all well represented in the improvised staff of work- 



38 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1 9 1 8 



crs as well as all the active relief agencies in the neighboring 
cities and towns of New Jersey. Mr. Staub, Mr. Faust and 
Mr. Lee, of the Atlantic Division headquarters, were on duty 
in Dr. Riley's office. 

Meetings of the local committee and of those in executive 
charge of particular services were held at first frequently and 
reports made on health conditions, hospital accommodations, 
food stations, transportation, passes, conditions of houses in 
South Amboy and other matters requiring attention. 

Groups of workers were dispatched to other towns to aid 



in making a registration and a plan decided upon for coopera- 
tion with the police station in making a complete registry of 
all families for the purpose of expediting the reuniting of those 
who had been separated. Later a bureau of information was 
opened in South Amboy. 

The American Red Cross and its affiliated organizations, 
on the one hand, and New Jersey citizens and civic organiza- 
tions on the other, have made good, not only in their respective 
spheres, but, what is equally important, in their relation to 
one another. 



The Merciful Invasion of St. Etienne 



ST. ETIENNE — the Pittsburgh of France — has been 
invaded. Hundreds of miles from the nearest battle 
line, the center and heart of a great industrial dis- 
trict, it has been invaded and captured — by the 
American Red Cross. 

"Good morning, Mr. Courtois. Here is a package that the 
ladies of the A. R. C. left at the dispensary for you this 
morning." 

"Thank you, Madam, but, — they will not come to see me 
today?" 

"No, not today, but they told me you knew exactly what 
to do." 

"Of course, but still — well, I hoped to see them. When I 
Ihave had a little chat with them I feel as well as if I had taken 
some good medicine-" 

The streets of St. Etienne are dark and windy. Before the 
war there were badly overcrowded slums, and now, into these 
same slums there have come streaming back from the invaded 
districts hundreds of refugees, and hundreds of broken, desti- 
tute rapatries — herded back into France after months or years 
in Germany. 

St. Etienne is the "black city" of France, but it is also a 
city on the fighting line of the A. R. C. There American 
doctors and nurses are building defenses against the effects of 
war ; organizing a campaign against every form of human 
misery; helping the mutilated — those who have become unfit, 




Many refugees from northern France are living in the 
most zvretched quarters. The A. R. C. Child Welfare Ex- 
hibition at St. Etienne helped them to improve conditions. 



those without shelter, the very old and the very young, the 
whole lamentable procession of human wreckage of war. 

On July 4 St. Etienne celebrated, with French enthusiasm 
and spirit, America's Independence Day. On July 11 the 
people of the "black city" met again, this time to celebrate 
with the Red Cross the launching of a campaign of social work 
and hygiene which, "if the victory in the world war is to be 
complete and final, must help make the people of France 
strong enough to face the tasks of tomorrow." 

Those are the words of one of St. Etienne's own doctors as 
he delivered the oration which inaugurated the Exposition 
de I'Enfance, the exhibition organized by the Children's Bu- 
reau of the Red Cross for the childhood of St. Etienne. He 
spoke to a great audience, to the rich and the poor of the city — 
for there are those who are very rich and those who have 
nothing, not even health or strength or courage. But all alike 
are today shoulder to shoulder with the A. R. C. All went 
to the exhibition — the rich and the poor, the children and the 
city fathers, the anarchists, the syndicalists and the capitalists, 
church and state, munition workers and poilus; all read the 
posters on "fresh air," on the "dirty fly," on the dangers of 
intemperance. They watched, fascinated, while the American 
nurse bathed and dressed one of their own very-much-alive and 
very squally babies- They pushed and clamored and almost 
fought to have their children weighed on the white enamel 
scales by the "lady doctor." They swarmed around the den- 
tist's chair. In spite of the heat, they went to the American 
"movies," which showed to their incredulous eyes the un- 
pleasant habits of the tuberculosis bacillus. And one and all 
they crowded around the model playground, enchanted by the 
vision of air and freedom and healthful exercise it put before 
them. 

The exhibit reached 80,000 people in the fifteen days of its 
existence — a fine record, but not fine enough. For the A. R. 
C. believes in the principle of follow-up. In its educational 
exhibit it teaches the individuals of a family something about 
the dangers of breathing impure air; then it transfers that 
family bodily to a roomy, sanitary home in the country, where 
children whose faces were pale and old now have rosy cheeks 
and bright eyes. 

Since January 1 nearly 4,000 refugees in St. Etienne have 
been helped to improve their living conditions. Refugee 
women are being given work — making straw hats — for the 
soldiers at the front, and in this way are enabled to earn 
enough money to support themselves. At the dispensary fifty 
people a day come in to ask for advice and medicine. A 
mother is told how to feed her baby, and the next day a nurse 
goes into the tenement and shows the woman exactly how to 
prepare the baby's milk and how to sterilize the poor utensils 
she actually has. Four hundred visits a month by American 
nurses and doctors have carried American sanitary methods 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1918 



39 



into many of St. Etienne's homes, and something more than 
mere method has always gone into the home with the "friendly 
visitor." That formula has become a fact in St. Etienne, with 
the accent on the "friend." 

One day a nurse, very well known to the refugees, went 
to see a sick baby in the rue Roannette. The baby was im- 
proving, and the nurse noticed the sad face of an older sister, 
a young girl whose leg had been amputated. 

"Ask her whether she would like to have an artificial foot," 
she said to the interpreter, "another foot that could wear a 
shoe." 

"Yes, oh, yes — but it would be too dear." 

"Never mind. A friend of mine has given me some money 
to spend in any way I think proper. I shall have your meas- 
ure taken." 

Another little sister, white-faced and undernourished, has 
such pitifully crooked legs that she cannot walk down the 
three flights of stairs from her home. Her only amusement 
is to sit at the window watching the neighbors opposite, also 
refugees. 

"Well," says the Red Cross nurse, "we are going up to 
Rochetaille this morning. Let's take her with us. The fresh 
air will do her good. We'll bring her back before twelve." 

The child is carried down stairs and for a few hours escapes 
from the dingy room. Her little face gets rosy with pleasure. 
She is going to breathe fresh air under the pine trees. Since 
that day, you can imagine how she is drawn to the window 
when the A. R. C. car comes into the rue Roannette. 

The Hygiene Infantile, the Drop of Milk, the Mutualites 
Maternelles, the Preservation de 1'Enfance contre la Tuber- 
culose, the French Red Cross, the civilian hospitals at St. 
Godard — all of these organizations know that the American 



j^ 1 


- 




KFVT 


- 


r-.:-f 


1 ■■■ . i 

I 


'«»*.•* ■ 



The A. R. C. head nurse at 



shows a refugee 



mother, living in an unsanitary one-room home, how to 
prepare bottle milk for her baby. 

Red Cross has come to St. Etienne. Either a gap in a treas- 
ury has been filled or there are bandages on shelves that were 
empty before, or there is condensed milk for the sick babies, 
or there are medicines, cotton, gauze, rubber gloves in the- 
dispensaries which needed supplies. A new hospital of a hun- 
dred beds is being started by the Children's Bureau upon the 
hill of La Mulatiere, where fresh winds will sweep through 
white wards and careful nursing will bring back health to 
the sick children. 

St. Etienne has been invaded, and an enormous treasure 
has been captured by the American forces — the confidence and 
the affection of its people. 



Church Federation for Community 
Service and the Super-Nation 



By G. fV alter Lawrence 



OF THE CHICAGO COMMONS 



UNCOUTH he may have been, untrained in theo- 
logical proprieties he doubtless was, but zealous 
for the kind of religion the Y. M. C. A. was 
demonstrating, this soldier certainly proved him- 
self to be who prayed: "By gosh, O, Lord, I wish you'd have 
the churches teach the people what religion is." 

If one is to judge from the National Conference on Fed- 
eration and Inter-Church War Work, which was held in 
Chicago the last week in September, the prayer is being an- 
swered. This notable gathering began as a conference of 
executive secretaries of many city federations of churches, with 
the purpose of determining the most effective methods of 
church federation for community service. It culminated in 
crowded mass meetings to consider the war duties of the 
churches. 

"Unity — not around creeds but in deeds" is the aim of the 
inter-church federations. Civic action furnishes abundant op- 
portunity for such unity. From one city the report came 
that "pastors were impelled to think in community terms" by 
the challenge of the living conditions of their fellow-citizens. 
These conditions were set forth by the federation in under- 
taking to give a "redirection of missionary endeavor along 
scientific lines of community redemption." To this end such 



themes were considered as, "What kind of city have we?" 
"What kind of people?" "What is their work?" "Their play?" 
"What social influences affect them?" 

That the federation is not content with merely giving in- 
formation and inspiration was evidenced by the reports of its 
vigorous fight against vice in one city ; of its success in in- 
fluencing "the first large city to vote itself dry" (Roman 
Catholics, Protestants and Jews uniting in this campaign) ; 
of the room registry agency in a third city, being the effort of 
the united religious community organizations and the associ- 
ated charities to protect the rooming-house population of a 
large cosmopolitan center; of the varied activities for the sol- 
diers and sailors, which the federations either carry on or co- 
operate in carrying on in numerous cities near the camps ; and 
even of a church conference in Canada "entering politics," 
issuing a bulletin calling upon all of its members to vote for 
specified candidates who were supporting the war. 

The aim of the church federations, however, is not to mul- 
tiply social agencies, but to cooperate with existing organiza- 
tions in a coordinating way, uniting the church people behind 
all movements for public welfare- The federations know that 
in order to do this effectively the conscience of their member- 
ship must be rightly educated. "Begin young," "teach religion 



40 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



FINDINGS 

of the 

Conference of Interchurch Federation Secretaries and Officers 



rHE findings of the conference were reported under 
Publicity and Relations to Other Agencies. Becau 
under the headings Activities and Relations to Other Ag 
III. ACTIVITIES 

1. Comity. — War-time developments have produced important 
opportunities for combining and adjusting nearby churches, 
and all federations should be actively encouraging the use of 
these opportunities in the interest of comity and efficiency. 

No rule of comity can be standardized at present that •mill 
be applicable to all sections of the country. In some places 
it is feasible to establish an agreement requiring every demoni- 
nation before organizing new work, or relocating a churchy to 
report its intention through the federation, hereby giving 
others an opportunity to enter protests or suggestions. The 
only pressure that can be used effectively is the logic of the 
facts and public opinion. 

Prevention of overlapping can often be accomplished by 
arbitration. Diplomatic transmission of protests and replies 
has proved fully as effective. 

Adjustment of existing churches in overcrowded fields must 
be made by or with the full knowledge and approval of de- 
nominational authorities. These are being made in the fol- 
lowing ways: Exchange of fields, two or more denominations 
adjusting different places at the same time, some withdrawing 
from one and others from another; federated churches form- 
ing one congregation under one pastor, but each retaining 
identity and denominational connection; union churches with 
no denominational connection. 



4. Recreation. — // is of the first importance that the recreation 
policies of the federation shall always be made as constructive 
as possible. Action in regard to commercial amusements 
should include encouragement of those maintaining higher 
standards, as well as condemnation of others. Encouraging 
municipal playgrounds and other wholesome recreational op- 
portunities is an important part of federated work. 

In the matter of Sunday amusements, the programs of dif- 
ferent federations will necessarily depend on the practices 
and ideals of their several communities, in all cases, the prin- 
ciple being to encourage the substitution of the better for the 
worse. 

5. Industrial Relations. — The great industrial readjustment al- 
ready begun as a result of the war and certain to go very 
much farther, demands the closest attention and challenges 
the best efforts of our cooperating churches. 

Ordinarily it is not wise for federations to attempt to arbi- 
trate labor disputes, but it is frequently of great value for 
them to make and publish studies of local industrial condi- 
tions. The measuring of local industrial conditions by the 
standard of the social creed of the churches, will help the 
churches themselves to a better appreciation both of the con- 
ditions and of their own creed. 

6. Public Morals. — In the matter of public morals, the model 
for the community efforts of the churches is to be found 
in the prophets of the Bible. Like them it is our task faith- 
fully to uncover the evils in our communities, and condemn 



the five headings of Organization, Finances, Activities, 
se of their wide appeal to laymen, certain of the findings 
encies are here given: 

those responsible for them, even going so far as to do so 
publicly by name ; but it is not the duty of the religious or- 
ganizations as such to police the community and enforce its 
laws. There are some circumstances when it is necessary to 
undertake some such tasks, because the properly constituted 
authorities refuse or fail to perform their duties, but even 
in these cases, it is to be done only as a means of demon- 
strating this condition and securing a change whereby the 
duties of public officials will be faithfully performed. 

The fight with vice has now reached a stage at which no 
self-respecting community can afford longer to protect or per- 
mit the traffic in it. It is the duty of every federation to 
make war unremittingly on commercialized vice till it is sup- 
pressed by the use of the best scientific methods of con- 
structive treatment. Then through educational and moral 
agencies it should promote normal sex life. 

Similar should be the policy of the federation with regard 
to gambling and intemperance, where possible working 
through accredited existing agencies. 

V. RELATIONS TO OTHER AGENCIES 

In general, it should be the policy of an interchurch federa- 
tion to encourage and support an existing agency doing a 
worthy community work, rather than to duplicate it or to 
encourage the churches to do so. Particularly is this true 
of charity agencies such as the associated charities, and of 
agencies dealing with delinquency, such as a probation office 
or organization for the aid of fallen women. An excellent 
way of keeping in helpful touch with social agencies is by 
having their executive heads as members of an advisory board 
to the committee on social service. 

Where a ministers' union exists, a close cordial relationship 
is most desirable, but the federation is not to be in any way 
subject to or controlled by the ministerial union. 

An important task of a federation is the cultivation of a 
closer cooperation between the churches and the Y. M. C. A. 
and V. W. C. A 

There is no more important and pressing task than the 
christianizing of international relations. This is primarily the 
task of the churches, which alone can create the public senti- 
ment which will enable governments to act. Every federation 
should therefore cooperate with the World Alliance for this 
purpose. 

Nation-wide philanthropic appeals like the present call in 
behalf of martyred Armenia, should seek the aid of and 
should be aided by church federations in reaching the people 
of their communities. 



Charles R. Zahniser 
Edward T. Root 
W. S. Lockhart 
Arthur H. Armstrong 
F. L. Fagley 
Morton C. Pearson 



Committee. 



and ethics as naturally as arithmetic and geography are 
taught," "be no less efficient in method or scientific in cur- 
riculum than is the best public school," were among the edu- 
cational ideals set forth. 

Here again the experience of the leaders had shown that 
federation was needed not only in providing thorough training 
for the teachers of religious education, but also to furnish effi- 
cient daily instruction in religion to the pupils of the public 
schools. The Gary plan, permitting this latter type of train- 
ing, was enthusiastically commended by the leader of the fed- 
erated religious day schools of that city, though he admitted 
that before their efforts were federated the results were dis- 
appointing. But now children by the hundreds were volun- 
tarily adding the courses in ethics and religion to their usual 
curriculum. 



If, after hearing many "reports from experience" of the 
kind set forth above, one still had any doubt as to the efficacy 
for community improvement of these united religious forces, 
the evidence given by a very live lay leader of the social 
service committee of a federation of churches in a large city 
was effective in removing such uncertainty. "Large vision and 
an adequate program of big tasks to command the respect of 
the laity" was this speaker's prescription for securing lay 
leadership in social work. It had evidently been followed by 
the federation, which he served as the testimony of a quick- 
ened community conscience proved by action. 

Nor is community service the only purpose for which the 
churches are asked to act unitedly. The leaders of the Na- 
tional Commission on Inter-Church Federation see the su- 
preme obligation of the church today as being to "Christian- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1918 



41 



ize international relations." Hence, uniting with the Chicago 
Inter-Church War Work Committee and the National Com- 
mittee on the Churches and the Moral Aims of the War, the 
Federation Commission gave the latter half of their four-day 
session to questions of an international character. But here 
again the churches' impotency, due to sectarian divisions, came 
to the fore. Indeed, it was deeply lamented that this lack of 
unity among the churches had rendered them unable to pre- 
vent the war. No disposition to excuse this great fault of 
Christian bodies was in evidence, though it was pointed out 
that the country's great railroads had presented similar rival- 
ries and unjustifiable lack of unity until the government ruled 
otherwise. 

Facing squarely the problem of speaking with authority to 
the nations, the conference speakers urged church unity in 
action through federation as the first step in securing such- 
power. 

A second condition to be fulfilled before the churches can 
hope to become a great force in international politics is the 
dissemination of knowledge concerning the moral aims of the 
war. For this purpose a thorough study of the war messages 
and speeches of President Wilson and of the English Labour 
Party's program was urged upon ministers and laymen. 

The conviction so passionately set forth by the speakers 
from Great Britain, the Rt. Rev. Charles Gore, Bishop of 
Oxford, and the Rev. Arthur T. Guttery, of Liverpool, that 
we must never let such a war happen again is, of course, 



echoed in the hearts of all- But before this can become more 
than a hope, further international obligations must be met 
by the churches. The necessity of carrying on the war in a 
"spirit that will make the war worth winning" seemed to be 
keenly felt, not only by Bishop Gore, but also by the chief 
spokesmen for the American church organizations cooperating 
in the meetings. It surprised some to note how they saw a 
real danger that there might occur "the greatest of all trage- 
dies — that we win the war but be conquered by the spirit 
which we fight" — enthusiasm for war's glamour and a desire 
to exterminate. 

Finally, the churches, now while the fighting for peace is 
going on, should be studying the principles underlying world 
security against war and so be prepared to "demand of states- 
men that these principles be put into effect at the peace-table 
and in reconstruction." The statement by one who ought to 
know whereof he spoke — Dr. Lynch, editor of Christian 
Work — that both President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George 
were afraid the war would "end with the people unprepared 
with any program of peace, and that, therefore, peace would 
be made on the old basis of territorial readjustments and the 
whole revolting thing would have to be done over again" — 
this statement could leave none complacent. It could only re- 
double the conviction that "the establishment of a league of 
nations — a super-nation"- — with sufficient vitality to make its 
will effective, is not merely an ideal but is the only way out 
that the statesmen can find, and it is the "church's sacred duty." 



The 



Passing of the Women's Night 
Court in New York City 



By Alice D. Menken 

SOCIAL WORKER IN THE CITY MAGISTRATES* COURTS, NEW YORK CITY 



A RECENT amendment to the Inferior Criminal 
Courts Law of New York modifies the require- 
ment that a night session of the city magistrates' 
> courts should be held for the special consideration 
of women who are arrested for petty crimes. The amend- 
ment vests in the board of magistrates power to determine, 
in their discretion, whether these special sessions shall be held 
wholly or partly in the day or night. The board has unani- 
mously decided that, as soon as .arrangements can be made, 
the sessions of this "women's court" should be held in the 
day-time instead of at night, as has been the custom since the 
court was established in 1910. 

The court was originally organized for three distinct pur- 
poses : 

1. To force the discontinuance of the practice of 
bailing women by professional bondsmen, who frequented 
the various station houses for that purpose. This prac- 
tice was believed to be ?. species of graft. 

2. To prevent the mixing of women, many of whom 
were not old offenders, with men and hardened offend- 
ers. 

3. To provide for a speedy hearing, before a magis- 
trate, of all women who might be taken into custody. 
The bail bond scandal has been removed and the separa- 
tion of the offenders of different sexes has been found to be 
as advantageous as was anticipated. Changes of conditions 
have removed the necessity for a speedy hearing of the cases 



of women, the records showing that over 75 per cent of the 
women arrested are now detained over night because they 
request an adjournment of their trial, while over 35 per 
cent of the prostitutes arrested are apprehended after 1 A. m. 
and are detained until the next day. 

The change of sessions from night to day has various 
advantages : 

1. Certain magistrates particularly qualified to pre- 
side in this "women's court" will accept an assignment 
to it if day sessions are held. 

2. Many of the curious and morbid sightseers who 
are always found in a night audience may not find it 
convenient to attend in the day time. 

3. Holding of day sessions will release the plain 
clothes police officers, who are witnesses in the cases, for 
work in the evening hours, when violations are most 
likely to occur. 

4. Intoxicated women if immediately tried are too 
muddled to understand the proceedings. If held over 
night, they are then sober and able to make clear state- 
ments. 

In order to prevent the detention in special cases of women 
arrested before 1 A. M. provision is made in the new law 
that they shall be informed of their rights for an immediate 
hearing if demanded. 

The night sessions of the "women's court" have been a 
factor in the social rehabilitation of unfortunate women. 



42 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



Many revolting conditions that admitted of exploitation by 
individuals and agencies have been revealed and eliminated 
by the processes and forces of municipal and private organiza- 
tions directed to the lessening of vice. Frequently, notorious 
gangsters and procurers have been arrested while sitting as 
spectators in the court. 

Young girls have admitted that the fear of being arraigned 
a second time in the "women's court" has been a deterrent 
factor against a further offense. 

The court has proved the value of the finger print system 
and has centralized the work of keeping statistical records. 

It has forcefully illustrated the fact that the probation sys- 
tem, wisely administered, is an important feature of the law 
dealing with a certain class of women offenders. 



Finally, it has aroused the community conscience to a study 
of the causes and the preventive and remedial measures of 
delinquency. Social and educational welfare work has de- 
veloped in factories and shops for the working girl, boarding 
homes and shelters for girls have been provided, and city 
departments are caring for the employment, health and cus- 
todial treatment of charges. The social worker as an adjunct 
to the court, in scientific study as well as in a missionary 
spirit, has learned to regard each woman offender of all 
nationalities and creeds, whether shoplifter, vagrant, drug 
addict or prostitute, as an individual whose condition, caused 
from physical, mental or moral degeneracy, is deserving 
of the firm hand and the outstretched arm of personal serv- 
ice. 



Social Work and the First Step in Science 

By F. Stuart Chapin 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY, SMITH COLLEGE, NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 



IN a suggestive article in the Survey of June 8, Prof. 
Charles A. Ellwood contends that social work has 
attained the scientific stage. I should like to indicate a 
little more specifically the degree to which social work 
may be called scientific. 

Whether its subject-matter be ions, elephants, revolving 
planets or human beings, the method of science is always the 
same. It consists of three consecutive steps: first, the collec- 
tion and recording of facts of observation ; second, the classi- 
fication of these facts into series of sequences; third, the in- 
terpretation of this data, or the discovery of some short 
formula or law which explains the sequence of facts. 

By means of this simple formula astronomy has long since 
passed from the theological and metaphysical stages. Count- 
less observations of the positions of planets were made, these 
observations were duly classified to show the successive posi- 
tions occupied by a planet during its course and, finally, 
Keppler discovered that these facts were explicable if it was 
assumed that each planet moves round the sun in an ellipse. 
In this way the process was completed with the discovery of 
a scientific law of universal validity. 

By these tests, is social work scientific? Bear in mind that 
to satisfy the full test of science social work must have car- 
ried through to completion the entire process from the col- 
lection and classification 0/ the material to the discovery of 
some formula or law of universal applicability. 

Considering one step at a time, it will be quite generally 
recognized that social workers have made a distinctive con- 
tribution to the method of collecting and recording social 
facts of observation in the way they have developed the tech- 
nique of "social case work." Progress in this first step in 
science has gone so far as to establish certain fundamental prin- 
ciples of observation and use of sources, as Miss Richmond's 
Social Diagnosis convincingly demonstrates. But social 
workers and practical sociologists have made another contri- 
bution to the method of observing social facts in the discovery 
of a field worker's technique of selecting representative sam- 
ples. This is well exemplified in two budget studies: Miss 
Byington's study of Homestead, and Prof. Robert C. Chapin's 
study of The Standard of Living of Workingmen's Families in 
New York City. In the Homestead study Miss Byington 
found that income and expenditure were affected by such 
facts as nationality, rate of wages, skill or lack of skill in occu- 



pation, and so on, and her sample contained these elements in 
approximately the proportion that they existed in the whole 
community. The New York study was based on a group 
which represented in its composition the nationality, income 
and locality elements in about the proportion that they existed 
in the whole city. Prof. Arthur L. Bowley, of England, had 
anticipated this method of selecting representative samples in 
social investigations by the selection of random samples accord- 
ing to simple mathematical methods in conducting housing 
studies. Another group, the statisticians of the census, have 
developed to a high degree of efficiency the methods and tech- 
nique of complete enumeration of population. 

In these survey studies, as well as in the social and indus- 
trial investigations, social workers, practical sociologists and 
statisticians have contributed to the technique of the first step 
in science, that of making unbiased observations and record- 
ing them. Insofar as they have discovered principles and 
applied them in schedule making, they have preferred a device 
for standardizing observations of social phenomena. The 
schedule and questionnaire for budget, housing or wage studies 
is simply an arrangement for reducing to a minimum personal 
bias on the part of different observers (field workers) by means 
of systematized observation. In this respect the schedule and 
questionnaire are, in social science, the prototypes of the elab- 
orate telescope of astronomy or the refined instrument of the 
physicist or the chemist. 

But the modern scientist does more than passively observe 
natural phenomena; indeed he has tremendously improved his 
powers of observation by the discovery of the experimental 
method. The experimental method is the chief agency which 
has advanced physical science beyond the stages of the theo- 
logical and metaphysical. It consists in controlling all ele- 
ments in the situation save one, and allowing that to vary 
under observation. This method has been successfully applied 
in physics, chemistry, botany, zoology and even in psychology. 
Can it be used in applied sociology or social work? I have 
endeavored to answer this question in another article (The 
Experimental Method and Sociology, Scientific Monthly, 
February-March, 1917), where I have suggested that social 
legislation is really a modified form of the experimental method 
applied to social problems. Now it will be at once recog- 
nized that social workers and applied sociologists have con- 
tributed much to the science of social legislation. But here 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, igi K 8 



43 



their contributions have been practically confined to getting 
the law passed and enforced, rather than to the study of its 
effects. In other words, they have set up the apparatus and 
started the experiment going. Yet scientific method here im- 
plies careful observation of the results achieved by experiment 
— a thoughtful and impartial evaluation of influences and 
effects of social legislation. Have social workers or practical 
sociologists met this test? Have painstaking studies been made 
to determine the success of the experiment? 

Considering the second step in science, we may now ask, 
Have social workers contributed anything to the classification 
of material into series or sequences? To this step in scientific 
method of the study of society I fear that the social workers 
have contributed little. It is the statisticians who have made 
the chief contribution to this step, for they have developed the 
principles and practice of classification and tabulation of 
numerical data, developed also its graphic and mathematical 
interpretation. The International List of Causes of Sickness 
and Death, the Occupation Classification of the Population 
Division of the United States Census Bureau, and the Acci- 
dent Classification of the International Association of Indus- 
trial Accident Boards and the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
are examples of scientific classification. Social workers have 
done practically nothing towards classifying the data stowed 
away in case records, which supplies a mine of valuable in- 
formation. It is entirely possible that a careful study of this 
material would yield inductive generalizations of great sig- 
nificance and thus complete the third step of scientific method. 

Now what of the third step in science, the discovery of a 
short formula or law which explains the sequence of facts 
classified in order from the original mass of uncorrelated 
observations? To this step the social workers have failed 



thus far to contribute. Considering the newness of "social 
science," the need of careful observation of social facts on the 
one hand and, on the other, the dangers of drawing "glittering 
generalizations" from them, the social workers may be par- 
doned for confining their attention to perfecting the funda- 
mental principle of science (that of observation) without rais- 
ing their eyes to the possibilities of the successive steps and, 
sometimes even, of getting confused and lost in the details. 
Undoubtedly it has been the philosophical sociologists who 
have been prone to making hasty generalizations from insuffi- 
cient facts of observation, but in alleviation of this criticism 
it should be remembered that the academician, no matter how 
theoretical, never quite lost sight of the essential unity in 
the threefold division of the method of science, a synthesis of 
which many a social worker has been densely ignorant. 

May we not conclude, therefore, that social work has done 
yeoman's service in advancing the technique of observing 
social facts, but has as yet fallen short of making an equally 
weighty contribution to the second and third steps in science ; 
those of classifying the facts observed and of interpreting them 
by formulating their meaning in terms of universal human 
truths. 

If this interpretation of social work is valid, and if it is 
also true that philosophical sociologists have consistently kept 
in mind the threefold division of the method of science, in 
spite of their regrettable tendency to undervalue the first prin- 
ciple of observation, then it seems clear that social science may 
come into its own as soon as scientific workers in all fields 
acquire the practice of submitting large masses of veritable 
facts of observation to scientific classification and interpreta- 
tion with the object of formulating scientific laws. In short, the 
material and knowledge are at hand, nor are the workers few. 



HOME SERVICE 

The Result of a Year's Activities of Home Service Institutes 

Edited by fV. Frank Persons 



D1RECTOR-C.KXKRAL OF CIVILIAN RELIEF 



jA T the beginning of the war the Red Cross, through 
f^L its Department of Civilian Relief, undertook to 
A — ^ offer to the families of soldiers and sailors the 
-^- - » service and relief necessary to enable them to 
maintain normal standards of living in the absence of the man, 
to meet emergencies that might occur, and to secure the 
needed information about government activities in their be- 
half. 

If the Home Service sections were to live up to this promise 
it was evidently necessary that they should bring to the task 
that skill in establishing personal relationships and in render- 
ing service to others that only training and experience could 
provide ; and that this skill should be made available for the 
families of soldiers and sailors in every community, however 
small, and not simply for those who happened to live in the 
larger centers where social service was well organized. 

Obviously there were not enough adequately equipped social 
workers to provide such service even if they could have been 
spared from their regular tasks ; nor could the schools of 
social work train them in sufficient numbers in time to meet 
the need. For, because of the speed with which our army 



was recruited, the demands on the Home Service sections were 
present at once in all parts of the country and rose by leaps, 
and bounds. 

Early last fall, therefore, the Department of Civilian Relief 
inaugurated a simple system of preparing workers for this 
emergency, utilizing to the full the existing agencies for 
training. It established a series of Home Service institutes in 
the larger cities of the country, affiliated with schools of social 
work, colleges, or universities. A careful syllabus was pre- 
pared outlining the topics to be covered in the twenty-four 
hours of lecture work required. More than half of these 
periods are given to an intensive study of the methods of 
dealing intelligently and helpfully with the families of sol- 
diers and sailors; the remainder to a more general treatment 
of allied topics such as health, child welfare, racial problems, 
women and children in industiy. 

As Home Service work itself has become better established, 
more time is given to practical questions concerning the organ- 
ization of Home Service sections. Students are also drilled 
in the provisions of the war risk insurance law and the civil 
rights act, and in the application of these laws to individual 



44 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1 9 1 a 



family situations. In addition, each student does one hundred 
and fifty hours of field work, carrying out plans for the wel- 
fare of families under the direction of experienced workers 
in local social agencies. As not more than twenty-five students 
are accepted for any one institute, the director can keep class 
room discussions informal and give personal consideration to 
the problems of the individual students. 

The institutes are giving special attention to the needs of 
representatives coming from rural districts who will, on their 
return, face problems quite different from those of the big 
city. Sometimes these students do part of their field work 
in rural Home Service sections under the direction of the 
supervisor of field work of the institute. They discuss their 
local situation with field workers from the division office 
before they return home. Later these same division workers 
visit the students to help them adapt the principles they have 
learned to their home needs. 

Within the year sixty-four institute sessions have been held 
in twenty-six different cities, with a total attendance of 1,191. 
Just one thousand students have received the certificates given 
by national headquarters to those who have completed the 
full amount of field work, have done the required reading 
and passed a written examination. Of these, 260 were college 
graduates. 

It is obvious that a six weeks' course of this sort cannot 
provide first class training for social work. The institutes 
have, nevertheless, served to give some preparation to those 
who, because of the necessity of the situation, were being 
obliged to undertake this service anyway. One student 
writes, "It has been the most expanding experience of my 
life." It is, perhaps, indicative of the stimulating effect of 
even this brief course that the institute graduates themselves 
are now asking that some sort of advanced course be provided. 
It is when they have had to carry the responsibility for the 
work themselves that they have realized how much more they 
wished and needed to know. 

At the start these institutes were advertised widely by the 
division offices. Many of those who attended had no previous 
contact with their local Red Cross organization, though all 
were required to pledge themselves to give a certain amount 
of time to Home Service work after graduation. As Home 
Service has become better organized, however, the institutes 
are increasingly used for the training of people sent by the 
chapters themselves. 

In many divisions every single county has organized a Home 
Service section ; for instance, there are '689 Home Service 
sections in the southwestern division alone. Obviously the 
Home Service section in a county from which very few men 
have gone would find it unnecessary even if it were not 
impossible to secure a trained social worker as executive secre- 
tary. Yet this section is responsible for seeing that such 
families as do need counsel and material help shall receive it 
from skilled workers. The solution seemed to be to have 
such a section choose the local woman with the best personal 
qualifications for this task, some one of those thousands of 
people who are eagerly seeking an opportunity for war service, 
and to send her away to be trained. This plan has been 
adopted by an increasing number of chapters, many of which 
are paying the expenses of the representatives. (Only a regis- 
tration fee of $3 is charged, so that the cost to the student 
is for traveling and living expenses.) In order that the right 
person may be sent, the chapter officials are urged to make 
the choice in conference with the division director of civilian 
relief, or his representative. The student on her return gives 
paid or volunteer service according to her financial situation 
and the amount of work to be done. 



In the last institute in Atlanta, Georgia, twelve out of the 
twenty students were representatives of their local chapters ; in 
Denver, Colorado, twenty-one out of twenty-three ; in Dallas, 
Texas, twenty-four out of twenty-six; in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, twenty-two out of twenty-five. 

One division office reports that of seventy students who 
graduated from three sessions of one institute sixty-three are 
giving practically full time to Home Service work, thirty- 
five of them in their home towns. In one rural state nearly 
half the chapters now have w-orkers who have attended the 
institutes. 

These institutes are not of value solely as a means for 
meeting this war emergency. They are sending out a large 
group of women with a keen realization of social needs and 
opportunities. Vermont sent more students to the first insti- 
tute in Boston than it sent to the National Conference of 
Charities and Corrections when it was held in that city. 
The last Seattle institute had students from Aberdeen, Yakima, 
Vancouver, Tacoma, Sedro Wooley, Hoquiam, Port Angeles, 
Anacortes, Spokane, Olympia and Seattle, Washington; from 
Roxburg, Hayden Lake and Twin Falls, Idaho, and from 
Astoria, Oregon. These carefully chosen students are given 
an opportunity to learn something of what is being done in the 
larger cities for the improvement of social conditions; with 
this vision of possibilities they go back, many of them, desiring 
sincerely not only to serve the families of soldiers and sailors, 
but also to try to make their own towns better places for all 
the citizens to live in. 

The department has, nevertheless, realized clearly from the 
start that this was an emergency measure and not a sub- 
stitute for intensive training in social work. It has, however, 
been able through these emergency courses to give Home 
Service workers an opportunity to prepare themselves for 
their delicate task. That the plan has met with so great a 
measure of success is due to the fact that many of the best 
equipped social workers in the country have cooperated in 
carrying it out. The syllabus of lectures was prepared in 
the summer of 1917 by Porter R. Lee, director of the New 
York School of Philanthropy, and has been the basis of the 
course in every institute. Mr. Lee and Thomas J. Riley, 
of the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, have served throughout 
this year as national directors of institutes for Home Service, 
bringing to the task their special skill as educators as well 
as their interest in the welfare of families. They have asso- 
ciated with themselves as directors of institutes and supervisors 
of field work an exceptional group who have gladly given their 
services. While, therefore, these courses have of necessity 
been brief, they have been organized and directed by men 
with the highest standards of social training. That Home 
Service work in rural districts measures up to its present 
standards is in no small degree due to the enthusiasm and 
skill of Mr. Lee and Dr. Riley and their associates. 

[Since this article was written, the need of trained men and 
women in the Home Service work of the American Red Cross, 
and the great increase in the number of applicants for special 
instruction, has made it necessary to increase the staff of the 
director-general of civilian relief at national headquarters, for 
the direction of Home Service institutes and educational ac- 
tivities. J . F. Steiner, educator and sociologist, has been ap- 
pointed director of institutes and will have as his associate 
Margaret Byington. Mr. Steiner has been a missionary in 
Japan; he returned from the Orient several years ago, and 
has taught sociology in the University of Cincinnati and has 
engaged in social work in Chicago and Cincinnati. Miss By- 
ingtort has for several years been associate secretary of the 
American Association for Organizing Charity. — Editor.] 



'■;■: 




M } \'\ 



COa?920 




SPANISH INFLUENZA AND 
ITS CONTROL 

THE epidemic of Spanish influenza 
continues to be appalling, and com- 
munities and states continue to take their 
isolated measures to control it. Unfor- 
tunately, the actual severity of the epi- 
demic cannot be gauged, since this dis- 
ease has only lately been made reportable 
in a number of states. The figures avail- 
able are certainly bad enough: 100,000 
cases reported in Boston ; 20,000 cases in 
Philadelphia; over 8,000 cases already 
reported in New York city; 15 per cent 
of the population down with influenza 
in Oswego, N. Y. ; thousands of cases 
reported daily in Pennsylvania- In the 
eastern and southern parts of Connecti- 
cut influenza appears to be increasing 
about 2,000 cases having been reported 
in New London and vicinity on Septem- 
ber 23. According to the latest reports 
of the United States Public Health 
Service, complete data on the prevalence 
of the disease among civilians are impos- 
sible, but cases have been reported in 
California, Colorado, Louisiana, South 
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
Texas and many other states. 

The mortality from influenza and 
from its frequent complication or sequel, 
pneumonia, is considerable. Out of 
2,073 new cases reported on Sunday, 
October 6, 185 were cases of pneumonia ; 
142 deaths from influenza and pneu- 
monia were reported in one day in Man- 
hattan and Brooklyn boroughs in New- 
York city alone. 

The methods of control in cities and 
localities where the epidemic is raging 
vary greatly. In Philadelphia, courts 
were adjourned, the sale of liquor for- 
bidden, Liberty Loan meetings aban- 
doned, public assemblies jf all kinds 
stopped and theater performances and 
church services held no longer. In parts 
of New Jersey the public schools have 
been closed. Similar action has been 
taken in Omaha and other western 
states. In New York city a novel ex- 
periment by the Health Department has 
been to order industrial concerns in cer- 
tain sections of the city to close their 
plants at varying hours from 4 to 6 



p. m., so as to allow the working popu- 
lation to leave for their homes gradually 
without too much overcrowding. An 
order has also been issued to the thea- 
ters, dividing them into zones — those of 
one zone beginning and ending perfor- 
mances a half hour earlier than the 
others so as to avoid the letting out of 
all theaters at one time. Department 
stores have been ordered to close earlier 
and a strong educational propaganda has 
been begun to prevent overcrowding and 
to control the spread of the disease by 
attention to personal hygiene. The proj- 
ect of closing the schools, with their 
800,000 child population, is being seri- 
ously debated. 

In spite of the severity and extent of 
the epidemic, many health authorities 
are still quite optimistic that the disease 
will soon be controlled, and that no 
other means are needed than those un- 
dertaken by municipalities and states. 
Officials holding this opinion contend 
that the only factor making for the in- 
efficacy of these means is the shortage 
of physicians and nurses in many locali- 
ties. On the other hand, there are many 
public health administrators who claim 
that this is a time when it becomes 
obvious that peace, not less than war, 



''rh«e ! n the Xnr Ynrlt World 




1 j\iSXZa 



"Did ya get that for ycr birthday ? Gee I 
that's some hankachif." 

"Yeh, me mother made it fer me. It's 
good fer a hundred sneezes." 



needs its unified command, and that the 
difficulty of a local control of the spread 
and prevalence of the present epidemic 
distinctly shows the need of a central, 
unified, federal control of all disease 
prevention activities in the country. That 
this opinion is gaining ground is partly 
shown by the recent act of Congress, 
appropriating one million dollars for 
the control of influenza by the United 
States Public Health Service, and also 
by the very comprehensive and far-reach- 
ing war program of the public health 
service, intended especially for extra can- 
tonment areas and war industrial cen- 
ters, which has been recently announced 
by Surgeon-General Rupert Blue. 

PUTTING PLAYGROUNDS 
INTO POLITICS 

" T TERE I am, mayor of Philadel- 
J. A phia, and before I got it I never 
knew anything about the job." This, if 
the newspapers have quoted him cor- 
rectly, is Mayor Thomas E. Smith's 
way of summing up democracy in mu- 
nicipal government. 

Mayor Smith has been learning his 
job, however. He recently showed the 
effects of his instruction by the manner 
in which he forced the appointment of a 
supervisor of playgrounds. Being con- 
fronted by a Board of Recreation which 
would not vote for his candidate — but 
which had the bad grace to be vested 
with the legal responsibility of selecting 
the supervisor — the mayor simply re- 
moved enough members of the board, 
putting others in their places, to assure 
the appointment. The mere fact that he 
had to remove a majority did not deter 
him. He found men willing to do his 
bidding. 

But the story got out. The Play- 
grounds' Association, a private organiza- 
tion formed to foster and build up the 
city's recreational facilities, has contested 
the mayor's action vigorously. So much 
has been made of the issue that the 
newspapers have admitted it to the front 
page, along with the war. The climax 
of the fight has just been reached in the 
arrest of the mayor on a warrant sworn 
out by Otto T. Mallery, treasurer of 

45 



46 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



the association, charging misbehavior 
and misdemeanor in office. The mayor 
is now awaiting trial under $2,000 
bail. 

Edward R. Gudehus, the man whose 
appointment as supervisor of playgrounds 
the mayor secured, is a newspaper re- 
porter. He is described by Mr. Mallery 
as incompetent and unfit. For a time 
he was secretary to State Senator Edwin 
H. Vare, who shares with his brother, 
William S. Vare, the leadership of that 
wing of the Republican organization that 
is challenging the authority of Senator 
Penrose. 

"Gudehus," said Mayor Smith, ac- 
cording to one of the deposed members 
of the Board of Recreation, Ernest L. 
Tustin, a former state senator, "is one 
of the three newspaper men who treated 
me most fairly at a time when other 
newspaper men were treating me un- 
fairly. I have placed two of them and 
I have made up my mind to give this 
place to Gudehus." This was the rea- 
son the mayor wanted Gudehus as su- 
pervisor of playgrounds. In justification, 
he uttered the sentence quoted above 
about his own qualifications for office. 

It apparently meant nothing to Mayor 
Smith that the supervisor of playgrounds 
held power over the happiness and wel- 
fare of thousands of children. In the 
affidavit requesting the warrant for the 
mayor's arrest, Mr. Mallery stated that 
the position of supervisor required "prac- 
tical experience in connection with the 
work of recreation, playgrounds and 
physical education." The affidavit de- 
clared that on June 6, 1918, the Civil 
Service Commission advertised an exam- 
ination of candidates for this position, 
demanding as a qualification experience 
in recreational activities. Six days la- 
ter, the affidavit declared, the mayor 
compelled the secretary of the Civil Serv- 
ice Commission to withdraw the adver- 
tisement and to insert another omitting 
the experience qualification. Only one 
man was certified as having passed the 
examination. This was Mr. Gudehus, 
who received an average of seventy-one, 
seventy being the passing mark. Seven 
other experienced persons who took the 
examination were reported as having 
failed. A majority of the members of 
the Board of Recreation refused to vote 
for Mr. Gudehus, both because they did 
not regard him as competent and be- 
cause under the law they were entitled 
to have a list of four eligibles certified 
to them by the Civil Service Commis- 
sion. When they refused to resign their 
dismissal followed. 

Politicians doubt whether the action of 
Mr. Mallery will succeed in removing 
the mayor from office. They question 
the effect upon Mayor Smith of another 
indictment, for he is accustomed to them. 
He is at present awaiting trial on three 
other charges following the shooting of 
a policeman in an election fight a year 



ago by gunmen imported from New 
York city. 

Whether or not a conviction is ob- 
tained and the mayor thereby automat- 
ically ejected from public office, one im- 
portant result has probably been accom- 
plished already. No politician in Phila- 
delphia for many years to come is likely 
again to attempt to put the playgrounds 
into politics. The cost has been shown 
to be too great and the game not worth 
the candle. 

SOCIAL SERVICE TRAINING 
IN THE SOUTH 

SOCIAL service in the South was 
materially advanced by the activities 
of the Southern Summer School for Re- 
ligious and Social Workers, which was 
held in Robert E. Lee Hall, of the Blue 
Ridge Association, Blue Ridge, N. O, 
during the past summer. Special stress 
was put on the problems of race relations, 
the new industrial order in the South 
and conditions among the mountain peo- 
ple. A series of lectures was given cal- 
culated to help the churches get a better 
conception of socialized Christianity and 
to help the people of the South who want 
to do something that counts see the re- 
ligious value of social work. 

More than two hundred speakers ad- 
dressed those who attended Blue Ridge 
during the summer, and during the spe- 
cial summer school sessions of August 
formal daily programs were held, with 
such speakers as Rev. Harry F. Ward, 
formerly social service secretary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, who spoke 
on the social implications of the war; 
Alexander Johnson, field secretary of the 
National Committee for the Prevention 
of Feeblemindedness, who spoke on de- 
fectives and prison reform ; Joseph C. 
Logan, secretary of the Associated Chari- 
ties of Atlanta, Ga., who spoke on civil- 
ian relief and charity organization work ; 

Cartoon by Herbert Murray 




and Dr. S. C. Mitchell, president of 
Delaware University, who spoke on in- 
dustrial conditions in the South. 

At the same time Blue Ridge Asso- 
ciation has been conducting an intensive- 
training school for army Y. M. C. A. 
secretaries. One hundred and twenty- 
five men at a time are given four-week 
courses, which are said to rival in stren- 
uosity the officers' training schools of the 
National Army. Already over a thou- 
sand men, including every Y. M. C. A. 
man in the southeastern military division 
of the United States army, have received 
practical training in the school, and the 
activities will continue during the win- 
ter, for funds have been supplied for 
making over part of the Robert E. Lee 
Hall into winter quarters. 

W. D. Weatherford, of Nashville, 
Tenn., has secured a year's leave of ab- 
sence from his duties as international 
student secretary of the Y. M. C. A. to 
direct this secretarial training school. 
Among the other members of the teach- 
ing staff is J. L. Kesler, on a year's 
leave of absence from his position as dean 
of Babylon University, Waco, Tex. 

TO INVESTIGATE WAR 
CHARITIES 

IN spite of all the limelight on fraud- 
ulent collections for relief abroad 
and on bazars that yield considerable 
aid to those who run them but next to 
none to sufferers, and in spite of a great 
deal of public education on the how and 
why of organized war charity, there 
seems to have been little abatement so 
far in the number of confidence tricks 
being played upon persons of generous 
impulses. In the cheaper classes of eat- 
ing places you may still come across col- 
lection boxes for homes that are pros- 
pective and are intended to remain so by 
their promoters. In the streets you are 
still accosted by young and pretty girls 
who, for the fun of it or out of real 
kindness of heart, lend themselves to 
the collection of funds for which no pub- 
lic accounting is given or expected. And 
every now and then a chamber of com- 
merce or a charity organization society 
discovers some still more glaring attempt 
of imposture upon the gullible. 

No less deplorable, from the point of 
view of effective charity, are those per- 
fectly genuine war philanthropies entered 
upon by persons of little experience, with 
no responsible backing, and themselves 
continually endangered by the machina- 
tions of unscrupulous "friends." Meth- 
ods that are perfectly proper in Dublin 
and at The Hague, where social prestige 
counts for everything in successful chari- 
table endeavor and business organization 
for very little, have come to grief time 
and again when transplanted to the very 
different climate of the New World. 

Only last week the New York news- 
papers were busy taking up the case for 
and against a Dutch social worker who 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



47 



admits having collected $9,575 at an ex- 
penditure of $8,028. No receipts were 
issued to contributors, and the accounts 
were audited only after the collector's at- 
tention had been directed by the Charity 
Organization Society to the possibility of 
unpleasant curiosity concerning her do- 
ings by the district attorney. The integ- 
rity of the lady in question was never 
doubted. Hers is simply one more of 
the many cases where European promo- 
ters of war charity have turned, hard- 
pressed, to the land of the dollar, expect- 
ing to go home richly laden after a short 
sojourn during which it would only be 
necessary to see a few of the "right peo- 
ple" and secure their patronage. 

A new organization for the special 
purpose of aiding prospective givers in 
finding out the real standing and needs 
of foreign war charities has just been 
started with an office in the Metropoli- 
tan Tower in New York city. It is 
called the National Investigation Bu- 
reau and was founded by the war-chest 
associations of Cleveland, Syracuse, In- 
dianapolis, Columbus, Detroit, Roches- 
ter, Philadelphia and Toledo, for the 
thorough investigation of war charities 
and related activities which appeal to war 
chests and to individuals for support. 
The bureau will issue to its members de- 
tailed reports on war organizations — 
other than those officially approved by 
the government of the United States — 
covering every point of administration, 
financial accounting, methods of raising 
money, efficiency of work, degree of du- 
plication, etc. Investigators will be sent 
abroad in the immediate future. 

Samuel Mather, chairman of the 
Cleveland War Council, is president of 
the organization, Gustavus D. Pope, of 
the Detroit Patriotic Fund, and Frank 
E. Wade, president of the Syracuse War 
Chest Association, are vice-presidents, 
and Paul L. Feiss, of Cleveland, is sec- 
retary and treasurer. Barry C. Smith, 
for several years secretary of the Bureau 
of Advice and Information of the New 
York Charity Organization Society, has 
been appointed director, and the work of 
that bureau has been taken over. The 
purposes of the new organization are ex- 
plained as follows : 

The thorough investigation of charitable 
activities growing out of the war has long 
been needed. The enormous number of such 
organizations appealing for public support 
has confused the public and made it ex- 
tremely difficult for individuals or custodians 
of community funds, such as .var chests, to 
determine what organizations are doing 
efficient and necessary work, and doing it 
well, and should, therefore, be supported. 

The situation has been complicated by the 
fact that most of the actual work has been 
done abroad, and little information has been 
obtainable concerning the administration and 
financial management of the foreign work. 
The executive committee of the National In- 
vestigation Bureau has laid down definite 
requirements for approval which will, it is 
believed, meet with general public endorse- 
ment. . . . 



Efficiency in War Charity 

War charity organizations are 
expected to meet the following 
requirements in order to secure the 
approval of the new National In- 
vestigation Bureau: 

/. Active board of directors (both 
American and foreign for foreign or- 
ganizations) of at least five unpaid 
responsible people holding meetings 
at least quarterly. 

2. A necessary purpose with no un- 
necessary duplication of the work of 
another efficiently managed organisa- 
tion. To be determined after investi- 
gation by the bureau. 

3. Reasonable efficiency in conduct 
of work, management of institutions, 
etc., and reasonable adequacy of equip- 
ment for such zvork, both material 
and personal. To be determined after 
investigation by the bureau. 

4. No solicitors on commission or 
other commission methods of raising 
money. No street soliciting or selling 
of buttons, tags, etc., except during 
"drives." 

5. Non use of the "remit or return" 
method of raising money. 

6. No entertainments the expenses 
of 'which exceed 30 per cent of the 
gross proceeds. 

7. Complete audited accounts 
(American and foreign) prepared by 
a certified accountant (or the for- 
eign equivalent) showing receipts and 
disbursements classified and itemized 
in detail for a six- or twelve-month 
period. New organizations which can- 
not furnish such statement must sub- 
mit a certified public accountant's 
statement that such a financial system 
has been established as will make the 
required financial accounting possible 
at close of prescribed period. 

8. Itemized and classified budget 
estimate for succeeding or current 
six- or twelve-month period. 



The bureau does not propose, however, to 
act solely as a critic. It hopes to be of serv- 
ice to such organizations as are doing nec- 
essary work in helping them to improve their 
method of work, administration, accounting, 
etc., so as to increase public confidence in 
them. 

Some definite requirements which war 
organizations soliciting funds will be ex- 
pected to meet in order to secure a fa- 
vorable report from the bureau have al- 
ready been adopted and are given in the 
panel above. 

From Washington comes the news that 
Senator Henry F. Ashurst, of Arizona, 
has introduced a bill, said to have the 
endorsement of the administration, for 
the control of all war charities by the 
federal Department of Justice. Com- 
plete financial statements, under this bill, 
are to be submitted monthly and sworn 
to, as well as information about the per- 
sons making up the organizations, those 
on the payroll and the names of contrib- 
utors. The Department of Justice is 
empowered to suspend the activity of 
any war charity after a hearing. 



It may be doubted whether a bill on 
lines such as these will be sufficient to 
protect the public against gross ineffi- 
ciency in the administration of funds. 
The Department of Justice is obviously 
not in a position to make searching in- 
quiries into the actual dispensation of the 
money, which is for the most part done 
abroad ; it would be likely, therefore, to 
limit its attention to a more or less cur- 
sory examination of statements of ac- 
counts. The passage of the bill would 
not, therefore, meet the specific and 
pressing need for which the National In- 
vestigation Bureau has been formed. It 
might, however, protect the public 
against the grossest forms of imposition. 

NEW MINIMUM WAGE IN 
WASHINGTON 

AS the result of the recommendation 
of the War Emergency Conference, 
called by the Industrial Welfare Com- 
mission of the state of Washington, a 
new minimum wage of $13.20 a week 
has been adopted by that commission to 
become effective November 10. On the 
same day a beginning rate of $9 a week 
will go into effect for minors and ap- 
prentices, on the basis of forty-eight 
hours a week. This rate is to be in- 
creased up to $12 a week, the advances 
coming at intervals varying from one to 
three months, according to the industry. 
Other recommendations of the confer- 
ence which have been adopted by the 
commission include the exclusion of 
women from all occupations "which are 
injurious to their health, their morals, or 
womanhood, or which are unavoidably 
disfiguring," and those "for which men 
in general are better fitted by tempera- 
ment, training, or custom, and for which 
men are available"; a provision that "no 
person, firm, association, or corporation 
shall employ any female over eighteen 
years on a shift over six hours without 
a rest period of fifteen minutes" ; and an 
affirmation in the form of an order of 
the principle of equal pay for equal 
work. 

RECONSTRUCTION BEFORE 
CONGRESS 

TWO proposals for committees on 
reconstruction have come before 
Congress. Both are limited in scope to 
investigation and report. Senator John 
W- Weeks, of Massachusetts, intro- 
duced on September 27 a resolution au- 
thorizing the selection of a joint con- 
gressional committee to inquire into re- 
construction problems and recommend 
legislation. The make-up of the com- 
mittee and the questions suggested for 
its investigation are shown on the next 
page. Senator Weeks admitted that his 
list of questions was probably not 
complete, and that it might be nec- 
essary later on to introduce additional 
resolutions covering particular sub- 
jects. Forestalling the objection that 



48 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1 1 8 



Two Proposals for National Reconstruction Committees 



THE WEEKS RESOLUTION 
Authority: 

A joint congressional committee of six senators and six representatives, 
three members each to be appointed by the Republican and Democratic 
party caucus in each House. 

Pozver: 

To make an investigation and report to Congress from time to time with 
recommendations as to additional legislation "or otherwise." 

Scope of Inquiries: 

1. Problems affecting labor, including: 

(a) Unemployment which may follow war 

(b) Utilization of discharged soldiers and sailors in civil employments. 

(c) Conciliation and arbitration of labor disputes. 

(d) The relation of men and women in similar employments. 

(e) Substitution of female employes for male, and vice versa. 

(f ) Feasibility of organizing permanent employment agencies. 

(g) Requirements for labor after the war, both in agricultural and industrial 
occupations. 

(h) Distribution of labor. 

(i) Employment of surplus labor on public works that may be constructed or 
completed. 

2. Problems affecting capital and credit, including: 

(a) All matters relating to trusts and combinations. 

(b) Federal loans to private enterprises 

(c) Federal supervision of capital issues. 

3. Problems affecting public utilities, including: 

(a) The establishment of a railroad policy after the war, and the relation of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to the railroads. 

(b) All questions relating to communication by wire. 

4. Problems resulting from the demobilization of our industrial and military war re- 
sources, including: 

(a) The disposal of surplus government properties and supplies in this country 
and abroad. 

(b) The conversion of munition industries into those of peace. 

(c) The demobilization of the war strength of the army and navy, and the dis- 
position of the men who have been in the service. 

(d) The demobilization of civilian war workers. 

5. Problems affecting our foreign trade, including : 

(a) The development of new markets. 

(b) Combinations for the purpose of increasing our selling facilities. 

(c) Changes in our banking facilities necessary to cooperate with each trade. 

6. Problems affecting the continuance of existing industries and the establishment of 
new industries, including: 

(a) The supply and control of raw materials. 

(b) The encouragement of the production in the United States of articles that 
have not been made in this country heretofore. 

(c) The encouragement of private enterprises in the development of the resources 
of the public domain. 

(d) The utilization of a tariff on imports as a means to protect and encourage 
home industries. 

7. Problems relating to agriculture, including. 

(a) Price fixing of food products. 

(b) Federal loans to farmers. 

(c) Distribution of food products. 

(d) Federal aid to sections of the country suffering from floods or extremes 
of weather. 

(e) The allotment of lands to returned soldiers and sailors, and their establish- 
ment in new homes on the public domain. 

8. Problems affecting the adequate production and effective distribution of coal, gaso- 
line and other fuels. 

9. Problems relating to shipping, including shipyards, and especially in regard to the 
sale, continuance of ownership, or leasing of both yards and ships. 

10. Housing conditions and the disposition of houses constructed by the government 
during the war. 

11. War legislation now on the statute books, with reference to its repeal, extension or 
amendment. 

12. And in general all matters necessarily arising during the change from the activities 
of war to the pursuits of peace, including those that may be referred to it by the 
Senate or House of Representatives. 



THE OVERMAN BILL 

Authority : 

A commission of five to be ap- 
pointed by the President by and 
with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, not more than three 
of the members to be of the 
same political party. 

Power: 

To make investigations and re- 
port to Congress from time to 
time with recommendations for 
new and additional legislation. 

Scope of Inquiries: 

(a) The financing, regulation, control 
and development of the merchant 
marine. 

(b) The development, financing, ex- 
pansion and direction of foreign 
trade. 

(c) The reorganization, financing and 
readjustment of industries engaged 
in war work by way of reconvert- 
ing them to normal production. 

(d) Technical education and industrial 
research as a means of developing 
and strengthening industry. 

(e) The redistribution and employment 
of labor in agricultural and indus- 
trial pursuits and the problems of 
labor growing out of demobiliza- 
tion. 

(f) The supply, distribution and avail- 
ability of raw materials and food- 
stuffs. 

(g) The conservation and development 
of national resources. 

(h) Inland transportation by rail and 
water. 

(i) Communication by telephone, tele- 
graph and wireless. 

(j) The reorganization of government 
departments, bureaus, commissions, 
or offices with a view of putting 
the government on an economic 
and efficient peace basis. 

(k) The consolidation of such acts and 
parts of acts of Congress as relate 
to the same subject matter but 
which now appear at various 
places in the statutes. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12 



1 9 1 



49 



members of Congress may not have the 
knowledge and do not have the time to 
study all the questions in his list, he pro- 
poses that the committee shall have 
power to appoint sub-committees of ex- 
perts to help it. • 

Senator Overman, of North Carolina, 
offered on October 3 a bill authorizing 
the President to appoint a federal com- 
mission on reconstruction. The pro- 
posed form of organization and the pro- 
posed subjects for inquiry are also given 
in the panel. Senator Overman's list 
is both less explicit and less comprehen- 
sive than Senator Weeks's. Only one 
section in it deals directly with labor 
conditions; questions concerning land 
settlement may or may not be included 
under "the conservation and develop- 
ment of national resources," and housing 
is not mentioned at all. 

On the surface, it may appear that 
the two measures might well be adopted 
simultaneously. The one makes the best 
talent in Congress available for a study 
of after-war problems and is devoted 
more particularly to the drafting of a 
legislative program ; the other provides 
that the necessary administrative ma- 
chinery for a smooth change from a 
war to a peace footing shall be thought 
out in advance. Yet such a division of 
function is not contemplated nor is it 
likely to be effective, according to the 
general impression in Washington. 
There the feeling is that the two bills 
give the signal for the beginning of one 
of the fiercest conflicts in our history — 
the contest between those who see in 
the reconstruction period the greatest 
opportunity for social advance, and those 
who see in it only an unsettled time to 
be exploited for personal gain. And this 
is further complicated by partisan poli- 
tics. 

Senator Overman, in introducing his 
bill, said that a purely legislative ap- 
proach to reconstruction problems was 
obviously incomplete and made it appear 
that his proposal was offered for the 
purpose of supplementing rather than 
rivaling the other. The comment upon 
the two measures in the Senate, how- 
ever, makes it clear that they will not 
be accepted in that spirit, unless a com- 
promise of some sort is reached among 
their respective sponsors. Republicans 
in both houses are strong in support of 
the Weeks resolution ; and it only re- 
mains to be seen whether they can attract 
to their side — by the pronr'se of equal 
representation of both parties — a suffi- 
cient number of Democrats to spoil the 
chances of the Overman measure, which 
is said to have the general approval of 
the administration, though it is not of- 
fered on behalf of the executive. 

This political conflict has apparently 
headed off any discussion of specific sub- 
jects which one side or the other pro- 
poses to submit to investigation. Within 
the penumbra of the program there lurk 



the tariff, the disposition of government 
property (acquired or constructed dur- 
ing the war for war purposes), the ad- 
justment between the government and 
public utilities, the encouragement of 
specific profit-making enterprises by gov- 
ernmental aid, the control of prices, sup- 
plies and labor. The human elements 
involved have not, so far, been touched 
upon in the speeches made. Even in 
speaking of housing after the war and of 
demobilization, congressmen seem more 
concerned with the commercial than 
with the social issue involved — a situa- 
tion in striking contrast to that among 
our Allies. With them, a new national 
purpose has broken through the old op- 
position of social groups and is making 
itself felt in reconstruction measures 
that are both imaginative and have been 
thought through in many practical de- 
tails — measures which may prove insuf- 
ficient to meet the coming storm in all 
its severity — but at least may be expected 
to provide a bulwark that will break the 
force of that storm. 

Further, it is argued that in view of 
the imminent defeat of the enemy, it is 
altogether too late to start a purely in- 
vestigative official organization on re- 
construction ; whatever body is estab- 
lished must be empowered to set a host 
of expert officials at actual work upon 
the most pressing needs. Among these 
are machinery for taking care of the 
labor surplus that must be expected, the 
laying out of farms suitable for settle- 
ment by discharged soldiers and others, 
the creation of a system of credits for 
small farmers, the administration of the 
government's industrial and housing 
plants, the management of a thousand 
and one concerns that have been taken 
over by the government for war pur- 
poses and that simply cannot be disposed 
of by sale as soon as the market for 
war supplies has passed. 

Mr. Weeks, in introducing his reso- 
lution, did not refer at all to the possi- 
bility of the administration itself pre- 
paring a post-war program or to the 
possibility that some of the departments 
of the government may already be at 
work on such a program. Yet it has been 
argued that the only practicable recon- 
struction committee at the present mo- 
ment is the cabinet, aided by as many 
permanent officers of departments and 
dollar-a-year aides as are likely to be of 
immediate use in carrying out the plans 
of the cabinet, and as can be spared from 
their present war activities. The Over- 
man act has empowered the President to 
rearrange departments and bureaus ; 
that power might now be applied to the 
creation of a new nucleus of machinery 
for reconstruction by the synthesis of 
governmental units already in existence 
and in touch with the material that 
must be worked upon. After all, the 
argument runs, it is not the outside ex- 
pert, however appointed, or the legisla- 



tor, however close to his constituents, 
who can best help out in this emergency 
— for the reconstruction task, owing to 
the neglect hitherto, has become an 
emergent one — but the man who has his 
hands on the levers of actual govern- 
mental operations ; if his plans necessi- 
tate legislation, there is plenty of oppor- 
tunity for Congress to adapt the meas- 
ures submitted to the will of the people. 

INSURANCE FOR MUNITION 
WORKERS 

THE risk and dangers to which 
workers are exposed in munition 
factories under government control and 
the latest catastrophe in the shell-loading 
plant at Perth Amboy, N. J., [See page 
35], have caused the New York Times 
to become a convert to social insurance 
for workers. In its editorial of October 
8 the Times urges that Congress take up 
at once the question of insurance of 
workers in munition factories. "The 
government," says the editorial, "insures 
the soldiers who go to France, and the 
workers in munition factories are told 
again and again by officers of the allied 
armies who inspect the plants that service 
at the front may be no more dangerous. 
Munition workers, women among them, 
are always in the shadow of death at 
their tasks." The editorial continues: 

Who will insure these munition workers 
if the government fails to do it? Certainly 
no company engaged in writing policies. 
There have been too many explosions in dif- 
ferent parts of the country to warrant the 
insuring of the individual workers as a busi- 
ness undertaking. There is an aspect of the 
matter that should not pass unnoticed: the 
government, in order to obtain labor, uses 
the argument that it is an act of patriotism 
to work in these plants. The workers are 
told impressively that it is just as important 
to manufacture shells as to fire them on the 
battlefield. If the service is as great in the 
former case and the hazard often greater,, 
why should the government not provide a. 
system of insurance for the workers in muni- 
tion factories? Whatever the danger to be 
encountered, the shells must be made and 
loaded, and there will never be a dearth of 
men to fill the munition factories. Neces- 
sarily, high wages are paid, but can the gov- 
ernment when it settles for funeral expenses 
dismiss the question of relief for the dead 
man's family? 

CHILDREN AND WAR 
INDUSTRY 

IN a recent statement Felix Frank-, 
furter, chairman of the War Labor 
Policies Board, declared that recurrent 
suggestions have been heard that child 
labor should be utilized in war industry^ 
He therefore reiterated the board's 
policy toward such employment, as fol- 
lows : 

1. No child under fourteen years of age 
shall be employed on war work. 

2. No child between fourteen and sixteen 
years of age shall be employed more than 
eight hours a day, nor before 6 a. M., nor- 
after 7 P. M., nor more than six days a week 
on war materials. 

The prohibition of the employment of 
children below certain ages does not mean. 



50 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



that the employment of children above those 
ages is favored. To recruit children of 
fourteen or sixteen years of age for industry 
is ignoring their future value as trained 
workers. Neither the patriotic desire to serve 
immediately, nor the attraction of high wages 
should draw children from school to work. 

Children above the minimum ages of per- 
mitted employment must still be considered 
as potential citizens, and not merely as pres- 
ent producers. The sacrifice involved in the 
premature labor of children is not yet neces- 
sary. The curtailment of nonessential indus- 
try, and the employment of men and women 
not now productively engaged, will undoubt- 
edly prove sufficient to care for the require- 
ments of the conduct of the war. 

In order to satisfy the claims of the future, 
the maintenance of present educational and 
child-labor standards is indispensable. The 
formative years of youth should be safe- 
guarded by purposeful training of developed 
usefulness in the nation. The time is not yet 
in sight when the defense of the nation must 
be assumed by children. The men and women 
of America are competent to the task. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE TO 
STUDY SCHOOLS 

THE National Conference of Social 
Work has, by action of its execu- 
tive committee, authorized the appoint- 
ment of a joint committee with the Na- 
tional Education Association to make 
"an authoritative study and formulation 
of the philosophy and interrelations of 
social work and the school." This task 
will fall to the lot of the conference Di- 
vision on Children, of which Henry W. 
Thurston, of the faculty of the New 
York School of Philanthropy, is chair : 
man. The National Education Associ- 
ation is the largest and most authorita- 
tive body of public school teachers in the 
country. 

The week of the 1919 session of the 
national conference, to be held at At- 
lantic City, has been set for June 1-8. 
This represents a change from the cus- 
tomary Wednesday-to-Wednesday week 
to a Sunday-to-Sunday week. Consid- 
erable interest was manifested among 
members at the Kansas City meeting in 
trying the plan next year, and it is being 
tried with the understanding that it is 
an experiment. 

The Atlantic City meeting is to pre- 
cede immediately that of the American 
Medical Association, and there will 
doubtless be greater emphasis upon joint 
relationships with organized medical 
social work than heretofore. This may 
be considered timely in view of the im- 
portant role that medicine plays in the 
problems of reconstruction. 

Hereafter, by action of the executive 
committee, new members may join the 
conferense at any period of the year with 
the understanding that their membership 
payment is to cover twelve months in 
advance. Heretofore the membership 
year has corresponded with the calendar. 
This action, it is felt, will facilitate the 
campaign that is now on to double the 
membership of the conference this fall. 

Julia C. Lathrop, president of the 
conference, has announced the business 



committees for the 1919 meeting. The 
nomination committee is composed of: 
George B. Mangold, director, St. Louis 
School of Social Economy, 2221 Locust 
street, St. Louis, chairman ; Harriet An- 
derson, Louisville; Boris D. Bogen, Cin- 
cinnati ; Jeffery R. Brackett, Boston ; 
Charles L. Chute, Albany, N. Y. ; Karl 
DeSchweinitz, Philadelphia; J. Howard 
T. Falk, Montreal ; Jessica B. Peixotto, 
Berkeley, Cal. ; Adelaide M. Walsh, 
Chicago. 



The program committee is composed 
of Julia C. Lathrop, Washington, chair- 
man ; John Daniels, Mary E. Richmond, 
New York; Robert A. Woods, Boston, 
William T. Cross, Chicago, 
o The resolutions committee is com- 
posed of: E. Frances O'Neill, general 
secretary, Society for Organizing Char- 
ity, 109 Washington street, Providence, 
R. I., chairman ; A. W. Abbott, Orange, 
N. J. ; and Julius Goldman, New Or- 
leans. 





Book Reviews 





The Second Line of Defense 

By Margaret Slattery. Fleming H. Revell 

Company. 189 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of 

the Survey $1.10. 

At a time when men and women are cen- 
tering their thoughts and hopes on further- 
ing the efforts of the first line of defense, and 
when many are feeling that their service 
must be directly and adequately for those in 
the first line, it is peculiarly fitting that elo- 
quent reminder should be uttered of the need 
for service at home to strengthen, equip, and 
train the childhood and youth of the na- 
tion, who, Miss Slattery points out, constitute 
the "second line of defense." 

Her message is not new, but it is decid- 
edly apropos. She appeals to business men 
to resist the temptation to exploit young peo- 
ple; to parents to make the home what it 
should be and to take an interest in the 
whereabouts and occupations of their boys 
and girls; to teachers to carry on in their 
work and to inculcate, especially among the 
children of the foreign born, ideals of lib- 
erty and democracy; and to churchmen to 
make the church a greater force in the build- 
ing of character. She is specific in her state- 
ments and illustrates by the use of concrete 
personal experiences many of them. 

Mary Shupp. 

The Psychology of Marriage 

By Walter M. Gallichan. Frederick A. 

Stokes Co. 300 pp. Price $1.50; by mail 

of the Survey $1.62. 
Married Love or Love in Marriage 

By Marie C. Stopes. Critic and Guide Co. 

179 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey 

$2.12. 

Few people can read the first four chap- 
ters of this book without being grateful to 
the author. It is written with a poise born 
of understanding — a totally different quality 
from the hectic moralistic anxiety, born of 
fear, which emanates from the majority of 
books on sex matters. 

Mr. Gallichan shows an unusual grasp of 
the "profound psychic complexity that con- 
trasts love in mankind with the sex hunger 
of the animals." His fundamental premise is 
that instinct is not enough of a guide in sex 
relations for civilized human beings — not 
even when said human beings are generally 
well intentioned, moral and educated in other 
ways. He quotes Sir James Paget that "all 
husbands in the higher civilized states need 
to be taught conjugal behavior." 

He shows how civilization has developed a 
tendency to resist sex and has "intervened 
between the minds of men and women and 
their primary desires and emotions, and set 
up curious recoils, fears, sense of shame, and 



feelings of disgust." It is the only basic 
human function so treated. "If the awe, 
the mystery, the reticence and the repugnance 
surrounding sex had been centered around 
alimentation, the repairing of the waste of 
the body, we should exhibit a shameful, 
timorous, resistant attitude toward eating." 
Instead of that, we studiously learn to eat 
scientifically and artistically. 

His plea for knowledge of the psychology 
as well as the physiology of sex is com- 
pelling, and he emphasizes the utter igno- 
rance of most men as to the psychologic needs 
of women in their sex relations. 

But his greatest service is his reiterated 
insistence that "sex is not a lugubrious topic," 
that "love is the joy of life as well as the 
source of moral feeling," that "just as reli- 
gious creeds can be made dour and forbid- 
ding, so can sex be rendered a grim, purely 
physiological subject, or a matter of repul- 
sion." He joins Havelock Ellis in the claim 
that "marriage is the art of love and an 
art must be learned." All other arts we 
study and try to perfect, and yet in the art 
of sex living we go blundering along, not 
daring to venture much beyond the bounds 
of mere physiology, content to draw educa- 
tional analogies between man and the lower 
animals, a process which Gallichan terms 
"extremely risky," for "love in mankind is 
not scientifically comparable with instinct in 
animals." 

Incidentally, this book is a far better guide 
to instruction for the young than most pub- 
lications written for that purpose. He avoids 
the pathological and emphasizes the con- 
structive side of sex information. He also 
includes a favorable word for birth control 
and twilight sleep, which will further com- 
mend it to the modern mind which is look- 
ing for light on the befogged question of 
sex health and happiness. 
* * » 

There are only 175 pages in Dr. Stopes' 
little book, yet it is a milestone in sex litera- 
ture. Walter Gallichan says in his Psy- 
chology of Marriage that "most of the scien- 
tific investigation of the feminine psychology 
and physiology is the labor of men, but the 
time has come when women will carry on 
the task probably with greater insight and 
candor and without sex bias or sex antag- 
onism." This is precisely what Dr. Stopes 
has done. It is written from the woman's 
point of view only in that the woman's part 
of the human point of view has heretofore 
been mostly omitted or misunderstood, and 
this book reveals it. 

Her starting point is unique in sex litera- 
ture. It is to make marriage beautiful by 
developing and using, not repressing, the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 191 



51 



:sex side of life. Most writers on this sub- 
ject have expended all their energy on a 
fervent series of "don'ts," by which they 
hoped to make marriage safe, clean, moral 
and all the other virtuous, but not joyous 
qualities. Dr. Stopes' book is full of "dos" 
instead. It encourages to feel as well as to 
know. 

By deft but utterly simple elucidations it 
lifts one up out of the mess of age-old 
taboos and ignorance into the light of joy 
and understanding. It is a thrilling combi- 
nation of very explicit information and sen- 
tient idealism. The information goes 
straight to the middle of the things people 
want most to know, which are usually side- 
stepped by writers on sex matters. The 
idealism is the idealism of art, not "morals." 
In the introduction she says: "The great ma- 
jority of people in English-speaking coun- 
tries have no glimmering of knowledge of 
the supreme human art, the art of love." 

It is by no means a plea for "free love" 
or sexual irresponsibility — quite the contrary. 
It takes monogamy for granted without much 
argument, but instead of handing out a pre- 
conceived rigid monogamistic system to a 
more or less rebellious humanity and insist- 
ing on "restraint" as if we were prisoners 
under discipline, she begins with love and 
shows practically how it can make marriage 
a work of art. "Only by learning to hold 
a bow correctly can one draw music from 
a violin." 

She devotes several chapters to specific 
instruction on how to "hold the bow." 

Mary Ware Dennett. 

Russia 

Compiled by C. E. Fanning. H. W. Wil- 
son Company. 380 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey $1.65. 
This collection of articles, brought up to 
March, 1918, is a welcome addition to the 
Handbook Series. A subject index permits 
of its use as a reference book, and there are 
appendices on the pronunciation of Russian 
names, the chronology of events and the Rus- 
sian calendar. The last named is particu- 
larly useful in view of the controversy over 
the dates of the documents concerning the 
Bolsheviki and their leaders recently made 
public through the activity of Edgar Sisson. 
The bibliography is discouraging: to keep 
up with the books and articles on Russia 
has become a full-time job. 

The chief impression gained from glanc- 
ing through this collection of articles is that 
of a vain search for safe anchorage in facts 
during a blizzard of events. Every time an 
author has discovered for us the "new" Rus- 
sia and all about it, we are swept away by 
a squall of unforeseen happenings and the 
explanations have to start all over again. 
Unfortunately, we cannot wait for calm 
weather before making up our minds about 
Russia, and so shall have to steer a little 
wildly for a time, getting closer to shore 
when we can. 

B. L. 

Letters and Leadership 

By Van Wvck Brooks. B. W. Huebsch. 
129 pp. Price $1.00; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.07. 

According to the wrapper, Mr. Brooks is 
the author of five previous volumes, yet he 
seems to be practically unknown except in 
the most highbrow literary circles. No better 
illustration could be found of the divorce 
of life and letters in America — for here we 
have a writer who expresses with remarkable 
penetration and beauty what thousands of 
thoughtful Americans and students of 
America have long felt, but have been un- 
able to analyze with the same critical finesse. 
Between Puritanism and self-complacency, 
says Mr. Brooks, Americans have suffered 
their creative instincts to wither. Social ef- 



fort, he contends, has come to aim at little 
more than to raise the fellow-citizen to an 
arbitrary, dead physical and mental level. 
Worse than this, the longings and aspira- 
tions of those who come to us from the Old 
World with its traditional poetic view of 
life, are deliberately discouraged, and noth- 
ing else is put in their place. "Has it never 
occurred to our awakeners," he asks, "that 
the only way in which we can absorb their 
life [that of the hyphenates] is by providing 
them with a new tree upon which they can 
engraft themselves, and that the only hope 
of accomplishing this lies, not in improving 
their environment, in offering them comfort, 



in minimizing fatigue and shortening hours 
of labor, important as all these things are, 
by the way, but -in quickening our own con- 
sciousness, in puncturing our own compla- 
cency, in rising by force of our own demands 
upon life to that sphere of joyous activity 
where we ourselves are able to shed light 
and communicate warmth?" 

An "organized higher life" is the demand 
of this book. "No true social revolution will 
ever be possible in America till a race of 
artists, profound and sincere, have brought 
us face to face with our own experience and 
set working in that experience the leaven of 
the highest culture." B. L. 



Communications 



WAR SERVICE FOR LAW- 
BREAKERS 

To the Editor: I wish to express the full 
appreciation of myself and the state board 
for your splendid article in this week's Survey 
in support of our general plan. [See War 
Service for Law-Breakers, by Winthrop D. 
Lane, the Survey for September 28, page 707.] 

In the third paragraph from the last you 
express some doubts as to the value of the 
plan from the standpoint of progress in 
progressive prison administration. We see 
in it none of these shortcomings but every 
hope of progress. It will promote the cause 
of self-government for the reason that the 
plan aims immediately to take from the road 
and other camps and from every state in the 
union men deemed fit by reason of mentality, 
physical stamina and trustworthiness as evi- 
denced by a period of service practically 
upon their honor, and to place them in two 
of our best institutions for training with the 
hope that they may become non-commissioned 
officers, that is, corporals and sergeants. It 
will also remove from our institutions two or 
three times the number of men who would 
otherwise be removed, and will place them 
out in the open where most of the principles 
of self-government must prevail. The fact 
that the men do not elect actually their own 
officers is the only place the plan will differ, 
but it is easy to see that experience with the 
framework of actual government under mod- 
ern army conditions will push forward the 
self-government plan all over the country 
much further than any plan now under con- 
sideration. This is particularly true in mod- 
ern war which places so much added re- 
sponsibility upon non-commissioned officers in 
charge of groups of men facing "no man's 
land." In large measure, except for the mat- 
ter of election of officers, the army plan sub- 
stitutes the framework of self-government for 
the honor system. 

I believe seriously that the educational 
work which has been put through in our 
cantonments — say Camp Upton — is on the 
whole vastly superior to the educational work 
carried through even in many of our best 
reformatories. We know from careful in- 
vestigation and study that most of the edu- 
cational work of reformatories is "front," 
that the teachers do most of the work and 
that the most valuable education men in re- 
formatories may receive is that of becoming 
familiar with the English language and that 
of becoming able to concentrate upon the 
work in hand. We must not overlook the 
tremendous educational value of the ad- 
herence to a great purpose, particularly the 
purpose of our country in entering this war 
wholly upon idealistic grounds. We must not 
overlook the educational value of team 



work, of recreation, of motion pictures, and 
of theatricals, which camp life opens up to 
the men. After all, what soldier is not 
broadened and developed into a new man 
by his experience in our national army? 

As to the men in Class E [the "custodial 
and disciplinary" cases] of our plan, they will 
be furnished with work made possible by 
the President's recent proclamation eliminat- 
ing the former executive order forbidding the 
war, navy and other departments to purchase 
prison made goods. There will be no way 
for the prisoners in this class to receive the 
therapeutic treatment they require except 
through the cooperation of the War Depart- 
ment, for the reason that the men able to do 
this work are all in the army — witness Dr. 
Glueck whom you mention. Through the co- 
operation of the War Department all other 
classes will receive medical treatment as a 
matter of course, which they would other- 
wise, for the most part, be forced to forego. 

An example of exactly what this means is 
found in our case here in New Jersey. In 
response to our request, the surgeon-general 
has directed the examining unit at Camp Dix' 
to proceed to our institutions and to give all 
of our inmates the same mental test that 
has been given the army registrants. They 
have also agreed to give men special exami- 
nations in specific cases. This test should 
yield important results for comparison with 
the tests made continually of registrants in 
the camps. 

I trust you fully appreciate that this plan 
has had the benefit of the constructive criti- 
cism of such a leader in the field of prison 
self-government as Calvin Derrick, the direc- 
tor of our Division of Education and Parole, 
who was superintendent of the George Junior 
Republic for many years and later of the 
California state reformatory at lone, Cali- 
fornia, and that he believes that the plan, if 
carried out by the government, will carry 
forward, by many years, prison reorganiza- 
tion in this country. He agrees with me that 
even if the so-called self-government is set 
back in one or two institutions a little, that 
will be counterbalanced a thousand times by 
the progress made in all other institutions. 
Many state: "Why raise this as a serious 
objection, anyway, when millions of young 
men are giving up the pursuits of civil life 
and subordinating themselves as units in our 
national army in order to achieve a great 
victory? Why think of giving the prisoner 
all the benefits of education and freedom at 
the expense of two-thirds of the young men 
of the nation ?" 

Burdette G. Lewis. 

[Commissioner of Charities and Corrections] 
Trenton, N. J. 

[Commissioner Lewis's letter further 



52 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 1 9 1 8 



The Arbitrator 



A new magazine for the free 

discussion of social, moral 

and religious questions. 

Debates Now Available. 

No. 1; Prohibition — Elizabeth 
Tilton vs. Hugh F. Fox. 

No. 2; Single Tax-Bolton Hall 
vs. William Floyd. 

No. 3; Birth Control— Mary 
Ware Dennett vs. Rev. 
Mabel Irwin. 

No. 4; Modern Education — 
Andrew F. West vs. Alex. 
Fichandler. 

No. 5 : Ideals of the Political 
Parties (from official sources 
of seven parties). 

Other subjects to be treated by 
experts will be : Federal Suffrage Am- 
endment, Free Trade, Socialism, etc. 

$1.00 a year; 25 cents for 3 months; 
10 cents a copy. 

P. 0. Box 42, Wall Street Station 
New York City 



strengthens the impression one receives from 
a study of the original outline of his plan, 
namely, that the many good features of the 
plan will reach their highest effectiveness 
under his able and sympathetic direction. 
Not every state, however, will have him in 
charge to mold the conditions of army life 
into valuable lessons in self-government for 
prisoners. Even if it is physically possible 
to make military discipline and army control 
instruments for "pushing forward" the self- 
government plan, it does not follow that this 
will everywhere be done. Moreover, self- 
government is not merely a framework; it is 
a spirit, an atmosphere, an attitude. It is a 
relation between the mind of the individual 
and his fellows. It is, therefore, quite dif- 
ferent from putting men "upon their honor," 
since that involves only a relation between 
the individual and his superior officer. If 
the peculiar attitude and processes of 
self-government are really to find effect- 
ive inspiration and encouragement under 
"modern army conditions" as provided by 
Commissioner Lewis's plan, all hail to the 
plan; but surely one may be pardoned for 
fearing that in the hands of many of those 
who will have charge of executing the plan, 
the militarization of government is more 
likely to be the result. Mr. Derrick's au- 
thority is impressive, but one should not 
overlook the fact that the lone reforma- 
tory, where Mr. Derrick inaugurated self- 
government so successfully, is a semi- 
military school, and that the conditions 
of service in any army organization ex- 
erting itself to the utmost to beat Germany 
will not be entirely like those in a school 
where the chief enemies recognized are base- 
ball teams from opposing institutions. 

Undoubtedly the educational values enu- 
merated by Commissioner Lewis are potential- 
ly real. New Jersey seems, too, to have 



solved the problem of giving mental tests 
admirably; it is to be hoped that other states, 
if the plan receives nation-wide adoption, 
will do as well. All of this merely em- 
phasizes the importance of intelligent direc- 
tion of the plan. 

In answer to Commissioner Lewis' final 
question, Why think of prisoners at the ex- 
pense of law-abiding young men? One feels 
like reminding him that it was he who 
claimed penological advantages for the plan. 
Undoubtedly such advantages exist, but if 
one attempts to analyze them, why not at 
the same time analyze the possible disad- 
vantages, if there be any? This may be fu- 
tile, but it is not disservice. — W. D. L.] 



"PACIFIST" A MISNOMER 

To the Editor: We who are working for 
international relations founded on justice and 
democracy repudiate the name "pacifist" in 
its present interpretation. 

The words "pacifist" and "pacifism" came 
from Europe years ago in good standing, 
and in their original sense stood for world 
organization and the final abolition of war. 
They were, however, never satisfactory to 
most of the American workers because of 
their passive sound and capacity of being 
misconstrued. 

Recently these words have been made to 
stand for qualities both weak and bad; 
qualities from which in their original mean- 
ing they were as far removed as patriotism 
is from disloyalty. The vast majority of 
members of peace societies are as remote 
from "pacifism" when interpreted as cow- 
ardice, sedition, and treason, as are workers 
for righteousness from promoters of unright- 
eousness. 

Our belief is what it always has been, 
viz., that a League of Nations must be 
formed to keep order and promote justice 
in the civilized world by means of an inter- 
national court, a council of conciliation, and 
an international force. 

We believe, further, that after German 
militarism is conquered, at the Peace Settle- 
ment Table world organization must be ef- 
fected, so that causes of friction between 
nations may be reduced and the system of 
law be made to replace the system of war. 

The fruits of this war must be a better 
and a warless world. 

Mrs. J. Malcolm Forbes, 

Miss Le Baron R. Briggs, 

Miss Eugenia Brooks Frothingham, 

Miss Katharine McDowell Rice, 

Mrs. David Cheever. 

Boston, Mass. 





JOTTINGS 





SOME one rises to move that, since to the 
government's requested wheatless, meatless 
and sweetless days we have often added 
thoughtless, thankless and useless days, it 
might be well to observe criticiseless, liar- 
less, and crossless days. Meanless, fearless, 
burdenless and speechless periods might also 
be included in the week — our "less" enthu- 
siast concludes. Is the motion seconded? 



A RED CROSS Commission for Greece has 
been appointed and will make its base at 
Athens. It is said that there is a wide field 
for relief activity as a result of the large 
number of refugees driven from Macedonia 
and Asia Minor by the Turks. The Com- 
mission is headed by Prof. Edward Copps, 
who holds the chair of Greek at Princeton 



University. Alfred F. James, president of 
the Northwestern National Insurance Com- 
pany, of Milwaukee, is deputy commissioner 
in charge of business affairs. Mr. James has 
been chairman of the Milwaukee Chapter of 
the Red Cross for the past two years. The 
entire party comprises upwards of seventy 
persons. The Commission goes equipped for 
both military and civilian relief. 



IN ANNOUNCING the discontinuance of 
the sale of Red Cross seals for the coming 
Christmas season, the Survey for September 
28 contained the statement that the sale of 
these seals last year brought in $180,000,000. 
This figure is one hundred times too large. 
The correct figure is $1,800,000. 




Big Business 

in 

Great Britain 

NO big business organization 
has grown so fast as the 
great co-operative stores in Great 
Britain. They sell to members 
over one billion dollars' worth of 
goods per year, at a saving from 
8 to 20 per cent. 

Strange that this movement has not 
taken hold in this country. To start a 
campaign of education on it The Public 
has ordered a low-priced, but well-printed 
and cloth-bound edition of the best new 
book on the subject, "Co-operation," by 
Emerson P. Harris, president of the 
Montclair (N. J.) Co-operative League. 
Mr. Harris, a successful business man 
and writer on advertising, has devoted 
the last six years to studying the devel- 
opment of the co-operative movement. 

This book describes the growth of the 
movement in Europe; shows why and how 
the Rochdale system works; it very clearly 
lays out proven plans for starting a co- 
operative store, for managing and adver- 
tising it when it is established — it gives the 
background and foreground of this great 
evolutionary movement. 

The Public's edition of this book 
(which in the standard edition sells regu- 
larly at $2.00) can be had with The 
Public, every week for six months, for 
only $2.10. 



THE PUBLIC, 

122 E. 37th St., New York City. 
Send me a copy of your special edition 
of "Co-operation" by Emerson P. Harris 
and enter my subscription to The Public 
for 26 weeks. I enclose check for $2.10 
or will remit within ten days, if I like 
the book and paper. 



Name. . . 
Address . 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 12, 19 18 



53 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED — General secretary, man or 
woman of experience. Associated Chari- 
ties, Jacksonville, Fla. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

WELL QUALIFIED and experienced 
social worker (male) seeks position as ex- 
ecutive. Address 2891 Survey. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP. MAN- 
AGEMENT, CIRCULATION. ETC., REQUIRED 
BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 
24, 1912, of the Survey, published weekly at New 
York, N. Y.. for October 1, 1918. 

State of New York. County of New York, ss. 
Before me, a commissioner of deeds in and for the 
State and county aforesaid, personally appeared 
Arthur P. Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn 
according to law, deposes and says that he is the 
Secretary of Survey Associates, Inc.. publishers of 
the Survey, and that the following is, to the best 
of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the 
circulation), etc.. of the aforesaid publication for 
the date shown in the above caption, required by 
the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in section 
443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the 
reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business man- 
agers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19th St., New York city; editor, Paul U. Kel- 
logg, 112 East 19th St., New York citv: managing 
editor, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19th St., New 
York city; business manager, H. K. Carter, 112 
East 19th St.. New York city. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and ad- 
dresses of individual owners, or, if a corporation, 
give its name and the names and addresses of 
stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more 
of the total amount of stock.) Survey Associates, 
Inc., a non-commercial corporation under the laws of 
the state of New York with over 1.000 members. It 
has no stocks or bonds. President, Robert W. de 
Forest, 30 Broad St., New York city; vice-president, 
John M. Glenn, 130 F.ast 22nd St., New York city; 
treasurer, Charles D. Norton, 2 Wall St.. New 
York city; secretary, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 
19th St., New York city. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owning or holding 1 per 
cent or more of lotal amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: (If there are none, so state.) 
None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholder or security holder appears upon 
the books of lhe company as trustee or in any other 
fiduciary relation, the name of the person or cor- 
poration for whom such trustee is acting, is given; 
also that the said two paragraphs contain state- 
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge and be- 
lief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trustees, 
hold stock and securities in a capacity other than 
that of a bona tide owner; and this affiant has no 
reason to believe that any other person, association, 
or corporation has any interest direct or indirect 
in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than 
as so stated by him. 

5. That lhe average number of copies of each 
issue of this publication sold or distributed, 
through the mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers 
during the six months preceding the date shown 
above is — . (This information is required from 
daily publications only.) [Signed] Arthur P. 
Kellogg, Sec'y. Survey Associates, Inc. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th 
day of September. 1918. [Seal] Martha Hohmann. 
Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York, residing 
' in New York County, register 20052. My commis- 
sion expires April 28, 1920. 



THE second trial of the editors of The 
Masses, a socialist periodical which sus- 
pended publication some months ago, ended 
last week in another disagreement. Press 
reports declared that the vote of the jury- 
was eight to four for acquittal. It is ex- 
pected that the case will now be dropped. 
The indictment was brought under the es- 
pionage act, and was against Max Eastman, 
editor; Art Young, John Reed, Merrill 
Rogers, H. J. Glintenkamp and the Masses 
Publishing Company. 



PRESIDENT WILSON recently took a step 
that may have far-reaching effects upon the 
industrial work of penal and correctional in- 
stitutions. He set aside an executive order 
of President Roosevelt forbidding the war, 
navy and other departments to purchase 
prison made goods, and authorized the plac- 
ing of war contracts with the heads of prisons 
and reformatories at prevailing prices. He 
further ruled that prisoners engaged on such 
contracts should receive wages corresponding 
to those paid for similar work in the 
vicinity. 



THE British government is sending an emi- 
nent British educational mission to this coun- 
try for the purpose, it is announced, of in- 
quiring into 'the best means of obtaining 
closer co-operation between British and 
American educational institutions, to the end, 
greatly desired on both sides, of making in- 
creasingly firm the bonds of sympathy and 
understanding that now unite the English 
speaking world." The five distinguished 
scholars who make up the mission represent 
the universities of England, Scotland and 
Ireland and are being sent, it is said, in re- 
sponse to the request of the Council of Na- 
tional Defense. The educators will visit 
Columbia University first and plan to leave 
New York city October 14 for a two months' 
trip through the country. The members of 
the mission are: Vice-Chancellor Arthur 
Everett Shipley, of the University of Cam- 
bridge; Vice-Chancellor Sir Henry Miers, 
of the University of Manchester; the Rev. 
Edward M. Walker, Fellow of Queen's Col- 
lege, Oxford; Sir Henry Jones, professor of 
moral philosophy, University of Glasgow, 
and Dr. John Joly, professor of geology and 
mineralogy in Trinity College, Dublin. 
Elihu Root is the chairman of the honorary 
recepiion committee that has been selected 
to welcome the mission on its arrival. 



THE Rev. Charles Stelzle has been invited 
by the American Red Cross to become di- 
rector of the Bureau of Relations with 
Churches and Religious Organizations, and 
of lhe Bureau of Relations with Labor Or- 
ganizations, in connection with its Publicity 
Department. The Administrative Commit- 
tee of the Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America has released Mr. 
Stelzle for this purpose, and he has already 
gone to Washington to undertake the work 
for the period of the war. 



THE coroner's jury which held an inquest 
into the death of one of the victims of the 
disastrous fire in the plant of the American 
Button Company, Newark, N. J. [see the 
Survey for September 28, page 721], has 
concluded that the officials of that company 
were guilty of gross negligence in not hav- 
ing provided proper fire protection. The 
eleven deaths might have been avoided, said 
the jury, 'if the laws of the state of New 
Jersey had been complied with regarding 
fire drills, safety guarding of stairways, in 
protecting them with fire resisting material, 
as ordered by the department of labor, and 
provided for by the laws of the state of 
New Jersey." 



THE erection of community houses as fit- 
ting memorials to the soldiers of the pres- 
ent war, instead of shafts such as were 
erected after the Civil War, is suggested 
editorially in the American City for Sep- 
tember. "Liberty buildings" is the name 
proposed for these structures, which, it is 
suggested, should be designed "to help the 
living while commemorating the dead." 
Let the erection of these buildings, says the 
editorial, be begun ''at such time as may 
best help to tide over in some measure the 
period of readjustment when our returning 
soldiers or our industrial workers shall be 
in need of employment." 



FREDERICK P. GRUENBERG, director of 
the Bureau of Municipal Research of Phila- 
delphia, has recently taken a leave of ab- 
sence to accept an executive position with 
the Industrial Service Division of the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics. His du- 
ties consist largely of organization and di- 
rection of office and field forces engaged in 
research work in the field of industrial re- 
lations. 



FROM community canning kitchens to com- 
munity purchase and distribution of veg- 
etables and fruit is but a small step. The 
interest aroused in the preservation of per- 
ishable fruit and vegetables has led in forty 
Massachusetts towns this summer to the or- 
ganization and operation of community mar- 
kets. A representative of the United States 
Department of Agriculture reports that "by 
means of these markets large quantities of 
vegetables and fruits which might other- 
wise be wasted are utilized, and townspeople 
can obtain the products while fresh and at 
a comparatively low cost." In most cases, 
some centrally located building has been used 
for the market. Usually a canning kitchen is 
conducted on or near the premises, and the 
produce remaining unsold at the end of the 
market day is canned to be sold later. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions , 
copy unchanged throughout the month 

Order pamphlets from publishers 

A Model Constitution and By-Laws for a Con- 
sumers' Cooperative Society. 5 cts. Published 
by The Cooperative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

A Bibliography of Social Service. By F. Ernest 
Johnson, Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, 105 E. 22 St., N. Y. C. Price 
$10 per hundred. 10 cents per copy. 

For Value Received. A Discussion of Industrial 
Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted from the 
Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 St., New York. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. Arguments free on request. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Surrey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 73 Devon- 
shire St., Boston. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June); $3 official organ for the 
American Physical Education Association. Orig- 
inal articles of scientific and practical value, 
news notes, bibliographies and book reviews. 
American Physical Education Association, 93 
Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hygiene. 
50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; pub 
lished by National Organization for Public Healib 
Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman; illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad. 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and fo.ces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., N;w York. 



54 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 






Survey 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
»r organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you icant to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply, and pamph- 
lets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



WARTIME SERVICE 

i i r roll' the Survey can serve" 
IJ. icas the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how;, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the tlireshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory 
is one of several steps in carrying 
out this commission. The executives 
of these organizations will answer 
questions or offer counsel to individ- 
uals and local organizations in ad- 
justing their work to emergent war- 
time demands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Athletics. Amer. Phy. Education Assn. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncrn. 
Cancer. Ascc. 
Charities. Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Nat. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child-Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

General War-Time Commission of the Churches. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 



COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Boaul of the Ywca. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 
Electoral Reform. Ti, Aprl. 
Employment, Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 
Eugenics, Er, Rbf. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 
Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Race Betterment Foundation. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Mass. Soc. for Social Hygiene. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

.Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Tom. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Rbf. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work, Nclc 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 

IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 

International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 

INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws, Nlucan. 
Insanity. Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws. Aall, Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 
Negro Training, Hi, Nlucan, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa, Wees. 
Prostitution, Asha, Mssh. 
Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 
Public Health, Nophn. 
Race Betterment, Er. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Er, Nlucan, Rbf. 
Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Diy. • 
Tuskegee Institute. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbywca, Nwwcymca, Apea, Wees. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha, Mssh. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Mssh. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 

Natl. League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. 

Nwwcymca, Pola, Wees. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 



SURVEYS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 



TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of YwcA. 
Gwcc, Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Council, 
Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S., Gwcc. 
War Camp Community Service. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers: main- 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 



AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St.. Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations. 






[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AM2RICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

—Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions' in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y; 801 Franklin Bank Bldg., Philadelphia. Ad- 
vocates a rational and fundamental reform in elect- 
ing representatives. Pamphlet free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION— 105 W. 40 St., New York. For the re- 
pression of prostitution, the reduction of venereal 
diseases, and the promotion of sound sex education. 
Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Associate Membership, $2.00; Annual, $5.00; 
Sustaining, $10.00. Memberships include quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Miss- Grace 
W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy H. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. " 

Strengthen America Campaign, Charles Stelzle. 
mgr. 

GENERAL WAR-TIME COMMISSION OF THE 
CHURCHES — Constituted by the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America. Robert E. 
Spee-, ch'm; William Adams Brown, sec'y; Gay- 
lord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordinates the work of 
denominational and inter-denominational war-time 
commissions; surveys camp conditions; promotes 
erection of inter-church buildings; other general 
wai-time work. 105 East 22 Street, New York. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; 
G. P. Phenix, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers, treas.; 
W. H. Scoville, sec'y; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protect;,, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Coi.ducts National Americanization program. 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object — To promote an intelligent interest in so- 
cialism among college men and women. Annual 
membership, $2, $5 and $25; includes quarterly, 
The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR SO- 
CIAL HYGIENE, INC — 50 Beacon St., Boston; 
pres., Charles W. Eliot; acting sec'y, L. V. In- 
graham, M.D. Circulars and reading list upon 
request. Quarterly Bulletin 25 cents a year. Mem- 
CTships: Annual, $3; Sustaining, $10; Life, $100. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 

Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 

• — Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Originates and publishes exhibit mate- 
rial which visualizes conditions affecting the health 
and education of children. Cooperates with com- 
munities, educators and organizations through ex- 
hibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Julia C. Lathrop, pres., Washington, D. C; Wil- 
liam T. Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. General organization to discuss principles 
of humanitarian effort and increase efficiency of 
agencies. Publishes proceedings annual meetings. 
Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 46th annual meeting 
June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. Main divisions and 
chairmen: 

Children, Henry W Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C. E.-A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hvgiene, Maj. Frankwood E. Williams, 
M. O. R. C. 

Organization of Social Forces, William j Norton. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in America, 
Graham Taylor. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
—Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state, and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed 
by settlement work; seeks the higher and more 
democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE ON URBAN CONDITIONS 
AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 200 
Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates conditions of 
city life as a basis for practical work; trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMEN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 

Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 75 cents a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW TORI! 



Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 

—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St., 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 

NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION— 

Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph. D., ass't sec'y; 381 Fourth Ave., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave , 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'm; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE— Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Public Ownership League of America, 
1438-1440 Unity Building, 127 N. Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— 

Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment 
Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and lecture 
courses and various allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, 
pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-educa- 
tion for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. 
Publishes reports on reconstruction work here and 
abroad, and endeavors to establish an enlightened 
public attitude towards the physically handicapped. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 

provement of Living Conditions — Tohn M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey. Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine. Craham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health, Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

WAR CAMP COMMUNITY SERVICE— 1 Madison 
Ave., New York. Conducted by the Playground 
and Recreation Association of America under the 
War Department and Navy Department Commis- 
sions on Training Camp Activities, to mobilize all 
the resources of the communities near the camps 
for the benefit of the officers and mec. Tht War 
Camp Community Service stimulates, coordinates 
and supplements the social and recreational activi- 
ties of the camp cities and towns. Joseph Lee, 
pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 



F~ 



5 NAMES ARE LISTED IN PERSHING'S SECONi) DAY'S REPORT. (M 



vunded on the Long Army List; 

P Marines Killed and 138 Woandedl 



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Our Casualty Lists- 

Ze£ 's nof gef used to them— 
Let's STOP them— quickly! 

HOW? By rolling up an overwhelm- 
ing subscription to the Fourth 
Liberty Loan. 

After four long, frightful years the lide of battle is 
turning! The time has come at last when MONEY 
MIGHT will go far toward hastening the Victory 
that will stop these dreadful casualty lists and 
bring our boys home again. 

Buy Liberty Bonds — to the very limit of your 
means! Never mind how many you have bought 
already — buy more, and more, and more! 

Don't think about the money — that will all come back to 
you with interest. Think about the brave young Amer- 
icans who are fighting and suffering and dying Over There 
for you. 

Don't make excuses — make sacrifices! 

BUY U.S. GOVERNMENT BONDS 
FOURTH LIBERTY LOAN 




_7 fror/to,- 



Contributed ibrough 
Division ol Advertising 




United States Gov*t Comm. 
on Public Information. 



This space contributed for the Winning of the War by 

THE SURVEY 










"5TT0U1S POST-DISPATCH 



One St. Louisan Kille 
Two Wounded in 3 






"^•i.&t,.," Tote '» 2730,'' 

3568 D/T^T /- 



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Sunday's Casualty List Also Includes 
From Near-by. Places — Dead Hen 
a Post- Dispatch Newsboy. 








rfcej &« a* follow*: Kilted in? i 
Private Ernest P. McWiilionis*, lit 



VtMlf.m. P.l" 



J) A ^ / "i J- n "> I Hon*!... 

ry'0/>> -^ *S ... to" lo «i»*« the .rnikrem* 



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[ADVERTISEMENT] 



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NOTICE TO HEADER. 
When you finish reading this magazine 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will he placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING— NO ADDRESS. 



A. S. Burleson, Postmaster-General. 



surnm? 





u rr\] 



HANKS to all: for the great Re- 
public, for the principles which it 
lives by and keeps alive— for man's 
vast future — thanks to all. Peace does not 
seem so distant as it did. I hope it will 
come soon, and come to stay; and so come 
as to be worth the keeping in all future 
time. . . . Still, let us not be over 
sanguine of a speedy final triumph. Let 
us be quite sober. Let us diligently apply 
the means, never doubting that a just God, 
in His good time, will give us the rightful 
result. 

"Abraham Lincoln. 
"August 26, 1863.' 



»> 



Price 10 Cents 



October 19, 1918 





PAMPHLETS 
RECEIVED 





Pamphlets are listed once in this col- 
umn without charge. Later listings may be 
made under CURRENT PAMPHLETS (see 
page 77). 

General Information Regarding Mount 
Rainier National Park. Director of the 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 

Restaurant Facilities for Shipyard Work- 
ers. By Frederick S. Crum. Industrial 
Service Section Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 

Feeding the Family: A Problem and a 
Method for Social Workers in War 
Time. By Michael M. Davis. The Pub- 
lic Defender: An Aid to a Square Deal 
in the Courts. By Homer Talbot. The 
Church, the Community and the Pres- 
ent Crisis. By Rabbi H. H. Mayer. 
Value of Registration to Organizations 
Which do not Keep Adequate Records. 
By Miss G. L. Button. Some Principles 
of Parole for Girls. By Edith N. Bur- 
leigh. Organization of Social Forces 
of the State. By R. E. Miles. The 
Work Accomplished by the Social Unit 
Organization. By Courtenay Dinwiddie. 
10 cents. Rural Centers of Community 
Activity. By Warren H. Wilson. Cur- 
rent Tendencies in Adult Probation. 
By Edwin J. Cooley. A Community 
Recreation Program for Juveniles. By 
George A. Bellamy. Supervision of the 
Feebleminded in the Community. By 
Jessie Taft. Protective Work for Girls 
in War Time. By Maude E. Miner. 10 
cents. The Tenant Farmer and Land 
Monopoly. By Elwood Mead. Reform 
in Land Settlement Methods. By El- 
wood Mead. The Necessity for Changes 
in Americanization Methods. By Charles 
C. Cooper. Court of Domestic Rela- 
tions. - Report of a Committee of the Na- 
tional Probation Association. Standards 
of Administration of the Almshouse. 
By Clyde R. McKinniss. The County as 
a Unit in Social Work. By Homer W. 
Borst. The Organization of a State 
Hospital. By H. Douglas Singer. A 
Community Kitchen in a Neighborhood 
House. By Frances Ingram. The Coun- 
ty as a Unit in Charity Administration ; 
Actual Experience. By H. Ida Curry. 
The Attitude of Married Parents and 
Social Workers Toward Unmarried 
Parents. By Mrs. Frank D. • Watson. 
Municipal Detention for Women. By 
Jane Deeter Rippin. The Negro's Part 
in Racial Cooperation in the Commu- 
nity. By Kelly Miller. The Church, 
the Community and the Present Crisis. 
By Rev. Roy B. Guild. National Confer- 
ence of Social Work, 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. 5 cents each with exceptions 
noted. 

The Way Out. By William Adams Brown. 
A paper read at a meeting of the General 
War-Time Commission of the Churches. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America, 105 East 22 street, New York 
city. 

The Public Health Nurse. The National 
Organization for Public Health Nursing, 
156 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Recommendations of the War Emergency 
Conference Held in Olympia. Adopted 
by the Industrial Welfare Commission, 
Olympia, Wash. 

The Rebel Soul vs. The World. From an 
article by Prof. Gilbert Murray on "The 
Soul as It Is." Reprinted by the National 



Civil Liberties Bureau, 70 Fifth avenue, 
New York city. 
The State Fund vs. Casualty Insurance 
Companies. By Hon. F. Spencer Baldwin 
and Hon. Thomas J. Duffy. New York 
State Federation of Labor, Albany, N. Y. 

The Course of Bond Prices. A Comparison 
with Civil War Conditions. By Howard 
S. Mott, vice-president Irving National 
Bank, New York city. 

The Probation Officer in the New Social 
Realignment After the War. By Arthur 
J. Todd. State Probation Commission, 
Albany, N. Y. 

Suggested Reading on Social Hygiene. By 
Dept. of Education. The Venereal Dis- 
eases. State Board of Health, Lansing, 
Mich. 

Opportunities for War-Time Training for 
Women in New York City 1918-1919. 
Compiled by Clearing House for War- 
Time Training for Women in Coopera- 
tion with the Intercollegiate Bureau of Oc- 
cupations. Council of Organizations for 
War Service, 19 West 44 street, New York 
city. 25 cents. 

An Open Letter to the President of the 
United States Demanding War on Tur- 
key. By Robert Treat Paine, 10 State 
street, Boston. 

Ideals of the Political Parties. The Arbi- 
trator, P. O. Box 42, Wall street station, 
New York city. 10 cents. 

Women in Industry. Alexander Hamilton 
Institute, Astor Place, New York city. 

Stephen Smith, M. D., Surgeon, Scientist, 
Editor and Public Official. Reprinted 
from State Service magazine, June, 1918. 
Lyon Block, Albany, N. Y. 

Emergency War Training for Oxy-Acety- 
lene Welders. Bulletin No. 11 of the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Effect of Air Hammer on Stonecutters. 
By J. P. Leake, David L. Edsall, M. D., 
and Alice Hamilton, M. D. Reprint No. 
460 from the Public Health Reports. Su- 
perintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 5 cents. 

On Behalf of Russia. An open letter to 
America. By Arthur Ransome. Reprinted 
from the New Republic, July 27, 1918, 421 
West 21 street, New York city. 

Lessons in Community and National Life. 
Series A, for the upper classes of the High 
School. Prepared under the direction of 
Charles H. Judd and Leon C. Marshall. 
Bureau of Education, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 25 cents. 

Hiring and Firing. Suggestions for em- 
ployers. Industrial Service Bureau, Bul- 
letin No. 1. Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York city. 

Training Men Instead of Stealing Them. 
By Fred H. Colvin. Reprinted from 
American Machinist. Council of National 
Defense, Washington, D. C. 



BOOKS 
RECEIVED 



October 19, 1918 Vol. 1,1, No. 3 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Charles D. Norton, 

treasurer; Arthur P. Kellogg, secretary. 

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Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 

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Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
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Not Taps, but. Reveille. By Robert Gordon 
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Women as Sex Vendors. By R. B. Tobias 
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Readings in the Economics of War. Edited 
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The Post of Honour. By Richard Wilson. 
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The Children of France and the Red 
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The "Wilson Policies" 

By Paul U. Kellogg 



EDITOR OF THE SURVEY 



DEMOCRACY has scored a double triumph. From 
the English Channel to the River Jordan its armies 
are pushing victoriously against the forces of mili- 
tarism. From Berlin and Vienna and Constanti- 
nople the capitals of autocracy send word that they accept 
the terms set forth by the elected American President. 

In the exchange of notes last week and this between the 
White House and the new chancellor more than the question 
of the disposition of Germany has been at stake — more than a 
question of good faith. It is a question of the constitution 
of a world safe for democracy. While last year and this the 
President was slowly enunciating the elements of what 
throughout Western Europe are known as the "Wilson poli- 
cies" — the broad principles of a society of nations as against 
the old balance of power and war system, the projection of a 
new era of international cooperation built on respect for na- 
tionality and the self-determination of peoples — the pan-Ger- 
mans were in full cry for the old order of individual might 
ruthlessly to be applied by them. They have lost. But so long 
as their armies were successful in the field, the liberal forces 
within the Empire exhibited helplessness. 

With the change in the tide of battle, democracy comes to 
the test. It has proven its ability to challenge, check, and turn 
back the supreme embodiment of dynastic ambition and com- 
mercial imperialism working through the machinery of mili- 
tarism and autocracy. Will the democratic nations in their day 
of triumph be able to curb some of the same forces at work 
within themselves? Will they, with German imperialism 
beaten, lay the fabric of a new era that shall make the war 
seem worth its cost to the millions of families whose men have 
gone down i,n it? Will they make "Wilson's policies" the 
world's? 

Here in the United States we have seen less clearly perhaps 
than have democrats in England and France what distinctly 
new strength America brought into the Allied front in addi- 
tion to what was reinforcing. Men, money, ships, supplies — 
these things they had employed before. With two million men 
transported overseas, and with divisions, corps and armies in 
the thick of the great battles from the channel to Switzerland, 
we are stirred that American help turned the scales when that 
help was most sorely needed. 

But the President brought into the conflict still another 
force, which social workers of all others are in position to ap- 
preciate. He set going a moral and political drive. Andre 



The Survey, October 19, 1918, Volume 41, No. 3. 112 East 19 street, New York city 



Cheradame, than whom there has been no more trenchant ex- 
ponent of the Allied cause, has leveled one consistent criticism 
at Allied statesmanship. This is that they too long ignored 
the social and psychological elements in modern war in the 
face of an enemy that employed both. It remained for Wood- 
row Wilson to parallel the military offensive with a diplomatic 
one. 

In the older terminology, this was designed to weaken the 
enemy morale. Threats, the spread of rumors of enemy 
weaknesses, and such like had been used before on both sides 
with result only to stiffen each people to save themselves. The 
American President knew a greater TNT and employed it. 
It was made up of equal parts of justice, democracy and the 
vision of a world order that should mean a chance for peace 
on earth and for good will among men. 

It gave the oppressed peoples of Central Europe — Pole and 
Czech and Jugo-Slav — a feeling that their cause was our cause 
as a matter not of favor but of general principle. To prompt 
stirrings of political revolt from the Danube to the Baltic 
might be to weaken the enemy morale — if we look to the mere 
negative side of the process. But it had its positive and truer 
side and that was to awaken democratic faith and fellowship 
among "suppressed but inextinguishable nationalities" and to 
release forces which, once a set-back came to the organized 
power of the Prussian military machine, might assert them- 
selves. 

So, also, to distinguish between the German people and the 
German government that had engineered the war, to hold aloft 
a vision of a democratic world order in which the German 
people might find a place and fair dealing, once they had sha- 
ken loose from their masters, and from their masters' dreams 
of world domination, was in a negative sense to weaken enemy 
morale; but it had a positive and truer sense. It made for 
wellsprings of unrest among the liberal and labor forces of 
Germany which, once a rift or check came to the Prussian 
machine, might well up into a tidal democratic force. 

How deep-seated and competent these released forces have 
become in the last two months, the ordinary person has no 
means for knowing. Apparently the pan-Germans carried all 
before them in their supreme attempt last spring to break 
through and dictate peace as they had done at Brest. Yet 
we know that as early as mid-winter there were clear indi- 
cations that among trade union after trade union the independ- 
ent Socialists were undermining the majority element that had 

59 



60 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 1 9 1 h 



knuckled in to the government. We know that Camille 
Huysmans brought word to the English labor leaders as early 
as January that the effect of President Wilson's statements 
within the Central Empires quite outran anything the Ger- 
man government or the German press admitted. We know 
that the President's civil offensive was matched by the moral 
and political offensive of the British labor movement, which 
in the last twelve months has built up unity as never before 
among Allied labor and Socialist bodies in a dual program of 
(a) unremitting resistance to Prussian militarism in the field 
linked with (b) an effort to spread among the German work- 
ers a knowledge of the democratic principles they stood for 
and upon which they were willing to meet with them. We 
know that the Bulgarian, Hungarian and Austrian Socialist 
groups responded to these principles in a way which the Brit- 
ish workers welcomed, bidding them use their pressure inter- 
nally upon the German majority group. 

As a straw, take this paragraph from an article published 
in the Tagliche Rundschau and reprinted by the London 
Times last June: 

When placards which display the world situation and our position 
as against our enemies are openly ridiculed and described as lies 
and deception, and when, at a meeting of the Fatherland Party broken 
up by Socialists, the cry can be heard: "He who fights against Eng- 
land is an enemy of mankind," the initiated understand from what 
direction the wind is blowing. 

As in the case of the military command, the caliber of this 
moral and political offensive depended upon unity. We know 
that while neither the President nor Allied labor has succeeded 
in getting a joint public statement of war aims from the Allied 
governments, British labor elicited a statement from the pre- 
mier last December, which was fairly parallel to their 
own, and that Lloyd-George subsequently in Paris stated that 
the Germans could have peace tomorrow if they would accept 
it on Wilson's terms. We know that it was this knowledge 
which made it tenable for such a labor leader as Clynes, the 
food controller, to remain in the government. So that with 
the American President, members of the British Ministry, lib- 
erals in France and England, Allied Socialist and labor bodies, 
we have had a new, if fragmentary, western front of diplo- 
macy. The Inter-Allied Labor and Socialist Conference at 
London in September was an outstanding exhibit of this align- 
ment. While the American delegation abstained from sub- 
scribing to the procedure of an inter-belligerent conference, the 
President's fourteen points afforded a basis for unity in war 
aims. This was in a sense a joint reaffirmation. The ex- 
ecutives of the British Trade Union Congress and the British 
Labour Party had publicly endorsed these points in a joint 
statement at the time of their issuance in January, 1918; but 
in September they became the official common platform of 
Allied labor in the New World and the Old. Within the 
month they were seized upon by the new German chancellor 
as a basis for his peace offer. 

It is of course altogether clear that these civil offensives alone 
would not have produced the quick about-face this month 
on the part of Germany. So long as the army was gaining, 
the pan-Germans were in the saddle. The answer to them 
was force — force to the uttermost. It meant death and 
struggle and courage unstinted, poured into the military of- 
fensive. But it is doubtful if the recoil of the German armies, 
even if supplies and men were in parlous jeopardy on French 
soil, would have meant such a quick abandonment of the pro- 
gram of conquest, had it not been for the insurgent civilian 
forces which had been released throughout Germany by the 
new statesmanship of the West. As General Maurice points 
out, probably never before in history has a nation admitted 
defeat with its armies still far in enemy territory. The pros- 



pect of fresh American reserves and ultimate defeat entered 
in; but also the prospect of an American settlement. In the 
exchange of notes the past fortnight, the superiority of the new 
tactics to the old seems incontrovertible. Every fuming of 
fresh reprisals, of annihilation and counter-conquest on the 
part of Allied statesmen had thrown the German liberals 
into the hands of the old order. But President Wilson's in- 
sistence upon a convincing exhibit of popular control as a pre- 
cedent to peace cannot permanently be turned by the pan-Ger- 
mans to their advantage; the demand for more and more 
power in the hands of the German democracy is a demand not 
for their annihilation but for their deliverance. To their re- 
inforcement also is his inescapable citation of fresh U-boat 
activities and the abuse of civilians in the course of the retreat 
in France, as a test of their sincerity and of their ability to 
hold the powers of ruthlessness in leash. For the President 
to have refused to deal with the German people on the terms 
he has set would have exploded his whole statesmanship ; to 
be Scotch-Irish canny to the tips of his fingers in making sure 
that he is dealing with the people and on those terms, is a 
different matter. 

When a ridge or a U-boat base has been taken, a trench line 
been broken through or a transportation junction captured, it 
is easy to gauge the military gain ; even the civilian feels he 
has some measure of judgment. But to judge the gain of a 
diplomatic offensive is a new problem; the results are less 
tangible, the assurance less accepted. 

We no longer think in terms of hostages, sacked cities, en- 
slaved prisoners, as a token of security. But we cling to no- 
tions of invaded capitals and punitive war indemnities— such 
as rankled for forty years in the heart of France. Whatever 
the President's course with respect to the German overtures, 
it was to be expected that those who believe in these things, 
those who have had no understanding of his paralleling poli- 
tical offensive, those who have had no sympathy for his pro- 
posal of a league of nations as a keystone of a world safe for 
democracy, those who see the only security for the future in 
reliance on individual national might buttressed by economic 
barriers, competitive armaments and universal military es- 
tablishments — or in fighting alliances of such nations — would 
attack his course. 

But the President weighs other things than these attacks. 
He sees only less security in a whipped militarism, bound and 
gagged and biding its time, than he sees in an unrepentant 
militarism couched for a breathing spell behind a false front 
of reform. 

In his reply, he gave weight first to the tangible military 
securities which the Allied command under Foch would de- 
fine against any throwback of the German military machine 
a month hence or a decade hence. There will be no risking 
safety there. He will not discard the military procedure for 
the political until the ends he seeks are fully assured. He will 
not discard the political procedure for the military merely be- 
cause the ends seem to be in sight. 

When it came to the less tangible political securities, he 
gave less weight to the weakening of German morale than to 
the emergence of a new common purpose — the exact extent 
of the democratic forces which seemingly have asserted them- 
selves, their ability to continue to do so, their durable super- 
imposition upon the old dynastic, arbitrary, imperialistic 
scheme of control which held them down and threatened all 
Europe. He sees security in a new constitution of Germany, 
grounded at home in responsibility to the people, and held 
in a compact- of free nations. 

While the President was slowly enunciating his democratic 
scheme, the older diplomacy pitted against the pan-Germans 
did not drop out of existence. What of the old commitments 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 1918 



61 



among the Allies to Italy, for example? They have never been 
officially waived. The division of Turkey as a field for na- 
tional economic exploitation (as expressed in the secret trea- 
ties) has never been wholly abandoned in favor of autonomy 
for its several parts under international supervision ; there has 
never been a complete disclaimer by any means of the Paris 
economic agreement; the agitation for a three-decker prefer- 
ential tariff in the British empire — colonies first, Allies second, 
enemies third — has never been abandoned. 

With the Allied armies forging ahead on the western front, 
these old desires have flamed up, disclosing particularly lively 
embers. The speech-making of Premier Hughes, of Australia, 
at the Derby conference of the British Trade Union Congress 
was an effort under the guise of patriotism to dislodge the 
Labour Party as an obstruction to the sweep of what his 
critics call "Prussian-Australianism." It failed. 

Four if not five of the points made seriatim by the Presi- 
dent in his September 27 address were directed at forces within 
the Allies — curbs against those things which to his mind would 
render a league of free nations impossible and go back to the 
old, insecure, burdensome, antagonistic scheme of things be- 
fore the war. There was no mistaking his meaning when he 
said: 

First — The impartial justice meted out must involve no discrimina- 
tion between those to whom we wish to be just and those to whom 
we do not wish to be just. It must be a justice that plays no favorites 
and knows no standard but the equal rights of the several peoples 
concerned. 

Second — No special or separate interest of any single nation or 
any group of nations can be made the basis of any part of the settle- 
ment which is not consistent with the common interest of all. 

Third — There can be no leagues or alliance or special covenants 
and understandings within the general and common family by the 
League of Nations. 

Fourth, and more specifically — There can be no special, selfish, 
economic combinations within the league and no employment of any 
form of economic boycott or exclusion except as the power of economic 
penalty by exclusion from the markets of the world may be vested 
in the League of Nations itself as a means of discipline and control. 

Fifth — All international agreements and treaties of every kind must 
be made known in their entirety to the rest of the world. 

America will continue to send 250,000 men overseas month- 
ly. Swift reckoning for ruthlessness. Any question of armis- 
tice or evacuation will be in the hand of Pershing and Foch. 
No, in the military field the President's critics have quickly 
found him invulnerable. 

In the political field the issues are still to be tested. An 
attempt at a reactionary exploitation of victory will make for 
revolution in all countries. To judge by his September 27 
address, the President will in the future, even more than in 
the past, be the spokesman for the plain people of the Allied 
nations — the people who have borne the heavy load of mili- 
tary resistance and who have hailed the new diplomacy — who 
are not wedded to the old fetiches of conquest and who are 
fired by his vision of a new day. 

Word of their reaction to the present crisis has not come 
over the cables. Customary quotations from British and con- 
tinental presr have long failed to bridge the gulf between 
official opinion and the common run of thinking. We had 
an inkling of the populrr temper when the French Socialists 
cabled the President urging the latter to treat the German 
acceptance of his terms on a different footing from the earlier 
Austrian note. The Inter-Allied Labor and Socialist Con- 
ference in London in September approved the stand of the 
President in rejecting that note on the ground that it pro- 
posed a secret conference and that the government of the 
United States had "clearly and publicly formulated its own 
war aims." It then turned round and challenged the Allied 
governments to formally 



subscribe to the fourteen points formulated by President Wilson, 
thus adopting a policy oi clearness and moderation as opposed to 
a policy dictated exclusively by changes in the war map. . . . 

It is by defining their own war aims jointly with the United States, 
with the same precision and clearness, that the Allied governments 
will give to the workers of the world the conviction they are re- 
solved to continue the struggle not in order to meet the aggression 
of the central monarchies by undertaking in their turn a war of 
conquest, but for the single purpose of establishing on an unassail- 
able foundation a peace which will be just and lasting, and in con- 
formity with the aspirations of international democracy. 

In his speech of September 27 the President said: 

It is now plain that they are issues which no man can pervert 
unless it be wilfully. I am bound to fight for them, and happy to 
fight for them as time and circumstance have revealed them to me 
as to all the world. Our enthusiasm for them grows more and more 
irresistible as they stand out in more and more vivid an,d unmis- 
takable outline. . . . The counsels of plain men have become on 
all hands more simple and straightforward and more unified than the 
counsels of sophisticated men of affairs, who still retain the impres- 
sion that they are playing a game of power and playing for high 
stakes. That is why I have said that this is a peoples' war, not a 
statesmen's. Statesmen must follow the clarified common thought 
or be broken. 

I take that to be the significance of the fact that assemblies and 
associations of many kinds made up of plain work-a-day people have 
demanded, almost every time they came together, and are still de- 
manding, that the leaders of their governments declare to them 
plainly what it is, exactly what it is, that they are seeking in this 
war, and what they think the items of the final settlement should be. 
They are not yet satisfied with what they have been told. They 
still seem to fear that they are getting what they ask for only in 
statesmen's terms, — only in terms of territorial arrangements and 
divisions of power, and not in terms of broad-visioned justice and 
mercy and peace and the satisfaction of those deep-seated longings 
of oppressed and distracted men and women and enslaved peoples 
that seem to them the only things worth fighting a war for that 
engulfs the world. 

And again: 

And I believe that the leaders of the governments with which we 
are associated will speak, as they have occasion, as plainly as I 
have tried to speak. I hope that they will feel free to say whether 
they think that I am in any degree mistaken in my interpretation of 
the issues involved or in my purpose with regard to the means by 
which a satisfactory settlement of those issues may be obtained. 
Unity of purpose and of counsel are as imperatively necessary in 
this war as was unity of command in the battlefield; and with perfect 
unity of purpose and counsel will come assurance of complete victory. 

According to the Associated Press, Andrew Bonar Law, 
government spokesman in the House of Commons, made the 
announcement in Parliament Tuesday that it would be "un- 
wise for any of the Allied governments to make any statement 
on the terms likely to be imposed upon Germany before an 
armistice was granted." British labor, like the President, and 
with it Allied labor, has stated the terms it stands for. If 
the masses come to believe that an opportunity to fully secure 
these terms without further loss of life and with ample secur- 
ity is being sacrificed for self-interested claims from their own 
camp, there will be angry expressions of their dormant power. 
The convincing leadership on the one hand of President 
Wilson and on the other of such men as Henderson, Clynes 
and Thomas, their British and continental associates, is our 
biggest assurance against any thwarting (either by counsels 
of self-interest or by unorganized revolt) of those democratic 
purposes with which the Allied cause has become indelibly 
associated since the Russian revolution and America's entry 
into the war. "The war has lasted for four years," writes 
the New-Statesman, of which Sidney Webb, who drafted the 
British labor war aims memorandum, is editor, "but the dis- 
aster of the continuation is as nothing compared with the dis- 
aster of ending it before its roots have been torn up and the 
objects for which we have been fighting achieved." 

Like-minded Americans can help the President by letting 
him know that they are at his back in the course which has 
won for him and for America the leadership of the peoples 
who are fighting under twenty flags. 



The Nationalization of Public Health 



War Program of the United 
States Public Health Service 

By George M. Price, M. D. 



THE War Program of the United States Public 
Health Service, as outlined by Surgeon-General Rup- 
ert Blue in the recent issue of Public Health Re- 
ports, No. 39, September 27, is most opportune and 
of great significance. The program involves what practically 
amounts to a nationalization of public health activities by the 
federal government through a far reaching and comprehensive 
control of disease prevention, sanitation, and public health 
education. The recent trend of events has clearly demon- 
strated that the protection of the health and the conserva- 
tion of the man-power of the nation is a primary function of 
the federal authorities and can only be accomplished with ef- 
ficiency when undertaken on a nation-wide scale. 

The program, if accepted, is destined to revolutionize pub- 
lic health activities in the country and should scarcely be re- 
garded as a temporary war program limited to cantonments 
or war industrial centers. It is destined to mark a new era 
in the public health control in time of reconstruction as well 
as of peace. The dismal bankruptcy of the hitherto prevalent 
methods of localized, unstandardized, non-uniform, often 
incompetent and frequently politically-ridden local and muni- 
cipal health control, has already been clearly demonstrated ; 
partly by the frantic efforts of the control of the present 
pandemic of influenza, and, principally, by the extremely 
large percentage of rejections for physical unfitness of men in 
their prime, as shown in the National Selective Draft. Con- 
trasted with these acknowledged failures, the splendid achieve- 
ments of centralized control by the surgeon-general of the 
army and the sanitary control of the cantonment areas by 
the Public Health Service stand forth as an example of en- 
lightened, scientific and comprehensive public health control 
by federal authorities. Peace, no less than war, demands its 
unified control and command ; and the industrial and civic 
armies, no less than the military, need their generals and 
their marshal. 

The proposed expansion of the United States Public 
Health Service, as outlined in the surgeon-general's report, 
involves a national control of rural, municipal, railway and 
industrial sanitation, the prevention of certain diseases through 
national efforts, a uniform control and standards of water,, 
milk and sewage disposal systems, a uniform collection of 
morbidity reports, the adoption of minimum national health 
standards and the conduct of a nation-wide campaign of health 
education. 

Rural, municipal, railway and industrial sanitation and 
hygiene are to 'be under the control of the Public Health 
Service. 

As to rural sanitation, it is proposed to give federal aid for 
extending the establishment of adequate country town organi- 
zations, for the detail of specially trained officers to cooperate 
with local health authorities in extensive campaigns for sani- 
tation, for the study of improved methods of rural sanitation, 
and for the widespread dissemination of rules for the improve- 
ment of rural communities and populations. 

The project as to municipal sanitation recommends a cam- 

62 



paign for the full time employment of health officers, the en- 
actment of laws on and the enforcement of reporting of com- 
municable diseases, the provision for safe water and milk 
supplies and of sewage disposal, the establishment of com- 
munity health centers, and the cooperation with municipal 
authorities in all improvements of municipal conditions. 

In respect to railway sanitation, it is proposed to consolidate 
under the Public Health Service all railway sanitation, in- 
cluding the protection of railway employes by adequate health 
measures, the protection of the public by sanitary supervision 
of milk, water and food supplies, the sanitation of stations, 
terminals, and the prevention of the spread of communicable 
diseases, etc. 

The program as to industrial sanitation and medicine in- 
cludes the establishment by the service, in cooperation with 
the Department of Labor, of minimum standards of indus- 
trial hygiene and the prevention of occupational diseases; the 
improvement of the sanitation of industrial communities; the 
medical and sanitary supervision by the Public Health Service 
of civil industrial establishments, owned and operated by the 
federal government ; the establishment of dispensaries and hos- 
pital facilities for the use of government employes, and the 
securing of adequate medical and surgical supervision of em- 
ployes in industrial establishments by competent medical men, 
to be appointed as officers of the Public Health Service, to be 
paid a nominal salary by the Public Health Service to be sup- 
plemented by the industrial establishment. 

The diseases, the prevention of which the project includes, 
are malaria, typhoid fever, hook-worm, pellagra, tuberculosis, 
venereal diseases, and diseases of infancy and childhood. 

Disease prevention is to be accomplished by the dissemina- 
tion of knowledge of disease and the methods of control, by 
country-wide surveys, the appointment of a corps of expert 
diagnosticians, the establishment of clinics, dispensaries and 
hospitals, and the diagnosis and free distribution of certain 
remedies (this applies to venereal diseases) ; also the hospitali- 
zation of cases of tuberculosis, whenever practicable for the 
extension of active propaganda and traveling clinics. In the 
case of diseases of infancy and childhood, the promotion of 
prenatal care, the accurate registration of all births, the edu- 
cational measures for adequate care of babies at home, and 
the instruction of mothers by visiting nurses provided for, 
likewise the care of children of pre-school and school age. 

In the matter of water supply, the project mentions a na- 
tion-wide campaign for safe water supply by extensive sur- 
veys of water supplies, laboratory analysis when necessary, the 
introduction and extension of methods of water purification, 
and the stimulation of communities to receive safe water sup- 
ply through local and national organizations. 

A nation-wide campaign for safe milk is to be undertaken 
through an adequate inspection of production and distribution 
of milk and the establishment of municipal plants for pas- 
teurization and distribution. 

Proper sewage disposal will, according to the project, tend 
to control intestinal diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentery, 
diarrhea and hook-worm. National campaigns for safe 
methods are proposed for the extension of water-carriage 
sewerage systems wherever practicable, elimination, within 
municipal limits, of cesspools and privies, installation of sani- 
tary privies in rural communities, and the establishment of 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



63 



minimum standards of permissible pollution of streams, lakes, 

etc. '• 

The project recommends the establishment of uniform 
health standards for communicable diseases, industrial hy- 
giene, sewage disposal, water supplies and purification, com- 
munity sanitation, illumination, heating and ventilatjon of 
public building's and schools, also a nation-wide campaign of 
public health education. 

Whenever possible, the project involves the cooperation of 
the United States Public Health Service with the Red Cross, 
national and state organizations, the Council of National De- 
fense, national and state, the state and municipal health de- 
partments, state industrial commissions, medical corps, and 
the state and national health associations. 

The above progressive program will undoubtedly invite and 
create much discussion among public health authorities. Al- 
though the measures outlined by the surgeon-general are to 
be concentrated on communities congested by the establish- 
ment of cantonments or of war industries, and, which fall 
below the minimum health standards, the probabilities are that 
it cannot and will not stop there. The inclusion of rural sani- 
tation, which is not always applicable to cantonment and war 
industrial centers, and the extension of control over water 
supplies, milk supplies, sewage disposal, etc., clearly demon- 
strate that eventually the whole country must be involved. 

Many public health authorities will also doubt the wisdom 
of limiting the project to the control of the few diseases men- 
tioned, leaving out pandemics like influenza and others, which 
manifestly need a nation-wide control. Nor would it be jus- 



tifiable to include the prevention of diseases of infancy and 
childhood and to exclude cancer and diseases of middle and 
old age. 

The opinion will undoubtedly be expressed that the na- 
tional control of the milk supply should be widened to a na- 
tional food supply control. On the whole, the projected ex- 
pansion of the activities of the United States Public Health 
Service is in accord with the progressive trend of modern 
thought, and is worthy of most careful and thoughtful consid- 
eration. If such a project is to be launched, the present organ- 
ization of the United States Public Health Service is the one 
to take it under its control. 

The history of this branch of service dates back to 1798 
when Congress passed an act for the relief of the sick and 
disabled seamen. The care of these has always been a part 
of the functions of the Treasury Department, hence the in- 
clusion of the Marine Hospital Service under this department. 
In 1902 a change of name was made from Marine Hospital 
Service to United States Public Health and Marine Hospital 
Service, and in 1912 to United States Public Health 
Service. 

The proposed expansion of the functions and the scope of 
the United States Public Health Service and the broadening 
of its activities must inevitably lead to a realization of the 
hope of progressive sanitarians for the final liberation of the 
United States Public Health Service from the Treasury De- 
partment, and for the passing by Congress of an act to estab- 
lish a federal Department of Health with a secretary in the 
cabinet. 



Extent and Control of the Influenza 

Epidemic 



THE country is still in the grip of the influenza pan- 
demic. No decline is as yet evident either in the 
extent or in the intensity of the disease. 
According to authoritative sources, the precise 
cause of the infection is not known. It may be the influenza 
bacillus, but as yet definite proof is wanting. The momentous 
peril thus far in the epidemic is a frequent development of 
pneumonia with a mortality of from 25 to 33 per cent. The 
present epidemic differs from that of 1889 in that during the 
former all ages were affected, while at present young adults 
seem to be largely the victims. Children and persons above 
forty seem to enjoy a large degree of immunity. 

There appear to be three distinct groups of the disease. 
One group begins mildly and the patient may feel better in 
a few days, but a day or two later there is a rise of tempera- 
ture with an onset of pneumonia and fatal termination. The 
second begins in the usual moderately severe way and is fol- 
lowed by pulmonary complications of a mild type leading to 
recovery. There is yet a third type, very severe, with a sud- 
den onset and a fatal termination within thirty-six or forty- 
eight hours. Means of treatment are as yet inadequate. A 
vaccine has been prepared by the New York city Health De- 
partment from a strain of the influenza bacillus of this epi- 
demic. Nothing definite, however, is yet known as to its im- 
munizing or curative value. 

According to Surgeon-General Blue, of the United States 
Public Health Service, the course of the epidemic runs 
through in about five or six weeks. On October 14 there 
had already been reported in the various army cantonments 



not less than 223,000 cases of influenza, with 27,907 cases 
of pneumonia, and total deaths of 8,335. 

The parts of the country most severely attacked are the 
New England states, Pennsylvania and Indiana, although 
the epidemic has already reached the far West. Private 
advices to the Survey from Boston report that "things 
here are very serious ; there are so many dead that 
the bodies are not being buried promptly; many of our people 
are sick and most of the others are nursing the sick in their 
homes." Pennsylvania and Massachusetts are most seriously 
affected, and discouraging reports are being made by the pro- 
ducing companies in the mine works in Pennsylvania. Coal 
production has been greatly curtailed. There is also a cur- 
tailment of work in the shipyards and munition factories. 

The number of cases in New York state, outside of the 
city, has reached 50,000. Yonkers alone has over 5,000 cases. 
The situation in New York city is quite serious. Over 4,000 
new cases of grippe are reported daily with the probability 
of a larger number unreported. Pneumonia cases total over 
400 a day, with daily deaths of from 225 to 250. The total 
number of cases of influenza in this city must soon reach 50,- 
000. There is comparatively a very small incidence of the 
disease among school children, although many teachers are 
absent on account of it. 

There is also much sickness among physicians and nurses, 
especially among those attached to hospitals. A return of 
fifteen hospitals shows that 12 to 40 per cent of the medical 
and lay staff are ill with influenza. One hospital in Brooklyn 
reports 56 nurses sick with influenza out of a staff of 120, 



64 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 1 9 1 8 



FRAMINGHAM-ffow the Community Health and Tuberculosis 

Demonstration Met the Influenza 

The steps taken in Framingham, Mass., to attempt to head off the spread of the disease 
and more particularly to care for those stricken down, may be indicated as follows: 



1. The compulsory reporting. 

2. A universal closing ordinance. This 
applies to theaters, schools, and all sorts 
of meeting places. Soda fountains, etc., 
are also closed. 

3. A canvass of all the physicians to 
determine: 

a. Number of cases under their care. 

b. Cases absolutely needing hospitali- 

zation. 

c. Cases needing home nursing care. 

d. Cases whom the physician himself 

has not been able to see. 

4. The expansion of hospital facilities. 
Existing hospital facilities were added 

to by the erection of tents, by using all 
available space in hospital buildings and 
nurses' home, etc. Three other places 
were found available and were to some 
extent equipped, though could not be used 
owing to the lack of nursing and medical 
facilities. These places included the 
Children's Health Camp, the residence of 
the undersigned, etc. Cots, blankets, etc., 
were secured from the townspeople, and 
the situation handled by nurses, nursing 
assistants and volunteers. 

5. Emergency nursing service. 

All other public health nursing work 
was stopped, including infant welfare, tu- 
berculosis, school, general district work, 
etc. An emergency district nursing serv- 
ice under the direction of the Board of 
Health nurse was devised and nursing 
assistants placed in certain homes under 
nursing supervision. Every effort, of 



course, was made to enforce all practical 
measures of isolation and families were 
intensively educated regarding the dan- 
gers of contact infection. 

6. Emergency medical service. 
Several physicians ordinarily engaged 

in public health or factory clinic work 
were on call to attend cases reported by 
the physicians whom they were unable to 
see. This service was, of course, oper- 
ated in cooperation with the emergency 
nursing service and, with the latter serv- 
ice, tended not only to provide better 
medical and nursing care in the home, 
but also aided in the selection of cases 
most needing hospital care. 

7. Special food delivery. 

Food was prepared at the diet kit- 
chen in the high school and delivered not 
only to the homes, but also to the hospi- 
tals to supplement their normal supply. 

8. Special literature. 

Pamphlets have been distributed, ma- 
terial prepared for factory bulletin 
boards, regular special influenza notices 
prepared for the local paper, etc. 

9. Outside aid. 

The local representatives have kept in 
close touch with the state Department of 
Health, and the special sub-committee on 
influenza of the Public Safety Committee, 
securing some nursing and medical assist- 
ance through these agencies. 

10. Volunteer service. 

The town has responded nobly in the 
provision of all kinds of volunteer serv- 



ice to meet this medical and health emer- 
gency. As an illustration, a special com- 
mittee of ladies, under the direction of 
Mrs. N. I. Bowditch, wife of the local 
fuel administrator, took entire charge of 
the kitchens and food service of the Fram- 
ingham hospital. Other forms of volun- 
teer work included the provision of auto- 
mobiles, ambulances, prepared food, do- 
mestic service, influenza masks, etc. Spe- 
cial services performed by various 
individuals included cooking, the per- 
formance of ordinary domestic service at 
the homes and in the hospitals, the carry- 
ing of trays, the work of nursing assist- 
ants, clerical work at the Board of Health 
office in connection with the emergency 
district nursing services, etc. The Red 
Cross workers were mobilized and ren- 
dered valuable assistance along many 
lines. 

11. Follow-up work. 

Through the Community Health Sta- 
tion, plans are now being made for the 
careful follow-up of the influenza situa- 
tion as regards the subsequent lighting 
up of tuberculosis and other pulmonary 
as well as cardiac sequellae. All re- 
ported cases of influenza will be visited 
again, the entire lists of tuberculosis 
cases and suspicious pulmonary cases pre- 
viously known in the town will be can- 
vassed, with re-examination, in order 
to determine the relationship of such an 
epidemic to the tuberculosis situation, 
past, present and future. 



and in one army cantonment 100 out of 200 nurses have been 
afflicted. 

The United States Public Health Service has been mobil- 
ized for a national campaign against the epidemic. Upon the 
recommendation of the surgeon-general, the American Red 
Cross has assumed charge of all the nursing personnel, the 
paying of salaries, and the furnishing of all emergency hos- 
pital supplies wherever necessary. An emergency appropria- 
tion of $575,000 for the purpose of fighting the epidemic 
has been voted by the Red Cross War Council. A Special 
Emergency Committee has been appointed to deal with the 
situation on behalf of the Red Cross, with W. Frank Persons, 
director-general of civilian relief, as chairman. The Public 
Health Service mobilizes the volunteer medical service corps 
and all outside medical aid required ; and the Red Cross the 
nursing personnel, and emergency hospital supplies. The 
Public Health Service also has charge of all necessary deal- 
ings with the state and local health boards and the gathering 
of statistics as to the spread of the disease and the adequacy 
of local resources. More than 2,500 home defense service 
nurses have been mobilized by the Red Cross and sent to 
camps, hospitals and shipbuilding plants to fight the influenza. 

The Public Health Council of the New York State Health 
Department has made influenza reportable and coughing and 
sneezing in public a misdemeanor. The Public Health Com- 
mittee of the New York Academy of Medicine urges vigor- 
ous measures to be undertaken by the Department of Health, 
and also advises a block-to-block survey to discuss the extent 
of the epidemic in the city. 

In New York city an, Emergency Advisory Committee has 
been appointed to work in cooperation with the health com- 



missioner. The committee includes Howard Townsend, rep- 
resenting the private hospitals of New York; Dr. John W. 
Brannan, Bellevue and Allied Hospitals; Lillian D. Wald, 
home nursing activities ; Jane Pindell, institutional nursing ; 
William A. Marble, Merchant's Association ; Lee K. Frankel, 
social service agencies; Arnold Wood, Red Cross; Dr. 
William R. Lavender, United States Public Health Service ; 
Dr. Walter B. James, the medical profession ; Dr. William 
L. Ettinger, Department of Education, and Dr. Louis I. Har- 
ris, Department of Health. At the suggestion of Dr. Frankel, 
of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, the city is to 
be divided into districts, and in each district a representative 
will be placed in charge of all the agencies in the district. It 
is also intended to provide each district with a plant for cook- 
ing food for families where there is illness. Health Com- 
missioner Copeland invited political leaders of districts to co- 
operate with him in ascertaining the extent of the disease and 
the means of relief in their districts. 

A Nurses' Emergency Council has been organized by the 
Henry Street Settlement, with the cooperation of the Red 
Cross, Salvation Army, Catholic societies, Health Department 
and many other organizations with a view to combat the raging 
epidemic. On October 8, the Nurses' Settlement had at its 
disposal 178 nurses, of whom 42 were off duty and 27 were 
themselves sick with influenza. The nurses are wearing masks 
in the homes. All the activities of the Henry Street Settle- 
ment have been concentrated upon the fight against the in- 
fluenza, and splendid cooperation has been giVen to the settle- 
ment by the Health Department and other official and non- 
official organizations. 

(Continued on page 74^ 



Releasing the Tongues of Men 

How Speech Defects Are Successfully Cured at a Free Medical 

Clinic for Their Treatment 

By James Sonnett Greene, M. D. 



DIRECTOR, THE NEW YORK CLINIC FOR SPEECH DEFECTS 



ALTHOUGH medical authorities have paid scien- 
tific attention to defective speech as far back as 
the beginning of biblical history, on the whole the 
L_ subject is more or less a closed book. At the best 
its mention probably arouses little more than vague ideas con- 
cerning stuttering and 
stammering. 

We have just about 
reached the stage when 
both lay and medical men 
realize the fallacy of the 
old hackneyed phrase 
about imperfect speech, 
heard again and again : 
"Your child will grow 
out of it." There are 
enough adult sufferers 
who constantly come un- 
der observation to illus- 
trate definitely that tradi- 
tion in this instance does 
not hold good. All phases 
of the subject have re- 
ceived considerable atten- 
tion abroad. Some of these 
phases have been given at- 
tention here, but the most 
essential feature of the 
problem, the practical han- 
dling of it, has been al- 
most totally neglected. In 
the hurried advance of 
medical specialism the 
treatment of speech disor- 
ders has been given over to 
a class of semi-professional 
empirics, who as self- 
styled doctors or profes- 
sors, conduct voice or 
speech institutes or so- 
called psychological 
schools or clinics, giving 
the sufferer natural speech 
methods which, accord- 
ing to their own delusion, 

are productive of better results than the system of 
their competitors. The ignorance of the subject is appalling 
and is so prevalent among those who have the care of children 
that untold suffering and complications have resulted. 

Persons who come into contact with such speech defect 
sufferers as stutterers, for example, hear a story which occa- 
sionally bears a slight variation but in the main is essentially 
the same. The story is that such and such a child has been 




rHE New York Clinic for Speech Defects is listed to serve 
in the training of men in the draft who have remediable 
defects, by direction of General Sherrill to the director of the 
draft for Nciv York city. It is listed also on the official schedule 
in the surgeon-general's office at Washington to assist in regard 
to the care of returning soldiers and sailors who need defective- 
speech treatment. 



stuttering since childhood, and for some reason did not grow 
out of its trouble, as was expected. The child is always very 
miserable while at school, being unable to give recitations, and 
therefore is hampered in his studies and never completes his 
education. He has great difficulty in securing a job, most of 

the time following a line 
of endeavor which never 
interested him. He has 
been victimized a number 
of times through attract- 
ive advertisements, de- 
pending on the number of 
times he has saved enough 
to pay for treatment. He 
is burdened with lone- 
someness, never mingling 
much socially, is constant- 
ly aware of his infirmity 
and suffers always. Ta- 
king it all in all, he feels 
himself socially an out- 
cast. 

Observations along 
these lines resulted in the 
working out of what we 
deemed the practical solu- 
tion of this problem. We 
felt that the great need 
was for a cooperative 
work in which there was 
a definite, intimate rela- 
tionship between medical, 
re-educational and social 
therapy. In other words, 
a center where the doctor, 
the teacher and social 
worker are represented in 
complete harmony. Let 
me now try to give a brief 
outline of how this har- 
monious coordination is 
carried out at the New 
York Clinic for Speech 
Defects. 

This city clinic is located 
at 143 East Thirty-seventh street, New York city. It is com- 
posed of a number of departments: A medical department to 
take care of the physical condition of the patients; a dental 
department to take care of teeth, mouth and jaw conditions 
when such conditions are the causative factors of defective 
speech ; a nervous and mental department to take care of 
such conditions when they are causative or associated with 
defective speech, a re-educational department to re-educate 



65 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 1 9 r 8 



SPEECH DEFECTS AND THE 
W AR FOR DEMOCRACY 

Dear Sir : I have stammered very badly all 
my life and it has been a big hindrance in 
both my commercial and personal life. Can 
I be cured here? I have just been refused 
enlistment in the army and it has so low- 
ered my spirits that I'm determined some 
way or other to eradicate this handicap. 
Can you help me? 

Very sincerely, 

R. T. C. 

{From the United States Steamer Amphitrite, Rosebank, S. I.) 

Dear Sir : I am dropping you a few lines to 
let you know that I was signed on the above 
ship last Monday, which is lying in Rose- 
bank, Staten Island. I meant to write 
sooner, but this is the first time I thought 
of it. I am getting along very good with 
my speech. Nobody knows about it. Do 
very little stuttering now. Much to the 
thanks of you. I will probably see you in 
my uniform the first chance I get. So I 
close. Excuse pencil. P. J. 

(To the New York Globe) 

Editor Globe : Last summer I attended the 
Reserve Officers' Training Camp at Platts- 
burg and was disqualified for a commission 
on account of a defect of speech. When I 
came back to New York, very much de- 
pressed, I looked around for a public clinic 
•where I could get cured of my affliction. 

In the name of the large number of per- 
sons afflicted with defects of speech, I wish 
you would bring before your readers the 
work that is being accomplished at the New 
York Clinic for Speech Defects at 143 East 
Thirty-seventh street. Treatment is free 
for persons who are afflicted the way I 
was. Now I speak well and will try to get 
another chance for Plattsburg. 

New York, Aug. 8. EPHPHATHA. 

rriHE above letters from fighters and those who 
J_ want to be fighters answer the many people who 
have asked about the conditions which created the 
demand for our clinic and the way we are meeting 
the demand. These inquiries have been prompted be- 
cause never until now has there been a public clinic 
devoted solely to the cure of defective voice and 
speech conditions. — Author. 



patients to overcome their faulty voice or speech habits ; and 
a department for teaching of lip reading to deaf soldiers and 
sailors, as well as lay people. The clinic is open afternoons 
from 4 to 6 o'clock ; Monday, Wednesday and Friday even- 
ings from 8 to 10 o'clock. Treatment is given free of charge. 
The clinic has now under treatment over 500 cases. A 
descriptive folder issued by it calls it "the first free medical 
clinic devoted solely to the cure of defective voice and speech 
conditions." 

In the first place, we succeeded in attaining an atmosphere 
distinctly different from the traditional dreary one that is 
more or less prevalent in clinics. A flower-box in the window 
in summer, chairs in the reception-room instead of long, 
gloomy benches, a wicker table in one corner piled high with 
current magazines, a tall, old-fashioned grandfather's clock 
in another corner, the walls and woodwork so painted that 
they do not convey an institutional feeling, and the whole 
giving a prevailing atmosphere of cheerfulness which one senses 
as soon as he enters : these are the surroundings. The regis- 
trar at the desk near the door registers all patients in compli- 
ance with the rules instituted by the New York State Board 



of Charities, for the clinic is incorporated and licensed under 
that board. 

To each patient, after being registered, is allotted an envel- 
ope large enough to contain papers of the regulation type- 
writing size. We have found the idea of having various col- 
ored papers in the envelope very practical. Each paper repre- 
sents the different integral parts that constitute a complete his- 
tory of the patient. We early noted that to obtain a family 
or personal history of a patient suffering from defective 
speech is not always easy. In the case of children it is not 
so difficult because an adult usually brings the patient. In 
the case of an adult it is usually difficult because he comes 
alone and cannot say what he wants to say when questions 
are put to him. 

Examining Patients 

To give an idea of what it means to get a complete history 
of a case, only the other day a young man, an American, 
twenty-one years old, came to the clinic for treatment. It 
took almost three hours to get his history, for he could not say 
a word unless he accompanied that word with some bodily 
movement. When sitting in a chair it was impossible for him 
to utter a word without bobbing up and down, each word be- 
ing accompanied by a bob, like a jack-in-the-box. In order to 
facilitate matters it was thought that perhaps better progress 
would be made if the patient would stand and answer the 
questions. This did not help much because as soon as he 
stood he pranced round and round the room, giving an excel- 
lent imitation of one under the influence of liquor. When the 
case was finally finished both he and the person who took his 
history were exhausted. The clinic is fortunate in having 
three voluntary history-takers whose aid in this special fea- 
ture of the work is invaluable. 

After a history is taken the patient goes through a thorough 
physical and mental examination, and all his anomalies are 
tabulated, special stress being laid on the mental status. One 
of the forms in the envelope is a record booklet of the measure- 
ment of intelligence. 

He is now ready to be tested for the condition which brought 
him to the clinic, his voice or speech defect. Through the 
various facts obtained it is possible to come to a definite 
diagnosis of the patient's condition. Thoroughness in the 
steps carried out is of utmost importance. The patient is di- 
rected according to the diagnosis made. He may need two, 
three or more of the phases of the work carried out at the 
clinic. First of all, if a condition exists that needs surgical 
assistance arrangements are at once made to secure it. In 
this regard the clinic assumes the role of a clearing-house. It 
has to its credit a great number of successful cases in which 
surgical measures have resulted in the relief of conditions that 
were directly or indirectly causative factors of the speech 
disorder. 

Again, some patient, following his surgical treatment, re- 
quires further treatment in other departments. It may be 
necessary for him to receive both psychological and re-educa- 
tional treatment; or on the other hand, some patients need to 
go to the dental department. Examples of the latter are cases 
of malocclusion, a defect requiring the straightening of the 
teeth, which is important for articulation as well as for come- 
liness of feature ; and cases of non-operative cleft-palate re- 
quiring special appliances. People rarely realize how miser- 
able is the life of an adult who has a cleft of the palate that 
cannot be operated upon. Although we have splendid insti- 
tutions for the insane, the feebleminded, the blind, the deaf 
and the dumb, there was no place prior to the establishment 






. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



67 



of this clinic where a patient suffering from a cleft of the 
palate, and who was too poor to pay the prices charged for 
private work, could go and have a special appliance (obtura- 
tor) made in order to get rid of such a terrible handicap 
as trying to talk with no roof to his mouth. At the clinic all 
such cases are properly taken care of, obturators are made, 
teeth are straightened and at the same time normal speech is 
instituted. 

Besides treating patients suffering from such speech defects 
as stuttering, stammering, lisping, agitophasia, audimutetas, 
mutism, etc., the clinic takes care of patients suffering from ab- 
normal voice conditions, such as aphonia, hypophonia, falsetto 
voice and others. Everyone at some time or other has met a 
person who speaks in a high, shrill falsetto. Such patients 
wander around and do not know where to go for treatment. 
Since the clinic has been opened a great many have been 
treated and their voices changed to the normal register. 

We have found that the social service phase of the work 
carried out by the clinic is of utmost importance for the at- 
tainment of desired results. The family and personal history 
give the director a clue to the general status of the patient. 
After a patient has attended the clinic and has become accli- 
mated to the conditions found, a heart-to-heart talk with the 
director is had. The results are amazing. We all possess 
undiscovered gifts. Life's conflicts, especially to those suffer- 
ing from defective speech, are so tremendous and severe that 
these gifts are starved out. Though the soil is fertile and the 
seed fell there, unfortunately appalling surroundings and per- 
sonal conditions did not allow it to develop. 

Most of those suffering from speech defects are highly 
strung or sensitively organized. They are emotional, tempera- 
mental and easily influenced. If nothing is done to help them 
to establish mental stability, what is the result? They help 
to recruit our vast army of truants, delinquents, vagrants and 
gangsters. From a weak, good-natured individual is evolved 
one with tendencies toward criminality. Think what it must 
be during the storm and stress of adolescence, to be in dread 
of making oneself absurd ; to be cut off from spontaneous, 
normal social life ; to be always seeking a cure and to find 
only "the hope long deferred that maketh the heart sick." 
No wonder many a stutterer who begins life wholesome- 
minded and normal as any of us turns crabbed and misan- 
thropic under his torment and breaks down nervously at the 
end. 

The Ephphatha Club 

It is wonderful when someone has the large-heartedness to 
dig down to the bottom of us, to find the treasure there and 
tell us what to do with it, and at the same time to keep up 
belief in us till belief is justified. We are always making the 
mistake of undervaluing the possibilities of those we meet. 
In the history of the world the voyage of discovery has proved 
very profitable. We find it equally profitable when delving 
into the life hist3ry of our patients. Obstacles that appear in- 
surmountable melt away. A little boost when one is slipping, 
a suggestion, a push when weak or in doubt, saves the day 
many a time. A talk on indifference, on personal energy, an 
explanation in simple words of the pathological condition pres- 
ent, the futility of searching for magical help, always pro- 
motes better understanding. Hard work and constant appli- 
cation are essential to overcome handicaps, hopelessness and dis- 
couragement. An infusion of the spirit of sympathy and op- 
timism, of good-fellowship and helpfulness, of praise and en- 
couragement, is prolific in results. 




TOM AND JOHN 

Two members of our class of "stuttering giants" 

To foster that spirit, our Ephphatha Club has proved in- 
valuable. Investigations showed that social life was practically 
an unknown quantity to our patients. They complained that 
if they could only meet people and talk and associate with 
them the way other folks do they would be forever happy and 
could bear their cross of affliction. It's the same old story over 
again — our association with our fellow-men is the big thing 
in life after all. 

On taking up treatment at the clinic one automatically be- 
comes a member of the Ephphatha Club. The adults belong 
to the Senior Ephphatha Club and the children to the Junior. 
The members hold regular debates on the topics of the day, 
lectures are given by members and outsiders, discussions and 
divers other things occur in which the principal objective is 
the attainment of normal speech. A step further toward so- 
cial life was gained when the club gave a sociable, in other 
words, a regular old-fashioned party — music, dancing, recita- 
tions, pink lemonade and ice-cream. All that is necessary to 
say about the success of our parties is that when the first one 
was over one of our patients, an American thirty-eight years 
old, came to the director and told him that it was the first 
party he ever attended, for, stuttering since childhood, no one 
was ever interested enough in him to make him do something 
he was always afraid to do, mingle socially. This is hardly 
conceivable to the uninitiated. However, when one consid- 
ers that attempts at speech are an embarrassment both for 
the speaker and listener and this torment has been constantly 
present for a long period of time, it is readily understood why 
these sufferers lead a hopeless life. The Ephphatha Club, 
which is a branch of the clinic's social service, has turned out 
to be a great benefactor to its members. 

It is wonderful the way men and women of affairs will take 
the time that belongs to their recreation and spend it lavishly 
on others. Our board consists of red-blooded men and women 
who realize that there are no limits to the possibilities of the 
clinic and who feel that the best way to help our patients is 
to make them fit to help themselves. Almost every member 
of the board is doing something of a constructive value to the 
clinic and its patients. One member, for example, is making 
it possible for many of our boys and girls to become proficient 
in special office work by conducting courses in stenography 
for them. These courses do not interfere with the regular 
work of the clinic, as they are part of the work of the depart- 
ment of social service. 



68 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, * P * 



Book Reviews 



How a Soldier May Succeed After the 
War 

By Russell H. Conwell. Harper & Broth- 
ers. 110 pp. Price $.50; by mail of The 
Survey $.55 

Dr. Conwell has put into this book much 
of the inspiration which he so often has 
given in his Acres of Diamonds and other 
lectures, but the book lacks the personal 
magnetism of the author, which always at- 
tracts, holds and inspires his hearers. 

The book gives many examples of how 
men under trying situations in army service 
have taken up and continued a course of 
reading, providing them with an education 
that has proved of use after their discharge. 
Dr. Conwell can hardly be called a logical 
thinker, and the conclusions he reaches could 
scarcely be arrived at by way of the evi- 
dence produced in his book. A considerable 
percentage of individuals in any given group 
can profit, by natural inclination, from a 
course of reading, and many agencies are 
engaged in providing the proper reading 
matter during the present war. Probably 
a larger number of soldiers now in Europe 
will do systematic reading with profit than 
in any previous war. It is to be hoped that 
many of them will receive their inspiration 
from this little volume. 

The book, however, fails to take account 
adequately of the advantages for education 
in army service itself, in providing the basis 
for occupational opportunities after the war. 
This is a war of mechanics, technique and 
transportation. If the soldiers can be en- 
couraged to study and read about these army 
occupations, many of them can use their ex- 
perience after the war in finding the work 
for which they are best suited. 

L. H. Carris. 

The Human Needs of Labour 

By B. Seebohm Rowntree. Thos. Nelson 

fc Sons, Ltd. 168 pp. Price $.85; by 

mail of the Survey $.95. 

Mr. Rowntree, in his latest book, has 
brought one step further his previous studies 
of the "poverty line" and the means of se- 
curing a national minimum of the neces- 
saries of life. Through the more recent 
findings of nutrition experts, especially in 
America, some revision of former standards 
has become necessary in regard to the low- 
est diet upon which it is possible to live for 
persons of both sexes, different ages and dif- 
ferent degrees of muscular activity. More- 
over, in past writings on the minimum ''liv- 
ing" wage it has been too readily assumed 
that such a wage must cover the necessary 
expenditure of healthful living for a fam- 
ily of "average size," i. e., father, mother 
and three dependent children. This as- 
sumption often has meant opposition to some 
particular wage determination on the part 
of employers. These have maintained that 
few families of their employes were of the 
average size. Employes, also, have drawn 
attention to the many families that were 
larger than the average and that were, there- 
fore, condemned by such a determination to 
a life of ill-health, premature death and 
complete lack of home comfort. 

After an elaborate calculation of the actual 
size of families and the number of years 
during which the children are dependent on 
the father's earnings, the author comes to 
the conclusion that if in fixing minimum 
wages three children be allowed per family, 



62 per cent of the actual number of de- 
pendent children would for varying periods 
be inadequately provided for, and 54 per cent 
would be in this condition for five years or 
more. Even if five children per family were 
allowed for in the wage, one out of every 
four would still, for some time, be inade- 
quately provided for, and one in every five 
would be inadequately provided for for 
at least five years. 

The conclusion to be drawn from these 
facts is, of course, that a minimum wage, 
to be really a living wage — i. e., to permit 
race continuation — must either provide for 
the support of more than five children or 
must be supplemented in some way. The 
latter, Mr. Rowntree shows, is the only prac- 
ticable course. For even if it were assumed 
that the workman himself can lay by a suf- 
ficient sum for the maintenance of a large 
family while he has no children or only one 
or two children dependent on him, it is un- 
reasonable to expect such voluntary abne- 
gation in early manhood and during the first 
years of married life. 

"It is easy," he says, "for the armchair 
moralist to charge the working man with 
being thriftless; but, after all, it is harder 
for a young man to save than for one who 
is older. He is at an age when the demand 
for a full life runs high. His physical vigor 
is at its maximum; his instincts are generous 
rather than prudent; and he relies upon him- 
self to cope with fresh demands as they arise 
by getting more remunerative work, or per- 
haps by working harder. He may not wil- 
fully mortgage the future, but he refuses 
to mortgage the present. As for children, 
they may not come or they may not live; 
why sacrifice tangible satisfaction day by 
day to a mere contingency? Why, again, the 
finer type of worker may say, refuse to help 
a comrade who is in actual need, for the 
sake of preparing to meet a need that is 
problematical? In fact, although young peo- 
ple should be encouraged to be thrifty in ev- 
ery possible way, we must not reckon too 
confidently upon the results of their thrift." 

How, then, is it possible to meet this need 
for an income in every household sufficient 
to permit of a reasonable human existence? 
Of course, the postulation of the problem it- 
self may seem preposterous to those who 
have never faced it as an essential of na- 
tional security. But in Great Britain, where 
minimum wage legislation for men as well 
as for women is no new thing, and where 
the decreased birth-rate during the war has 
added a new argument for a policy of hu- 
man conservation, the question is a decidedly 
timely one. Says the author: 

"When peace is declared at last, we can- 
not set back the clock and reinstate our- 
selves in the world we knew before the 
war. We shall have to make a fresh s'art 
in a fresh world. In that world are millions 
of our fellow-citizens to go on living in 
slums? Is the death rate among the children 
of the unskilled workers to remain far higher 
than among the children of the well-to-do? 
Are we, in short, to restore or to perpetuate 
the old abuses, the old evils, the old resent- 
ments, the old wrongs? No; industry to-day 
is in the melting-pot. We must remould it 
in accordance with a juster standard. This 
undoubtedly will be the answer of the na- 
tion as a whole." 

Practically, then, the only possible solu- 
tion of the problem is a minimum wage, 



enforced by law, sufficient to secure physical 
efficiency for a family of average size — 
three dependent children — and "for the 
state to make a grant to the mother in such 
cases and for such time as there are more 
than three dependent children." The prin- 
ciple involved is admitted, not only in the 
differentiation of separation allowances for 
soldiers' wives according to the number of 
children, but also in the income tax abate- 
ments for every child. The cost is not ex- 
orbitant. Mr. Rowntree calculates that it 
will be about forty million dollars -per annum 
for Great Britain. A large part of this ex- 
penditure would be balanced by decreased 
demands upon the state for provision against 
sickness, crime and unemployment (the 
added domestic expenditures providing th» 
best possible market for industry). 

For women, says Mr. Rowntree, it L ab- 
normal to support a family. This fact he 
has made sure of by actual investigation. 
Hence he proposes that their minimum liv- 
ing wage shall be sufficient to maintain 
themselves. This does not, of course, con- 
flict with the claim of women workers for 
"equal pay for equal work" any more than 
a legal minimum living wage for all work- 
ers conflicts with the justice of demands for 
a higher minimum wage in different occu- 
pations in accordance with the skill needed, 
the hazards or the physical requirements of 
those occupations. 

Altogether this little study, with its open 
explanation of the processes by which cer- 
tain statistical and other facts have been 
ascertained and with its spirit of fairness 
towards both the employing and employed 
classes, is likely to command as much re- 
spect as the author's previous contributions 
to his subject. It is a subject in which 
neither the eloquence of agitators nor the 
dialectic of interested legislators goes very 
far towards a practical embodiment of the 
general sense of social justice. 

B. L. 

The History of Statistics — Their Develop- 
ment AND PROCRESS IN MANY COUNTRIES 
Collected and edited by John Koren. 
Published for the American Statistical As- 
sociation by the Macmillan Co. 773 pp. 
Price $7.50; by mail of the Survey $8.00. 

At the time when statisticians have been 
called upon in such overwhelming numbers 
to take an active part in meeting every prob- 
lem confronting the nation, and when every 
social worker is willy nilly forced to g;ap- 
ple with statistical problems, no apology is 
necessary for bringing this highly technical 
book to the notice of the social workers of 
America. 

The monumental work is a cooperative 
venture of eighteen well-known statisticians 
from almost as many lands. It was planned 
many years ago to appear at the occasion of 
the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Ameri- 
can Statistical Association, the oldest or- 
ganization of economists in the country. 
The anniversary occurred in February, 1914, 
and the work was intended to appear soon 
after that. For the reasons of the delay no 
one will hold the editor, Dr. Koren, respon- 
sible. In fact, one must admire the energy 
with which comprehensive contributions 
from almost all belligerent countries, ex- 
cept Italy and Japan, were obtained. The 
inevitable result, however, is that the ma- 
terial is somewhat antiquated and that the 
greatest development of statistics which has 
taken place within recent years and which 
deals with government control and manage- 
ment of industry, as well as with the prose- 
cution of the war, is not taken cognizance 
of in this volume. 

For the more serious and constructive so- 
cial worker who endeavors to deal with im- 
portant national problems the volume will 
prove a very useful book of reference. It 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



69 



will direct him to sources of information in 
foreign literature on various problems of 
governmental concern. It will, however, 
have another effect, perhaps not contem- 
plated by the editorial boards, but useful 
nevertheless. It will demonstrate very 
clearly how one-sided the development of 
statistics had been until very recently in em- 
phasizing governmental and business prob- 
lems to the utter disregard of the more in- 
tricate relations of social life. It is a very 
serious omission not to refer even in such 
a large work to any effect at statistical in- 
vestigation of social conditions by private 
and semi-public statistical agencies. The 
two chapters referring to the United States 
deal with federal and state statistics, and 
except for a few lines in an introductory 
paper by S. N. D. North, one would have 
thought that no other statistical efforts exist. 
The very high cost of the book may be 
fully justified by the high cost of publica- 
tion at this time, and the limited demand to 
be expected, but it is to be regretted never- 
theless, as it will probably prove prohibitive 
to most social workers. It will prove a 
very useful addition to the reference library 
of many an institution endeavoring to study 
conditions in a systematic way, and as a 
key to the numerous government publica- 
tions which one may receive for the ask- 

This is hardly a place for detailed criti- 
cism of so much technical material, but one 
may question the propriety of the use of the 
plural in the title page in speaking of the 
development of statistics. Statistics prop- 
erly "are" when various statistical data are 
meant (just as data "are" and not "is"), 
but statistics, nevertheless, is a science and 
mental discipline like any other science, 
even if it be not "the greatest of all sci- 
ences," as the nestor of American statistics, 
Mr. North, states (p. 49) in his somewhat 
excusable enthusiasm. 

I. M. Rubinow. 

American Social Problems 

By Henry Reed Burch and S. Howard 

Patterson. The Macmillan Co. 381 pp. 

Price $1.20; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

This book is one of the symptoms of the 
growth of modern education. We are no 
longer satisfied with the proverbial three 
R's. The school is entering larger fields and 
preparing pupils not only to live but to un- 
derstand the world in which they live. With 
these facts in view the authors have pre- 
pared this elementary "introduction to the 
study of society." It is intended for sec- 
ondary schools. 

The authors say in their preface that they 
are stressing American society particularly. 
In this objective they have succeeded, even 
to the extent of keeping the contents as super- 
ficial as possible. To be sure one does not 
expect an elementary textbook to explore 
too deeply- But the authors might have at- 
tempted to depart to a slight extent at least 
from the custom employed in textbooks. 
They might have dared to tell their students 
that "the poor we shall not have always." 
They might have hinted at the fact that 
radical changes in human society might be 
expected. The very stud? of human society 
suggests that institutions are not necessarily 
permanent; they may be changed by the will 
of the people, for the good of the people. 

Perhaps that would have been expecting 
too much in a textbook. The powers-that- 
be might have looked with suspicion on a 
work of this kind, particularly for secondary 
schools. Judged by the ordinary standards 
of textbooks the authors have succeeded in 
their work. They have brought out a book 
simple in language, comprehensive in con- 
tent and rich in allusion. 

The students who will desire to delve 



more deeply than their teachers may care 
to lead them will find it possible to do so 
by reading some of the references appended 
to each chapter. There they will come upon 
some of the fundamental social thinkers like 
Prof. Simon N. Patten, to whom the book 
is dedicated. 

If there are to be future editions of the 
book it would be well for the authors to give 
more space to social settlements, civic centres, 
the wider use of the school plant and other 
social forces which should be fully discussed 
in an introduction to sociology. In this edi- 
tion a mere paragraph is given to settle- 
ments. The chapter in which this paragraph 
appears is badly chosen. Settlements are not 
part of "organized charity." They endeavor 
to keep the word charity far from their 
portals. Their clientele would object to 
being regarded as recipients of charity. 

This and a few minor errors should be cor- 
rected in future editions, so as to make the 
book more valuable. 

Oscar Leonard. 

Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon In- 
telligence Scale. Educational Psychol- 
ogy Monographs, No. 18. 
By Lewis M. Terman and others. War- 
wick & York. 184 pp. Price $1.40; by 
mail of the Survey $1.50. 

The Picture Completion Test. Educa- 
tional Psychology Monographs, No. 20. 
By Rudolf Pintner and Margaret M. An- 
derson. Warwick & York. 112 pp. Price 
$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.31. 

The Influence of Age and Experience on 
Correlations Concerned with Mental 
Tests. Educational Psychology Mono- 
graphs, No. 22. 

By Edward Safford Jones. Warwick & 
York. 98 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of 
the Survey $1.31. 

These three monographs typify the trend 
of the times in educational psychology. Each 
contribution represents a closer approach to 
that more exact methodology which is nec- 
essary before educational psychology may 
properly lay claim to being a science rather 
than an art. In all .three of these studies 
the emphasis is laid on careful statistical 
analysis guided by clear insight into the 
problems attacked. 

Terman now presents the statistical and 
logical analysis of the results of applying 
revised Binet-Simon tests to several thou- 
sands of subjects. It is, in effect, the scien- 
tific justification of the Stanford-Binet scale. 
He discusses the statistical validity of the 
tests; the relation of intelligence to school 
success and social status; sex differences; the 
distribution of intelligence, and the rate of 
intellectual growth. The statistical data of 
the Stanford scale are appended. The book 
is a kind of scientific supplement to the 
author's Measurement of Intelligence. 

Pintner and Anderson present an elaborate 
standardization analysis of the Healy pic- 
ture completion test from the standpoint of 
statistical results and proper scoring. Much 
attention is paid to. the empirical basis of 
assigning scores. The significance of their 
study extends beyond the realm of mere age 
standardization, for the authors appreciate 
that arbitrary or a priori standards of scor- 
ing must give way to empirical methods. 
As a thorough demonstration of this need 
their work is suggestive and illuminating. 

Jones applies the correlation method to 
an intricate problem which, although sug- 
gested by several students, has been attacked 
by few. With the extension of mental tests 
to the vocational selection of adults and 
youths there is particular need for under- 
standing the effects of age and maturity on 
performance in mental tests. Jones simplifies 
his approach to this problem by considering 



only obviously mental tests, by studying sub- 
jects of but one sex, and by discarding all 
but homogeneous data. He asks: Do persons 
tend to become more alike from year to year? 
Is the first test of a person as reliable a 
mental index as some subsequent test? How 
are mental tests affected by schooling? 
What is the influence of the time interval 
which elapses between successive examina- 
tions? Is there present in mental activity a 
"common intelligence factor"? And he finds 
that: "There is a marked fidelity of intellec- 
tual type in individuals throughout the ado- 
lescent period of growth." "The amount of 
school work completed correlates well with 
average mental ability." Immediate mem- 
ory is correlated with the amount of school 
work completed." "One well-rounded test- 
ing of an individual is likely to place his 
general intellectual rank for several years 
to come." 

Edgar A. Doll. 

Australian Social Development 
By Clarence H. Northcott. Columbia Uni- 
versity Studies in History and Economics. 
Longmans, Green & Co. 301 pp. Price 
$2.50; by mail qf the Survey $2.60. 

Mr. Northcott, as a university extension 
lecturer on sociology in Australia, has had 
unusual opportunities for adding personal 
experience to academic study. In the pres- 
ent volume he has produced a survey of his 
country's social condition, history and move- 
ment which is not only of extraordinary 
value for its contents but which can also be 
warmly recommended as a model for method 
and structure. No study of similar thor- 
oughness on the subject of Australia has ap- 
peared since Pember Reeves' State Experi- 
ments in Australasia, published in 1902. 
And very few indeed are the American pub- 
lications descriptive of a people's social de- 
velopment that can compare with this either 
in accuracy of presentation or human in- 
terest. 

As the book proceeds from accounts of 
general developments and static influences on 
the settlement of the Australian continent to 
those of specific tendencies and experiences, 
the reader is enabled to visualize one of the 
most fascinating chapters of modern history, 
not only as a political or economic phe- 
nomenon but as a biological growth. For 
here we have conflicts and problems, arising 
sometimes from European antecedents, but as 
often from the primitive necessities of life in 
a new world and reaching far back into the 
origins of the race and nation. Yet they per- 
mit also of forecasts and conjectures that are 
denied to the student of more complex so- 
cieties. 

The Australian venture of the British 
Commonwealth, though perhaps not so dra- 
matic historically as others nearer the United 
States, has features of remarkable interest 
for the solution of a number of colonial dif- 
ficulties. Mr. Northcott has reviewed the 
principal social phases of Australian life for 
a practical purpose: that of determining suc- 
cess and failure, effectiveness and ineffect- 
iveness of the policies tried out and of move- 
ments which have been allowed to grow 
without a definite policy. He shows, for in- 
stance, how labor has become the dominant 
factor politically and economically, and by 
inference, what cultural profits and losses 
we have to expect in other parts of the world 
where the common people are getting into 
their own. 

Written from a patriotic Australian point 
of view, the book is not quite free from what 
a son of the Old World may be forgiven to 
regard as colonial prejudice; but on most 
topics its fairness in giving all sides to a 
controversy and pointing out the deeper 
meanings of surface conflicts is one of its 
most commendable features. 

B. L. 



C092920: 




AFTER CARE FOR YOUNG 
OFFENDERS 

PENOLOGISTS have long recog- 
nized that it is a weakness of our 
social practice that boys released from 
industrial and reform schools are in- 
adequately cared for during the period 
of their readjustment. The most im- 
portant time in the life of a lawbreaker, 
especially a young lawbreaker, is not 
when the prison door closes upon him 
but when it opens to let him back into 
the world. He faces then the necessity 
of making decisions which may deter- 
mine the whole trend of his future life. 
Without money and without friends, he 
often drops back into the associations 
that first led him into waywardness and 
becomes a confirmed offender before 
help can be afforded him. Indeed, in 
developing the technique of extra-insti- 
tutional care, greater progress has been 
made in the supervision of boys on pro- 
bation from juvenile courts, and of older 
men under parole from reformatories 
and prisons, than in the supervision of 
the youngest offenders. 

Conscious of these facts, the Central 
Howard Association of Chicago has re- 
sponded to an invitation from the Illi- 
nois State Board of Parole to superin- 
tend the state's work in looking after 
young boys on parole from the indus- 
trial school at St. Charles. The asso- 
ciation has employed Amelia McNaugh- 
ton, a graduate of the Chicago School 
of Civics and Philanthropy, to investi- 
gate the homes from which these boys 
come and to exercise a friendly super- 
vision over them. If the home is re- 
garded as unfit for the boy to re-enter, 
or if the neighborhood is wholly unde- 
sirable, a new home is found or the 
parents are urged and assisted to move 
to another environment before the boy 
arrives. The object of the work is the 
permanent readjustment of the boys on 
parole, the securing of desirable employ- 
ment for them, and their complete re- 
habilitation in home and community life. 
The association cooperates with other 
agencies, such as the juvenile court, the 

70 



registration bureau, relief organizations, 
boys' neighborhood clubs, settlements 
and churches. 

In a preliminary investigation of fifty- 
five boys it has been found that only 
twenty-four had both parents living and 
that twelve had no parents. In thirteen 
instances only the mother was living at 
home, in five only the father, while a 
stepmother was the sole sponsor for one 
boy. Twenty-seven families had not 
moved since the boy was sent to the in- 
stitution a year or so before. Twelve 
families had moved once, six had moved 
three times, two had moved four times, 
one had gone to another state and five 
could not be located. These facts indi- 
cate something of the need and difficulty 
of the work undertaken. 

IMAGINATION AND CHAR- 
ACTER BUILDING 
SOME interesting sidelights on true 
and false methods of character 
building came to light at a recent con- 
ference of the Woodcraft League of 
America, held at the New Jersey State 
Normal School in Trenton. Dr. George 
E. Vincent, president of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, who spoke on the part of 
imagination in education, showed how 
utterly impossible it is to evoke unself- 
ishness and chivalry without first of all 
evoking imagination ; and again, how 
impossible it is for a leader to develop 
imagination among others if he does not 
possess it himself. 

In illustration he told of a preacher 
who organized a group of boys into 
"the Knights of the Holy Grail" with 
all the fixings and ceremonials and then 
calmly proceeded to ask them to deliver 
hand-bills for the Ladies' Aid. The re- 
quest was such a shock to the boys that 
the "knights" died on the spot. "Think 
of a knight on his noble steed delivering 
hand-bills!" said Dr. Vincent. "What 
he should have done would have been 
to call the boys together, not as knights, 
but as a bunch of boys and organize them 
as a post office system." 

Lack of imagination, said C. J. Atkin- 



son, secretary of the Boys' Club Federa- 
tion, at the same conference, is the cause 
at present of a very real danger to social 
and educational work. Everywhere men 
are asking themselves whether they are 
really doing their part in the war. Too 
often they fail to see the significance of 
the task that lies readiest to hand. "No 
one knows," said Mr. Atkinson, "how 
long the war is going to last, and the 
young we are now guiding may yet be 
in the war. . . . Think, too, of the 
period after the war, when the reaction 
of years of war comes. We must work 
for the next generation to make it phy- 
sically, mentally and morally fit. . . . " 
You won't be able to wear medals or dis- 
play banners, but if you really are doing 
the fundamental work of character build- 
ing for boys and girls, you "are doing 
patriotic work to help win the war." 

Anne Sophia Grumman, industrial 
secretary of the National Committee of 
the Y. W. C. A., added a bit of evidence 
on the importance of imagination in 
character building. She emphasized the 
importance of training working girls in 
thinking and doing before they enter the 
factory. Unless they have themselves in 
complete control, the noise, dirt and 
fatigue will make them high-strung, 
hysterical and subject to illness. Again, 
the mental recreation of the working girl, 
she postulated, should be of a kind — such 
as the "council ring" of the Woodcraft 
organization — to make her realize her 
own powers and increase her fullness of 
living. 

FIGHTING PROSTITUTION IN 
MICHIGAN 

FROM Michigan an encouraging re- 
port is brought to the Chicago Tri- 
bune by Dr. W. A. Evans, former health 
commissioner of Chicago, on the part 
that state is playing in "killing the social 
scourge." Taking advantage of the con- 
gressional appropriation for the suppres- 
sion of venereal disease, Michigan is vy- 
ing with California in getting a share of 
the congressional million dollars. Two 
years ago scarcely any money was appro- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 1918 



71 



priated by a state Board of Health for 
this purpose; now the board of any state 
may have more money with which to 
fight venereal diseases than it has hith- 
erto had to stamp out smallpox, typhoid 
or any other infectious disease. 

Within the year just closing, Mich- 
igan has taken into custody and exam- 
ined nearly 1,000 prostitutes. She has 
found a very large proportion infected, 
a few insane and one-third feeble- 
minded. Those diseased were commit- 
ted to hospital care until they were made 
non-infectious. Those capable of lead- 
ing law-abiding lives were returned to 
their homes. For many employment was 
found, and institutional care was pro- 
vided for those incapable of self-support. 
A parole system provides means for fol- 
lowing up each case and, so far as pos- 
sible, for preventing prostitutes from 
slipping back into evil ways. 

Attempts to release women from cus- 
todial hospital and supervisory care by 
habeas corpus proceedings have failed in 
seventeen cases. Legal control is now 
generally accepted without challenge. 
Almost all of the women thus rehabili- 
tated are reported to be doing well. 

The letters* received at the hospital by 
these wards of the state were opened- 
Those coming from soldiers and sailors 
were referred to the military authori- 
ties, those violating postal laws were 
turned over to the post office authorities, 
while those disclosing procurers came 
into the hands of the police and prose- 
cuting attorneys. The cases of men in- 
fected are reported and the men are re- 
quired to show that treatment is con- 
tinued until they are no longer infec- 
tious. Standardized clinics and other 
treatment have been established and the 
requirements exacted are widely pub- 
lished in the state board's bulletin. Ed- 
ucational posters are displayed where 
most likely to be effective- Thus, the 
$100,000 expended in this year's work 
is regarded as having been well invested, 
not only because of returns already 
achieved but also because of the demon- 
stration of what can be done to prevent 
this "scourge." 

REPAIRING THE RAVAGES 
OF WAR 

SHALL the returned soldiers who are 
crippled and maimed and unable to 
follow their previous occupations be per- 
mitted by the nation for which they 
fought and bled to be put into the in- 
dustrial discard heap, to depend upon 
charity organizations or insufficient pen- 
sions, and to become watchmen, mes- 
sengers, pencil pedlers and street corner 
beggars? — or shall the nation take charge 
of these men, re-educate them and make 
them both useful members of society and 
important cogwheels in the industrial 
and commercial life of the country? 
These questions were asked recently at 



a meeting to discuss the Rehabilita- 
tion of the Wounded, held by the Ameri- 
can Academy of Political and Social 
Science in Philadelphia. 

The conference heard a very interest- 
ing address by the dean of American 
surgery, Prof. W. W. Keen, who de- 
scribed the contrast between the surgical 
knowledge and practice during the pres- 
ent war and surgery as it was practised 
during the Civil War when he was an 
army surgeon. At that time, Dr. Keen 
said, there was a total ignorance of 
germs and of disinfection ; the clinical 
thermometer was not known, hypo- 
dermic syringes were seldom seen, pus 
was always on tap, and surgeons were 
wiping their knives on their boot legs 
and using the same sponges for all cases. 
No wonder that all wounds meant in- 
fection, that amputations meant death, 
that typhoid fever and many other in- 
fectious diseases were rampant and that 
the mortality of the wounded was so 
appalling. In the present war, Dr. Keen 
affirmed, very few soldiers die of tetanus, 
typhoid fever has virtually been elimi- 
nated, infection has been almost ban- 
ished, and in the Carrel Hospital there 
were only six failures out of four hun- 
dred treated wounds. 

Lieut. Col. Harry E. Mock, M. D., 
contended that practically every man can 
come back. The government, he said, 
intends that every soldier shall be phy- 
sically reconstructed, functionally re- 
stored and industrially rehabilitated. 
Dr. Mock told of the arrangements made 
by the surgeon-general's office for the 
physical training of all soldiers handi- 
capped through some loss of organ or 
function and their retraining for jobs for 
which they are specially adapted, accord- 
ing to the expert opinion of vocational 
instructors. Lieut. Col. Charles W. 
Richardson, M. D., of the surgeon- 
general's staff, told of the measures to be 
taken to rehabilitate those soldiers who 
have been rendered deaf and who have 
some defect of speech. 

Cooperation of the federal government 
with the state and with educational in- 
stitutions was urged by James P. Mon- 
roe, vice-chairman of the Federal Board 
for Vocational Education. "It is no 
kindness," he said, "to patch up a man 
and then throw him out into the cold 
world." The government intends to 
put him back, if possible, into his old 
work and, if unable to pursue his old 
functions, to train him for a new voca- 
tion — not one on a lower industrial 
plane than that on which he had been 
before, but, if possible, on a higher plane. 
The government intends not only to give 
physical training to the disabled soldiers, 
but to provide schools for them, pay 
them and their families while they are 
being trained, teach them a new trade- 
fitted for them and then to follow up 
their success or failure and keep them 



under observation until they are on their 
legs. 

Vocational 'therapy is the name by 
which the rehabilitation of crippled sol- 
diers is to be known, according to Doug- 
las C. McMurtrie, director of the Red 
Cross Institute for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men. Mr. McMurtrie said that 
the first school for rehabilitation was es- 
tablished at Lyons in December, 1914, 
Since then hundreds of such schools 
have been established in France and in 
England. In these schools soldiers are 
taught new trades like typewriting, lino- 
type operation, wood-turning, machine 
building and repairing, acetylene weld- 
ing and many other suitable occupations. 
The government is undertaking a de- 
tailed industrial survey of the country 
to find out in each industry and trade 
those processes which may be fit for and 
properly performed by handicapped sol- 
diers. After the wounded and crippled 
soldiers go through the medical branch 
of the army and are found unfit for fur- 
ther military duty, they are taken up by 
the hospital, where their physical recon- 
struction is completed and where occu- 
pational and psychical therapy are em- 
ployed for their vocational training and 
guidance. The slogan of the govern- 
ment, he said, is "that the physical 
cripple must not also become a social 
and economic cripple." 

Michael J. Dowling, president of the 
Olivia State Bank of Minnesota, him- 
self a cripple, lacking both legs, told the 
audience the story of a man who, after 
his accident, was not worth more than 
$1.50 a week from the neck down, has 
become by sheer perserverance and per- 
sistence, worth $100,000 a year from the 
neck up and one of the foremost citi- 
zens in his state. 

Opportunities for the employment of 
handicapped soldiers were discussed in 
detail and methods shown for helping 
soldiers to come back. The opportuni- 
ties were shown to be very numerous, 
and industry after industry was pledged 
for constructive cooperation in this most 
important work. "You never know 
what you can do until you try" stands 
the hackneyed adage that the war com- 
pletely exemplifies and the experts were 
all of the opinion that no matter how 
handicapped the returned soldiers may 
be a proper niche in industrial and com- 
mercial life of the country will be found 
for them. 

Dr. S. Adolphus Knopf, the well- 
known tuberculosis specialist, proposed 
the new vocation of masseuse for the 
totally blinded soldiers. He said that 
massage is a therapeutic measure which 
has not as yet come into its own in this 
country and which is destined to attract 
a very large and lucrative profession. 
He claimed that blind soldiers are spe- 
cially fit for this profession because of 
their highly developed sense of touch. 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, J 9 ! 8 




THE BUDGET CLUB IDEA ILLUSTRATED 



BUDGET CLUBS AND WAR 
SERVICE 

A SUCCESSFUL experiment in 
war-time service at home this past 
summer has been the conducting of 
"budget clubs" in New York city. 
Starting with the principle that in house- 
hold management, as in business, the 
keeping of accounts is a distinct help to 
those who would get the best value for 
the money and labor expended, a group 
of New York women planned these 
clubs to interest women and girls in the 
art of spending money wisely, of prop- 
erly apportioning their income to their 
needs, and of saving in every advisable 
way at the same time that they main- 
tained high standards of health and 
home-keeping. 

Nineteen clubs of mothers, house- 
wives and working girls were organized, 
through settlements, churches, the Pa- 
triotic Service League and the Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs. The total 
membership was 450, and two of the 
clubs included men. The groups met 
twice a month, and a series of six talks 
was the general course of instruction. 
The talks were given by experienced 
workers and teachers in the conservation 
field, and each talk was accompanied by 
charts, pictures and demonstrations, and 
followed by free and full discussion. 
Printed budget blanks were given to 
members at each meeting. The filled- 
out budget sheets were brought back to 
later meetings and the items of income 



and expense (without name of family) 
were discussed and proved a valuable 
basis for suggestion and instruction. The 
members who used the budget sheets re- 
ported, almost without exception, a sat- 
isfactory saving in expense and a no- 
ticeable improvement in the health of the 
family. 

Sometimes a war-saving dish was 
cooked and served, sometimes a moving 
picture was shown, of some textile in- 
dustry or food preparation. Because 
food is such an important item in any 
family budget, at least half of the time 
was devoted to that expenditure, the 
other half covering all the other items of 
expense. The members were invited to 
discuss personally with the club leader 
any problem or difficulty which arose in 
their budget-keeping, and many home 
visits were made between the meetings 
when it appeared that additional sug- 
gestions and individual attention could 
help any member. 

The clubs were self-governing, elect- 
ing their own officers and choosing their 
own names, "Save a Cent Club," "Hart- 
ley Center" and the like. The meetings 
were informal, except for the regular 
succession of subjects taught and dis- 
cussed, and each club enjoyed one or 
two "social evenings" with games and 
refreshments. Even these, however, 
were planned in accordance with the 
purpose of the clubs, the game selected 
being suitable for the home entertain- 
ment of the whole family, and the re- 



freshments demonstrating the use of the 
fireless cooker, dried milk, wheat sub- 
stitutes and sugar conservation. 

The talks and discussions covered the 
following subjects: Why keep ac- 
counts? Proper division of the family 
budget, rent, food, fuel, clothing, recre- 
ation, sundries ; division of the food 
budget, selection of food, substitutes, 
varying prices, minimum estimate of 
food cost ; food needs of the body, the 
health of the family, making a budget, 
planning ahead, suggested menus ; cloth- 
ing, simplicity, attractiveness, durability, 
bargains; and housing, rent, sanitation, 
furnshings, cleaning. 

The report of the Budget Clubs is 
being published this fall in pamphlet 
form as a Teachers' College bulletin. 
The committee that organized the clubs 
included Mrs. Abraham Bijur, chair- 
man ; Mrs. Sigmund Pollitzer, Mrs. 
Emil Goldmark, Mabel Hyde Kitt- 
redge, of the Practical Housekeeping 
Centers ; Lucy Gillett, of the Home Eco- 
nomics Bureau, and Helene Ingram, of 
the Relief Bureau of the Association for 
Improving the Condition of the Poor. 
Benjamin R. Andrews, of Teachers' 
College, took part in the conferences 
which drew up the plan of the clubs and 
assigned some of his students to help at 
the meetings and in follow-up visits. 

CHICAGO AGENCIES AND 
THE WAR CHEST 

THE united war work campaign to 
raise money for the seven agencies 
officially recognized by the War De- 
partment as performing civilian service 
at army camps is creating a situation 
which other social and relief agencies 
are called upon to face in their local 
communities. Anticipating the possi- 
bility that these agencies might exper- 
ience financial emergency during the 
winter, the Chicago Central Council of 
Social Agencies called "a war time 
emergency meeting" recently. 

Unusual response was elicited. Repre- 
sentatives of 103 agencies of all kinds — ■ 
charitable, reformatory, social and re- 
ligious- — were present. A few of these 
reported serious financial crises threat- 
ening the continuance of their work, 
but no general falling off of income was 
disclosed. On the contrary large de- 
velopments of work during the period 
oi the war were claimed by several of 
both the larger and smaller agencies. 
Among these the City Gardens Associa- 
tion had increased its gardens from 80 
to 1,000. The united public appeal 
which was started last year was favored 
for this year. Caution was advised 
against assuming obligations for exten- 
sion of work or for new enterprises. 

The attitude of many agencies was 
revealed toward the suggestion that the 
war chest plan of combining in a single 
effort the appeals and apportionment for 
the support of all be urged upon recog- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



73 



nized and permanent social organizations. 
While open-mindedness toward the pro- 
posal was manifested, yet it was evident 
that few, if any, of the representatives 
favored the plan. However, great ad- 
vantage was claimed for it as operated 
by groups of homogeneous agencies, such 
as the Associated Jewish Charities and 
the Associated Catholic Charities. Sev- 
eral speakers made the point that the 
plan would work more advantageously 
for well established agencies than for 
those facing the opportunity and obliga- 
tion of a developing field of work. 

The outcome of the meeting was the 
appointment of a committee of seven 
to inquire into the actual working of 
the federated plan under present war 
conditions and the probable effect of its 
introduction upon the Chicago agencies. 
No pressure for it, either from without 
or within the central council constitu- 
ency, has yet been disclosed. 

GERMAN LABOR IN THE 
ASCENDANT 

IN a sense, the most interesting figure 
thrown up by the crisis in Germany 
is not Prince Maximilian but a com- 
moner, a man with a long history in 
labor and social reform, Dr. Eduard 
David, appointed on October 5 under- 
secretary for foreign affairs and, there- 
fore, second to Dr. W. S. Solf, the 
foreign secretary, in the formulation and 
execution of the empire's foreign policy. 
In his person, the masses of the people 
have won recognition as entitled to par- 
ticipate in this all-important function of 
the government. Dr. David is next to 
Eduard Bernstein the leading scholar 
in the Socialist movement ; he is keeper 
of the party archives — an important of- 
fice in continental party organization. 

The appointment of Gustav Adolf 
Bauer to the secretaryship of the Im- 
perial Labor Office, in comparison, is 
of only secondary importance, though at 
any other time the choice for that office 
of the secretary of the Federation of 
Trade Unions would have been a revo- 
lution in the internal administration. 
Philip Scheidemann's appointment to the 
cabinet without portfolio is in recog- 
nition of his leadership of the majority 
Socialist group in the Reichstag. Though 
as yet these offices are responsible to the 
sovereign only, the appointment to them 
of men whose careers have been in op- 
position to the crown but who represent 
the Reichstag majority is a measure, as 
one may look at it, of the straits of the 
imperial government or of the gain of 
working-class power. 

All three men belong, of course, to the 
majority section of the party which, 
while it carried the famous peace reso- 
lution in July, 1917, has consistently 
backed the war and has failed to take 
effective action in opposition to the Brest- 
Litovsk treaty forced upon Russia. It 
has stood out against interference with 



WANTED 

by the 

RED CROSS 

THE American Red Cross needs 
help in making a survey of 
nurses who can be called on in 
emergencies. Trained and untrained 
nurses are asked to report. Thou- 
sands of volunteer workers are 
wanted to push along the survey 
itself. The work is being done at 
the urgent request of the secretary 
of war and the surgeon-general of 
the army. The government desires 
to know where the nursing facilities 
are and how they can be reached in 
time of desperate need. 

The work does not entail war serv- 
ice. It does not mean actual service 
of any kind. It simply means a reg- 
istration of those who are graduate 
nurses, partially trained nurses, un- 
dergraduate nurses, or who have had 
any sort of experience in home nurs- 
ing in any sort of character or posi- 
tion. There is no obligation on any 
person who fills an enrollment blank. 
The name is merely entered on the 
list of workers who are known to the 
government. 

To reach these women, volunteer 
field workers are urgently "needed. 
They will make canvasses of the dis- 
tricts to find nurses and urge them 
to sign the blanks. Their work will 
be important. It is now becoming 
an essential war labor. 

Women to do this are asked to 
volunteer at once. Any Red Cross 
chapter will take their names and give 
them districts. Or they can apply 
directly to the divisional supervisor 
of nursing survey, 44 East 23 street, 
New York city. 



civil rights but also against the pacifist 
and anti-monarchical policy of the inde- 
pendent Socialist minority. The ups 
and downs in the fight for supremacy in 
the German government of the civilian 
and militarist policies, represented the 
one by the Reichstag majority and the 
other by the army council and the Junk- 
ers, has been graphically told by former 
Ambassador Gerard. But the picture 
of changing fortunes in the struggle of 
the various policies within the Reichstag 
itself has remained obscure. We know 
little today, for instance, about the actual 
strength of the majority and minority 
Socialist parties in the country, about the 
division among them on concrete ques- 
tions concerning peace aims, or the ex- 
tent to which either of them carries with 
it the votes, or at least the general sup- 
port, of liberal elements in the middle 
classes. 

The division between majority and 
minority cuts right across former sec- 
tions within the party. Thus, Dr. Ed- 
uard Bernstein who, with a large fol- 
lowing, has always endeavored, like the 
English Fabians, to bring about the 
socialized commonwealth by steps rather 
then by a catastrophic revolution, is one 
of the leaders of the radical minority 



while most of his former colleagues, in- 
cluding Dr. David, have remained the 
chief intellectual props of the majority 
party. 

About the gains of labor in the coun- 
cils of the empire during the progress 
of the war there can be no question. 
From the first tentative truce between 
the imperial government and the labor 
leaders to ensure full industrial cooper- 
ation, there has gradually developed an 
influence of Socialist labor on all 
branches of government that was entire- 
ly unforeseen and unintended on the part 
of the ruling classes. The climax came 
when the Hertling cabinet fell, largely 
because, so it is now stated, it could not 
come to terms with the Socialist leaders. 

For the greater part of the war, the 
coercive power of the government, as 
shown by the suppression of the series 
of extensive strikes in January of this 
year, was such that the leaders did not 
attempt any direct attack upon the rul- 
ing powers. They made their main en- 
deavor the strengthening of the party 
organization and of its industrial ad- 
junct, the federation of trade unions. 
As far back as April, 1917, a special 
correspondent of the New York Times 
reported from Duesseldorf: 

The rapid increase of socialism in Ger- 
many of late is strikingly apparent to anyone 
who returns after a few months' absence. 
While this increase may, to a certain extent, 
be explained by the discontent among the 
men in the army, it is chiefly due to the splen- 
did party organization of the Socialists. . . . 
In every locality of any importance the 
Socialists are grouped into political clubs, 
generally called "electioneering clubs," be- 
cause such clubs have the least to fear from 
the police. The German Socialists have 
placed their party today on a sound finan- 
cial basis. Every member contributes to the 
party fund. 

After giving some telling evidence of 
the continual battle going on between the 
party and the police authorities around 
the holding of public meetings and other 
forms of propaganda, and of the success 
of the party in securing new adherents 
in spite of the attempts at suppression, 
he concludes: 

The German Socialists remain today, all 
reports to the contrary notwithstanding, as 
strongly anti-monarchical as ever. The 
Russian revolution has convinced them that, 
once the war is over, a republican regime 
will be established in Germany. 

Figures have been published from 
time to time going to show that in va- 
rious parts of the empire membership of 
the Socialist party has considerably fallen 
during the war. That this is due, where 
it is the case, to the calling of men to the 
colors and to the suppression of all agi- 
tation in the frontier provinces on the 
plea that they were in a state of military 
siege, and not to absorption of labor 
voters in other parties seems to be gen- 
erally recognized ; for, both the majority 
and the minority sections of the Social 
Democratic party have during the last 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



two years continued and even increased 
their machinery of organization and 
maintained their newspapers in spite of 
a much decreased circulation. 

After the Russian revolution, when 
Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg 
voiced in the Reichstag sentiments of 
friendship for the Russian people and 
when the two sections of the Socialist 
party joined, thus forming powerful or- 
ganizations, hopes for a just and demo- 
cratic peace throughout the world ran 
high. Arthur S. Draper cabled to the 
New York Tribune from London on 
March 30, 1917: 

No political move of recent months, except 
the Russian revolution, is calculated to have 
so far-reaching an effect on the course of the 
war as this decision of the German labor 
party. For the first time the laborites of 
Great Britain, France and Russia see some 
hope for a basis of peace negotiations. 

But the Junkers once more rode into 
power on the crest of military successes ; 
the greed of conquest for a time dis- 
pelled the growing liberalism among the 
people; the majority Socialists became 
opportunists. Karl Kautsky, speaking 
for the independent minority Socialist 
party of Germany at the International 
Labor and Socialist Conference in Stock- 
holm on June 29, 1917, according to 
the official report of the proceedings, 

pointed out how the Socialists of the so- 
called majority in Germany appeared to 
have the same peace program as the inde- 
pendent social democrats, since both demand 
a peace without annexations or indemnities, 
but how the agreement consisted solely in 
the use of the same words, to which the other 
section assigned a different meaning. 

He contended that the views of the 
majority party were 

animated by the spirit of a nationalist policy 
based on force and of militarist thought, 
which rendered their attitude towards each 
problem dependent on the military situation. 
This he demonstrated in detail from the 
clauses dealing with Austria and Turkey, 
with Belgium, Poland, and Alsace-Lorraine. 

How much the Allied successes of 
the summer of 1918 have had to do with 
the new swing of German Socialists to 
the left, it would be difficult to estimate. 
Some facts, however, are clear. Strikes 
and the threats of strikes became so 
acute in July and August, and the in- 
crease of the vote for Socialist candi- 
dates of the radical and republican min- 
ority at local elections became so pro- 
nounced that the government sought 
refuge from the gathering storm by in- 
viting the leaders of the moderate So- 
cialist majority to come into the cabinet. 
In answer, Scheidemann and his col- 
leagues produced an ultimatum reiterat- 
ing the peace aims of the July, 1917, res- 
olution, with various new ones, and am- 
plified by a number of detailed demands 
for drastic changes in the constitution 
and civil law, including complete free- 



dom of the press and of assembly and 
appointment of all cabinet officers from 
the Reichstag majority. 

According to this report, the Hert- 
ling cabinet, with its Junker backing, 
was unable to accept these conditions, 
and fell. Whether Prince Maximilian, 
Hertling's successor, has accepted them 
or not is a matter for speculation, but 
not of certain knowledge. It has been 
pointed out by students of the Socialist 
movement in Germany that, defeated at 
many elections because supporting a con- 
tinuation of the war, the Socialist ma- 
jority might well attempt to vindicate 
itself and its policy before the electorate 
by being, at the last moment, included in 
the government that is making the peace. 

Whatever the exact political situa- 
tion may be, the new government ap- 
pointments, taken in conjunction with 
the spread of radical Socialist pacifism 
and republicanism, indicates the exist- 
ence of a decided increase of the power 
possessed by the German masses and a 
more radical use of it. 

LETTING THE SOLDIER FEED 
' HIMSELF 

A TEXAS farmer, back in the eight- 
ies, who lived near an army post, 
was much upset when, instead of paying 
him his own price for garden truck, the 
authorities one day informed him that 
they were obliged for his offer, but that 
they now had their own corn and pota- 
toes. He thereupon persuaded his con- 
gressman to have an act passed forbid- 
ding the War Department "to engage 
in agriculture." That act is still on the 
statute book, and an effort is now being 
made to repeal it. 

Nevertheless, the country has so far 
advanced in common sense that no pub- 
lic outcry was raised when this year 
Camp Dix in New Jersey tried to find 



out exactly how much of the food for 
their own rationing soldiers can raise 
for themselves without prejudice to their 
military training. Four hundred acres 
in all were planted. From these, with 
the aid of about two hundred men clas- 
sified for limited service, some $25,000 
worth of vegetables was raised this 
summer. Some of the main items are : 



Crop 
Potatoes 
Onions 
Sweet Corn 
String Beans 
Hay 



No. of sol- 
diers it will ra- 
Quantity tion for a year 
8,000 bu. 1,315 

1,150 bu. 712 

300,000 ears 822 

1,000 bu. 409 



581,000 lbs. 



117 (horses) 



The War Department, encouraged by 
these results, intends to extend garden- 
ing operations considerably next year, 
probably putting them under the man- 
agement of the reclamation department 
of the Quartermaster Corps. It is es- 
timated that in this \v?'v eight thousand 
acres can be cultivated, producing 
$500,000 worth of vegetables without 
taking a single unit of man-power from 
training for the trenches, the bulk of 
the work being done, as it was this year 
at Camp Dix, by men rejected for over- 
seas service. 

The National War Garden Commis- 
sion, to whose energy this experiment 
was due, reports that war gardening 
throughout the country this year has 
been highly successful. Well over five 
million war gardens — defined as "food- 
producing gardens created on otherwise 
unused lands by private families in the 
cities and towns" — were planted as com- 
pared with last year's three million. The 
acreage of these gardens increased by a 
total of about 40 per cent, and the total 
value of the crops secured is expected 
to exceed $500,000,000. 



PHILADELPHIA— How the Social Agen- 
cies Organized to Serve the Sick and the Dead 



{Continued from page 64.) 
It is interesting to note, as reported 
by Dr. Donald B. Armstrong, that 
Framingham, Mass., although in the 
midst of a district in which the epidemic 
is raging, has suffered somewhat less 
than the surrounding localities. There 
was a disease incidence of about 11 per 
cent of the population, while in other 
sections of the state the percentage of 
infection has usually ranged from 15 to 
25 per cent. There were until October 
13 only 44 deaths, or a mortality rate of 
2.2 per cent. It is not claimed by Dr. 
Armstrong that the lesser disease inci- 
dence and mortality rate are directly due 
to the Community Health and Tubercu- 
losis Demonstration at Framingham, but 
the methods adopted by the health 



authorities, with the cooperation of all 
the best forces of the community, seem 
to have been reasonably comprehensive 
and well thought out. The methods 
adopted at Framingham, Mass., are 

shown on page 64. 

* * * 

PHILADELPHIA has been sorely 
stricken, with a death-rate last week 
of 95 in the thousand and total deaths 
of 3,234 as against 452 for the cor- 
responding week of the year before. 
The incidence in the poorer sections 
of the city has been terrific; there 
is sickness in more than one-third of 
the families in the care of the Society 
for Organizing Charity, and in one row 
of thirty-three houses one or more cases 
were reported from each of fifteen 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191 



houses. The lack of physicians and 
nurses became so acute that by the end 
of the week the Philadelphia Council of 
National Defense had exhausted their 
ranks and the ranks of the semi-trained, 
and was advertising in the newspapers 
for "any person with two hands and a 
willingness to work." 

Before the week was over it became 
evident that the city was not only 
scourged, but was threatened with pesti- 
lence. Nurses brought in report after 
report of bodies lying in houses unbur- 
ied, some of them having been there for 
as long as a week. One visiting nurse 
told of a home in which she found the 
husband dead in the room in which lay 
the wife with new twin babies. Birth 
and death had come in together, twenty- 
fours before, and during their visit, and 
for the time since, no human being had 
been there; the woman's only food had 
been an apple which happened to lie 
within reach of her bed. 

The Society for Organizing Charity 
called up twenty-five undertakers before 
it found one willing to accept a burial 
in one of its families. In another in- 
stance the society found an undertaker 
with thirteen bodies awaiting burial and 
a stock of forty coffins. His intention 
was to accept calls until the forty were 
filled and then to close his shop while 
he arranged the whole series of burials. 
Further investigation showed that there 
was a probable shortage of undertakers, 
or at any rate of embalmers, and an 
actual shortage of coffins in the city. 

The city government disclaimed hav- 
ing any special information regarding 
the morgue, but a visit to it discovered 
that, with a normal capacity of thirty- 
six, the building had more than two hun- 
dred bodies that lay packed close to- 
gether on the basement floor and on the 
floors of the first and second stories. 
Many of the bodies had died days before 
and were unembalmed ; conditions were 
such that many professional embalmers 
on seeing the place refused to work there. 

The executives of the leading social 
agencies of the city got together quickly 
and were able to make substantial im- 
provements in the situation. An organi- 
zation of undertakers, under the leader- 
ship of the head of an embalming school, 
was effected and a better distribution of 
undertakers' services was obtained. 
At the request of the mayor, the 
insurance companies arranged to fa- 
cilitate the payment of insurance so that 
the undertakers might more readily col- 
lect their bills and so not hesitate to 
work for families who had no cash. 

The shortage of coffins was overcome 
by importations from towns nearby and 
by inducing the J. G. Brill Company, 
manufacturers of street cars, to turn its 
wood-working shop temporarily into a 
coffin factory under the direction of a 
skilled workman. Yet even further or- 



75 



( /land kerchiefs 

for Christmas 




m at 

= This year, in spite of War conditions, our stock of Pure Linen 

= Handkerchiefs for the Holidays is larger than ever before because we 

§= ordered very heavily two years ago, in anticipation of the present 

= Linen shortage, and before the price of Linen advanced so sharply. 

= We are, therefore, in a position to 

== offer our patrons unusual values in 

= Holiday Handkerchiefs. All are of 

=| pure Linen, as McCutcheon Hand- 

= kerchiefs have been for the past 63 

= years. 

= We counsel early selection while stocks 

^^ are complete. 



Initialed Handkerchiefs 

For Women— $3.00, 4.00, 6.00 
12.00 the dozen. 



to 



H| For Men— $6.00, 7.80, 9.00, 
= and 15.00 the dozen. 

== For Children — 3 for 65 cents. 



12.00 



Embroidered Handkerchiefs 

From France, Ireland, Switzerland, 
Spain and Madeira. We have never 
had a more beautiful assortment, 
and the values have never been 
better. 

For Children — All white, and white 
with colored borders, 25c, 50c, 75c 
and $1.00 each, and up. 

For Women — All white, and with 
colored borders, 25c, 35c, 50c, 75c 
and $1.00 each, and up. 

Khaki Handkerchiefs 

Pure Linen, of good serviceable 
quality and generous in size, 65c, and 
75c each. 







McCutcheon Pure Linen Handkerchiefs 
$1.00 each, postpaid 



= Orders by mail filled promptly 

= Handkerchief purchases are delivered in dainty McCutcheon boxes 

jjsa suitable for presentation purposes. 

== We respectfully suggest that in so far as possible you act 

= on the Government's request that Christmas shopping 

^= be done in October and November this year. 

== Our illustrated Fall and Winter Catalogue, which will be sent gladly 

= on request, is full of sensible Christmas Gift suggestions. 

M James McCutcheon & Go. 

^= The Greatest Treasure House of Linens 

^= in America 

M Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33d Sts., 

== New York 




76 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19 



918 



ganization was necessary, for it was 
found that the regular grave-digging 
staffs of the cemeteries were indequate 
for the occasion. In different parts of 
the city three branch morgues were 
opened so that no more bodies had to 
be taken to the central morgue. By the 
end of the week the situation with re- 
gard to removal of bodies was distinctly 
better than at the beginning. 

Back of this organization of the serv- 
ice to the dead was a rapid integration 
of caring for the sick, functioning 
through the Philadelphia .Council -of 
National Defense which, fortunately, 
had ample funds, a trained staff, and a 
spirit of cooperation which called to- 
gether all of the social agencies of the 
city. If some are mentioned and some 
are not, in this brief report, it is due to 
the fact that should all who deserve it 
be named, the list would comprise the 
complete charities directory of the city. 

The relief plan had its nerve center 
in the department store of Strawbridge 
and Clothier, which turned over its tele- 
phone switch-board, operators and trunk 
lines to the cause. Any one who wanted 
help of any kind with regard to the epi- 
demic called "Filbert 100" and was con- 
nected with hospital, soup kitchen, doc- 
tor, nurse, ambulance corps, undertaker, 
etc. The whole city was laid out in 
seven districts and the agencies in those 
districts were asked to stay within them 
so as to expedite attention to cases by 
this concentration. The handling of the 
information through the switch-board 
was in charge of a group of hospital so- 
cial workers, with other women volun- 
teers for the two day shifts and four 
trained men for the late night shift 
which completed the twenty-four hour 
schedule on which it was run. 

The Emergency Aid Nursing Com- 
mittee and the Visiting Nurses' Asso- 
ciation took charge of all nurses and 
learned each morning the needs of each 
district and of each institution, includ- 
ing work for volunteers, such as cooking 
and scrubbing. The acute need of food 
in the uncounted families where no adult 
was well enough to cook, was met by 
the use of kitchens of the settlements 
comprising the Social Settlement Asso- 
ciation, and of the large canning kitchens 
providentially established last summer 
in various parts of the city by the Wom- 
an's League for Service. Great quan- 
tities of soup and other nourishing food 
were cooked and given out without 
charge and without question. Where 
it was not possible to come for food, vol- 
unteers carried it to the door. The Red 
Cross Disaster Committee, formed for 
the occasion, provided ambulances ; a 
committee of the Council of National 
Defense provided both ambulances and 
automobiles for the use of doctors and 
nurses. For cases to whom it was im- 
possible to send nurses, the Society for 
Organizing Charity obtained voluntary 



service by appealing to neighbors and rel- 
atives, and, as a final step, volunteers 
are now organizing to go from house 
to house to wash dishes, clear and clean 
up homes that in some cases have not 
been touched for a fortnight. 

Out of the organization has come, in 
the words of a leading social worker of 
the city, such keen and whole-hearted 
cooperation among social agencies as 
Philadelphia has never before experi- 
enced. The city government, as was ex- 
pected, proved a weak reed to lean upon. 
For the progress made in meeting the 
situation, credit must be given the pri- 
vate associations. They organized quick- 
ly and smoothly through the Philadel- 
phia Council of National Defense, build- 
ing on the cooperative spirit which had 
been fostered by the organization and of 
which there had been other manifesta- 
tion during the past year in the develop- 
ment of the Child Welfare Federation. 
The latter rendered a unique service in 
the existing emergency by drawing up 
plans for the districting of the city and 
maps showing the available social agen- 
cies, and in working up the rough notes 
of executives, nurses and others and in- 
dexing them so that they were immedi- 
ately at hand for the use of the informa- 
tion service over the telephone. 

The prime need of the situation is now 
declared to be nurses and doctors, par- 
ticularly nurses. Practically all of the 
hospitals of the city have beds that are 
unused for lack of nurses, and the Red 
Cross Emergency Hospital, just estab- 
lished with one hundred and sixty beds, 
is ready to double or triple its capacity 
if nurses can be enlisted. The feeling 
today is that should there not be a dis- 
tinct improvement before the end of this 
week great numbers of the nurses and 
doctors will collapse. 

In discussing the situation a Philadel- 
phia social worker declared that it was 
his belief that if the city had had its 
full quota of nurses and physicians, such 
as it had before the war, the condition 
would have been less acute; that much 
of the high disease and death-rate could 
be charged to the fact that Philadelphia 
is a very crowded and a very dirty city. 
In its south-eastern section, as in the 
old North End of Boston, where similar 
death-rates and shortage of undertakers 
have prevailed, the room-crowding is 
very bad and is considered worse than 
it is on the East Side of New York, 
where the whole tendency of the Tene- 
ment House Department has been to re- 
duce room over-crowding. But all of 
Philadelphia, this social worker said, is 
over-crowded now because of the tre- 
mendous influx of war-workers ; the high 
cost of living and the high prices offered 
for rooms have conspired to crowd lodg- 
ers into practically every house except 
in the comparatively small well-to-do 
sections. In the course of the past week 
there was belated recognition that the 



houses and particularly the streets of 
Philadelphia are very dirty. Even the 
city government suddenly discovered it, 
but the city's only movement was to rush 
out sprinkling carts which turned the 
dusty streets into pools of mud without 
removing an ounce of dirt. And even 
this small movement was suddenly 
checked by the political powers that be, 
who concluded that to call south-eastern 
Philadelphia dirty was to criticize the 
politicians whose stronghold of votes 
lies in this very section. 





COMMUNICATIONS 


. -4 



GIRLS IN WAR DRIVES 

To the Editor: It may interest your read- 
ers to know that the Girls' Activities Com- 
mittee of the Boston War Camp Community 
Service has secured the approval of the 
leading national organizations (interested 
in drives for money) of certain regulations 
controlling the work of girls in connection 
with such drives. 

These regulations are that no girl under 
eighteen is to be employed. All those em- 
ployed are to be carefully supervised, no 
supervisor having more than twenty girls 
under her charge during the day, and each 
two girls are to be assigned work in close 
proximity. No one is to work on the streets 
after 6 P. M., or indoors after 11 P. M., and 
then behind sales tables or booths, except 
when collections are made at the close of or 
during a meeting. 

Certified badges bearing the name of the 
organization and date of drive are to be 
worn and, wherever possible, some distinc- 
tive dress or uniform. 

These regulations are approved not only 
by the Girl Scouts, but also by the Overseers 
of the Poor of Boston, to whom is assigned 
the duty of issuing licenses for the soliciting 
of money on the streets for charitable pur- 
poses, and, in conjunction with the mayor's 
office, in public buildings. 

Boston has had for many years the protec- 
tion of a law forbidding children under six- 
teen to participate in street begging for char- 
itable purposes, and has also limited the hour 
for such work to 6 P. m. The Overseers wel- 
come the extension of the age to eighteen, 
as it will then be almost impossible for the 
law prohibiting children under sixteen to be 
evaded. 

I understand that the National War Work 
Council of the Roman Catholic Church has 
decided to employ none under twenty for 
such work. 

Edith M. Howes. 
[Chairman, Girls' Activities Committee, 

Boston War Camp Community Service.] 

WORLD PROHIBITION 

To the Editor: I think the Survey should 
be interested in the new policy of the Anti- 
Saloon League. As soon as prohibition is 
made permanent in this country by the ratifi- 
cation of thirty-six states (and it won't be 
long), the Anti-Saloon League will strike in- 
to the heart of prohibition, that great world 
need, internationalism. It will start out to 
kill the traffic through the entire earth. World 
prohibition will be its goal. First it will 
establish publishing houses in various coun- 
tries abroad and begin making sentiment. 
The task is a splendid one. It strikes out 
for international good just at the time when 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 19, 191% 



71 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED — General secretary, man or 
woman of experience. Associated Chari- 
ties, Jacksonville, Fla. 

WANTED— Ten nurses for child welfare 
work. Salary up to $1440. Apply Dr. Julius 
Levy, Division of Child Hygiene, State De- 
partment of Health, Trenton, N. J. 

WANTED — Supervisor of nurses. Sal- 
ary $1800-$2500. Apply Dr. Julius Levy, 
Division of Child Hygiene, State Depart- 
ment of Health, Trenton, N. J. 

Civil Service Examination, November 23, 
open to residents of Illinois. 

Director of Social Service, salary $275 to $325 a month. 

Superintendent of Social Service, salary $100 to $125 
with maintenance a month. 

Pupils' Social Service Field Worker, salary $25 to $40 a 
month with maintenance. For further information and 
application, address Boom 533 State House, Springfield, 111. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

EMPLOYMENT MANAGER, college 
woman with industrial background and 
wide experience with people, desires posi- 
tion. Address 2892 Survey. 

UNDER-GRADUATE NURSE, experi- 
enced child-helping work, desires position 
as house-mother. Address 2894 Survey. 

EXPERIENCED, educated, Protestant 
woman desires position as superintendent 
or managing matron of institution or home. 
Highest references. Address F. A. Watkins. 
1611 17th Street, Superior, Wis. 

POSITION of superintendent of home 
or institution by refined woman with ex- 
tensive experience and thorough knowledge 
of all branches of the work. Address : 
Superintendent, 1095 St. John's Place, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



the world's imagination can rise beyond a 
dry nation to a dry globe. It makes for 
human unity. The task will not be as 
herculean as it at first looks. Canada and 
Russia have arrived — Finland, too. Sweden 
Norway, Denmark are all but going dry 
permanently. Germany has been long build- 
ing up an anti-alcohol mind. England needs 
just what America can give — a brotherly 
push to establish prohibition. 

The wine countries will come a bit harder 
because the money in wine has got into poli- 
tics, and it will require something of a 
surgical operation to get it out. 

But all this can and will be; and in the 
making I look to see the world become a 
splendid net of international relationships. 
The moral and economic forces of all the 
nations can get together and learn team- 
work, international team-work in this great 
drive. World politics can be welded as 
round a great religion. Think of all the 
great, common humanity that has suffered 
through drink. Here are no enemies; here 
is a world army ready to fight together and 
in that fight not only is the demon drink 
retired, but the day of internationalism learns 
how to become fact. 

The Anti-Saloon League is to be thanked 
for its splendid program. 

Elizabeth Tilton. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

ESSENTIAL SOCIAL WORK 
To the Editor: Sidney A. Teller, in a re- 
cent issue of the Survey [the Survey for 
September 7, page 646] asks if "it is not pos- 
sible to clarify the present situation, as to 
what is, and what is not, essential in social 



work, and what positions men of the draft 
age should not be allowed to hold." 

Let us assume that all social work is es- 
sential. Is it not still possible to release 
every man of draft age to military service, 
and still maintain the highest efficiency in 
social service? 

Women are adequately replacing men in 
heretofore untried fields. They have proven 
themselves fit to hold the highest executive 
positions in every form of social service. 
May not the "male social worker," so anxious- 
ly referred to, don the khaki without too 
much anxiety for the fate of the institutions 
he leaves behind? 

Janet Hall. 

Louisville, Ky. 



JOTTINGS 



INFLUENZA has caused the postponement 
of the following conventions until safer 
times: the American Public Health Associa- 
tion, Chicago, from this week until Decem- 
ber; the American Prison Association, New 
York, October 14-18, indefinitely; three of 
the five sectional conferences of the National 
Tuberculosis Association as follows: the 
Southern, Birmingham, October 11-12; the 
Northern, Pittsburgh, October 17-18; the 
New England, Providence, October 25-26, in- 
definitely. 



ONE of the incidental effects of the estab- 
lishment of the Students' Army Training 
Corps in the colleges and universities in this 
country is the somewhat anomalous position 
thus given to secret societies and fraternities. 
The War Department has directly requested 
these organizations to suspend their activi- 
ties during the war so far as they affect 
members of the corps. The department is 
said to regard fraternity activities and mili- 
tary discipline as incompatible. 



SANTERI NUORTEVA, recently appointed 
American representative of the Finnish Re- 
public, is one of the leaders of the Finnish- 
American cooperative movement. There are 
forty-four Finnish cooperative stores in Wis- 
consin, Minnesota and Michigan, about half 
of them transacting their business through a 
central exchange in Superior, Wis. The 
forty-four stores together have over 7,000 
stockholders and in 1917 had a turnover of 
over $1,500,000. 



FURTHER evidence that religion is becom- 
ing increasingly associated with man's daily 
work is found in the pulpit utterances of 
prominent church leaders. One of them re- 
cently said: "Religion today does not find its 
chief expression in the house of worship. 
Rather is it in the true daily life of man in 
all the relationships. The mother preparing 
an economical yet nourishing meal for her 
family, the farmer working long hours to 
feed us, the seamen braving dangers to carry 
food to the famishing of Europe, the soldier 
fighting for humanity, are religiously en- 
gaged. The Y. M. C. A. is doing religious 
work not only when it holds devotional 
services but when it provides for our sol- 
diers' movies, chewing gum, dancing and 
vaudeville." 



tion." This desire of the government, first 
propounded by the War Industries Board, is 
now expressly endorsed by Otto M. Eidlitz, 
president of the United States Housing Cor- 
poration. He further wishes it to be known 
that the national fund for housing war 
workers administered by that body cannot 
be used for the financial assistance of private 
enterprises, and that the federal government 
will not build houses for war workers in any 
community that has not exhausted its own 
resources in an endeavor to meet the need. 



Social Work is 


NOT ADJOURNED 




for the War 






The war programs of 


fkz~- -__i. 1 






American social agen- 


(finttT' 






cies are reflected in this 


c " 






volume as in no other. 




""CMI. 






Have we run wild on 




%RK 






detail — is there a cross- 










ing of purposes — in 




**« 






building up the immense 


■'... 


1 




new machinery required 










by the War ? 




', 






Two thousand repre- 










sentative workers have 
paused to consider the 
multitude of new issues 
raised bytheWar. Read 






'J^ 


*^ their conclusions in the 


fe 




PROCEEDINGS Of the 


tj^^ 


National Conference 


v <^>- 


of Social Work. 


Cloih, 


650 pages, $2.50 


Sample pamphlet tent 


free. State your field of interest. 


Ask for table of conn 


nts. Write today. 


. 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago 
*> — J 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions ; 

copy unchanged throughout the month 

Order pamphlets from publishers 

A Model Constitution and By-Laws for a Con- 
sumers' Cooperative Society. 5 cts. Published 
by The Cooperative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

A Bibliography of Social Service. By F. Ernest 
Johnson, Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, 105 E. 22 St., N. Y. C. Price 
$10 per hundred. 10 cents per copy. 

For Value Received. A Discussion of Industrial 
Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted from the 
Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 St., New York. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc.. 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. Arguments free on request. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Surrey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Toward the New Education. The case against 
autocracy in our public schools. 164 pp. 25 
cents. Teachers' Union of the City of New York. 
70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 73 Devon- 
shire St., Boston. 



PERIODICALS 



"ALL building not required for essential 
war purposes should be suspended during the 
period of the war. except in the rare cases 
where a new building is indispensable to the 
health and protection of our civil popula- 



Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June) ; $3 official organ for the 
American Physical Education Association. Orig- 
inal articles of scientific and practical value, 
news notes, bibliographies and book reviews. 
American Physical Education Association, 93 
Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

Mental Hvgiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hygiene. 
50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; pub- 
lished by National Organization for Public Health 
Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman; illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad. 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



78 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Survey 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you icant to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply, and pamph- 
lets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



WARTIME SERVICE 

i 6 T JO IV the Survey can serve" 
■LJ. was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which we asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory 
is one of several steps in carrying 
out this commission. The executives 
of these organizations will answer 
questions or offer counsel to individ- 
uals and local organizations in ad- 
justing their work to emergent 'war- 
time demands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Athletics. Amer. Phy. Education Assn. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities. Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Nat. Child Welf. Assn. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child-Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

General War-Time Commission of the Churches. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 



COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 
County Ywca. 

Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Board of the Ywca. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 
Electoral Reform. Ti. Aprl. 
Employment, Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 
Eugenics, Er, Rbf. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 
Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 



FOUNDATIONS 

Race Betterment Foundation. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 



HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Mass. Soc. for Social Hygiene. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Com. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Rbf. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economies. Ahea. 
Home Work. Nclc 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 



IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 



INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws, Nlucan. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws, Aall, Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 
Negro Training, Hi, Nlucan, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa, Wees. 
Prostitution, Asha, Mssh. 
Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 
Public Health, Nophn. 
Race Betterment, Er. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Er, Nlucan, Rbf. 
Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbvwca, Nwwcymca, Apea, Wees. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 

Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 



SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha, Mssh. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Mssh. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 

Natl. League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. 

Nwwcymca, Pola, Wees. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference, of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of YWCJL 
Gwcc, Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Council, 
Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S., Gwcc. 
War Cam]) Community Service. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LE6IS- 

LATION— John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; main-' 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 



AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 
B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations. 



[ADVERTISEMENT! 



-.1 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 
—Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y; 801 Franklin Bank Bldg., Philadelphia. Ad- 
vocates a rational and fundamental reform in elect- 
ing representatives. Pamphlet free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — 105 W. 40 St., New York. For the re- 
pression of prostitution, the reduction of venereal 
diseases, and the promotion of sound sex education. 
Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Associate Membership, $2.00; Annual, $5.00; 
Sustaining, $10.00. Memberships include quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsdcn, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Miss Grace 
W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, 6ec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Strengthen America Campaign, Charles Stelzle, 

mgr. 

GENERAL WAR-TIME COMMISSION OF THE 
CHURCHES — Constituted by the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America. Robert E. 
Speer, ch'm; William Adams Brown, sec'y; Gay- 
lord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordinates the work of 
denominational and inter-denominational war-time 
commissions; surveys camp conditions; promotes 
erection of inter-church buildings; other general 
war-time work. 105 East 22 Street, New York. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; 
G. P. Phenix, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers, treas. ; 
W. H. Scoville, sec'y; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Coi.ducts National Americanization program. 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object — To promote an intelligent interest in so- 
cialism among college men and women. Annual 
membership, $2, $5 and $25; includes quarterly, 
The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR SO- 
CIAL HYGIENE, INC — 50 Beacon St., Boston; 
pres., Charles W. Eliot; acting sec'y, L. V. In- 
graham, M.D. Circulars and reading list upon 
request. Quarterly Bulletin 25 cents a year. Mem- 
berships: Annual, $3; Sustaining, $10; Life, $100. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 

Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 
— Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Originates and publishes exhibit mate- 
rial which visualizes conditions affecting the health 
and education of children. Cooperates with com- 
munities, educators and organizations through ex- 
hibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

— Julia C. Lathrop, pres., Washington, D. C.J Wil- 
liam T. Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. General organization to discuss principles 
of humanitarian effort and increase efficiency of 
agencies. Publishes proceedings annual meetings. 
Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 46th annual meeting 
June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. Main divisions and 
chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C. E.-A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Joanna C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene, Maj. Frankwood E. Williams, 

M. O. R. C. 
Organization of Social Forces, William]. Norton. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in America, 
Graham Taylor. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state, and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed 
by settlement work: seeks the higher and more 
democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE ON URBAN CONDITIONS 
AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 200 
Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates conditions of 
city life as a basis for practical work; trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMEN'S SERVICE 
— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 
Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 75 cents a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 
—Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St, 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 

trained workers. 

NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph. D., ass't sec'y; 381 Fourth Ave., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave., 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'm; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen. sec'y. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labot. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with Waf 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 
— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Public Ownership League of America, 
1438-1440 Unity Building, 127 N. Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— 
Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment 
Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and lecture 
courses and various allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, 
pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-educa- 
tion for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. 
Publishes reports on reconstruction work here and 
abroad, and endeavors to establish an enlightened 
public attitude towards the physically handicapped. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — Tohn M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC — Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health, Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

WAR CAMP COMMUNITY SERVICE— 1 Madison 
Ave., New York. Conducted by the Playground 
and Recreation Association of America under the 
War Department and Navy Department Commis- 
sions on Training Camp Activities, to mobilize all 
the resources of the communities near the camps 
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Camp Community Service stimulates, coordinates 
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ties of the camp cities and towns. Joseph Lee, 
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SALUTING THE NEWEST PRESIDENT 
Immigrant workingmen, mostly young fellows of the sturdy type here shown, have been re- 
cruited in the Czechoslovak army in training at Stamford, Conn. They are shown here with 
Thomas G. Masaryk, the best known of the workers for Bohemian independence, who has 
been elected president of the provisional Czechoslovak government officially recognized by 

the United States and our Allies. 



Price 10 Cents 



October 26, 1918 



FOR A DURABLE PEACE 

"Starvation is a great force, and if we can use that to the advantage of the German 
Government we are going to use it. We have wanted and needed Poland for a long time, 
and if these people die off through starvation, a lot of German people will overflow into this 
country and settle here and after the war Poland will be a German province, even if we 
have to give it up. 

"GENERAL VON BESELER, Governor-General of Warsaw." 



This is exactly what Germany wants. Already fifty-five years ago, in 1863, speaking 
through Bismarck,, Prussia declared : "For us the annihilation of Poland is a matter of 
life and death." 

Prussia wants Poland, needs Poland, because Poland is the gate which leads into 
Russia and Siberia. 

Whatever Prussia wants we must strive to prevent. 

Let us make no mistake, the Liberty of Poland and the ultimate triumph of Democracy 
are inseparable. They are inseparable for no sentimental reasons, for no abstract love for 
justice. All the leading statesmen of today agree on that subject. 

But in order to make secure and durable the peace of tomorrow, to prevent Germany's 
"Drang nach Osten," to frustrate her Berlin-Bagdad, Hamburg-Vladivostock and Mittel 
Europa plans Poland must be strong enough to play her part adequately; and today Poland 
is slowly agonizing. 

Since August, 1914, three million human beings have died in Polish Galicia, three 
million and a half in so-called "Russian" Poland — all dead from starvation, cold, 
disease and exposure. And these figures do not include those Poles, who during that 
same period have died from similar causes in Lithuania, in Ukraine, in Russia proper, 
in Siberia. They do not include those Polish soldiers killed in battle while fighting 
for the Allies. They do not include those 30,000 Polish young men hanged by the 
Germans and Austrians for refusing to enlist in the armies of the Central Powers. 

In 1916 one heard already of eleven thousand children lying in Warsaw with 
atrophied limbs, children of the intellectual classes, of professional men, of artists. 
Lack of food reduced the vitality of both mother and child. The frail succumbed, 
the strong became frail. Strange stories now come through — one hears that in 
Warsaw three hundred children are born a week, and that four hundred die; that 
of those born many are without eyes, without finger nails. Due to malnutrition the 
ribs of older children break under finger pressure of examining doctors. 

Eleven million people are still wandering homeless, hungry and cold among the 
ruins of 22,000 villages and 200 towns reduced to ashes. "Their only hope is America," 
cables Prince Adam Sapieha, Bishop of Cracow. "We pray that the coming winter 
will be mild." 

The cities of Poland are bankrupt and cannot even support the asylums. The 
present death rate in Poland is 9.8% — while the rate of army casualties resulting in 
death on the western front is 1.1%. 

This is the first time in modern history that there has been made a systematic attempt 
to destroy a civil population* so that its country might be retained by the conquerors. 
Empty lands are easily colonized. The German general staff counts on the starvation of 
these people as they counted upon their military forces to obtain an ultimate German 
victory. If Germany retains Poland in any measure whatever there cannot, and will not, 
be a Democracy triumphant. 

Help to make the Allies' victory complete and insure a durable peace. Help 
make America known throughout history as the glorious helper of the helpless. 



to 



NATIONAL AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF THE POLISH VICTIMS' RELIEF 

FUND 
WE ARE OFFICIALLY AUTHORIZED TO TRANSMIT MONEY TO 
POLAND FOR THE RELIEF OF POLES ONLY, REGARDLESS OF THEIR 
RACE OR CREED. MONEY REACHES ITS DESTINATION. IF YOU 
DOUBT IT WRITE US FOR DETAILS. 



Statements by Statesmen 

"An independent Polish State should 
be erected which should include the ter- 
ritories inhabited by indisputably Polish 
populations, which should be assured a 
free and secure access to the sea, and 
whose political and economic independ- 
ence and territorial integrity should be 
guaranteed by international covenant."' — 
President Woodrow Wilson. 

"The Baltic Sea is now in complete 
possession of the Germans, and has been 
changed into a 'German Lake.' It is 
necessary that Russia's place should be 
taken by a powerful commonwealth that 
will guarantee to halt Germany in her 
march eastward, and such commonwealth 
will be a united, independent and power- 
ful Poland. The establishment of Po- 
land has been definitely decided upon, 
but she must be powerful, and, therefore, 
must regain all of the territory taken 
from her by the Prussians, Austria and 
Russia. Poland must be so powerful that 
in case of war she could alone take care 
of Germany. This task will be accom- 
plished by the Allies irrespective of how 
much more blood will have to flow. Only 
Poland can guarantee peace and retain 
the political equilibrium in Europe." — 
Premier Clemenceau. 

"It is especially important that the re- 
awakening of conscience in the peoples 
of Europe, which seems now to have 
taken place, should not be a mere passing 
phase, and that they must insist upon the 
reconstitution of Poland in such fashion 
that there shall be no possibility of the 
promises made during the war being 
afterwards violated. ... A recon- 
stituted Poland would prove a powerful 
rampart against certain possible inva- 
sions." — Count Edward Soderni. 

"We believe moreover that an inde- 
pendent Poland, comprising all these 
genuinely Polish elements who desire to 
form part of it is an urgent necessity for 
a stability of Western Europe." — Pre- 
mier Lloyd George. 

"The creation of a united and inde- 
pendent Polish State, with free access to 
the sea, constitutes one of the conditions 
of a solid and just peace and of the rule 
of right in Europe." — Interallied Coun- 
cil of Versailles, June 3, 1918. 

"Poland is the key-stone of the Euro- 
pean situation."- — Napoleon I (at St. 
Helena). 



Owing to the increased postal 
rates, receipts for check con- 
tributions will be mailed only 
on request, a cancelled check 
being a receipt in itself. Cash 
donations, drafts, postofflce or 
express money-orders will be 
officially acknowledged. Kindly 
make checks payable to Polish 
Victims' Relief Fund; also 
please state whether the con- 
tribution is to be considered as 
anonymous. 



POLISH VICTIMS' RELIEF FUND 
I. J. PADEREWSKI, Founder 

33 W. 42nd Street, New York. 



I enclose $ my contribution towards food for the starving women and children of Poland. 



Hon. WILLIAH H. TAFT 

Honorary President 

FRANK A. VANDERLIP 

Honorary Treasurer 

I. J. PADEREWSKI 

Chairman Executive Committee 

0. GORSKI 

Honorary Executive Secretary 



Name. 



Address. 



W. 



City and State 

(Please write plainly) 

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[ADVERTISEMENT] 




In the Path of the Flames 

Relief Work and Rehabilitation Following- the Minnesota 

Conflagration 

By Frank J. Bruno 

DIRECTOR BUREAU OF CIVILIAN RELIEF, NORTHERN DIVISION, AMERICAN RED CROSS 



ONE HOUR before any fire refugees had arrived, 
and less than two hours after word was received 
that refugees were on the way, six hundred cots, 
well and comfortably prepared ; hot meals for the 
same number; hospital facilities for the sick and the burned, 
and motor transportation were ready in Duluth to receive 
those driven away from their homes by the Minnesota forest- 
fires. From that time to the present the Red Cross has kept 
its resources for supplying the need in advance of the actual 
demand. Now it is talking about how it will build houses, 
how it will give expert advice to the farmers with regard 
to the treatment of the burned soil, the best kind of seed 
which it needs, and when that seed should be sown. It has 
also taken great care to see that the settlers are not discouraged 
to the point of leaving their farms permanently. 

For the last six months, on account of an extremely dry 
summer, fires have been smouldering to an unusual degree 
in the peat lands of northern Minnesota. All of this land has 
been cut over from the first timber and has recently been 
drained and opened to settlers. A great deal of it is a thick 
mesh of interwoven roots and low grade peat where fires are 
easily started, but stopped with difficulty. 

On Saturday afternoon, October 12, about one o'clock, 
when the wind suddenly struck into a sixty-mile gale, these 
peat bogs blazed into furious flame, spread their burning 
embers into the surrounding brush and 
young growth, becoming, where circum- 
stances were favorable, roaring furnaces. 
The conflagration extended from Du- 
luth to a point about sixty miles west; it 
spread north and south for about fifty 
miles. This region of intense burning 
u as surrounded by areas where the fires 
did not reach the point of conflagration 
yet did considerable damage. The en- 
tire area affected extends from Bemidji 
to Two Harbors, about one hundred and 
seventy-five miles west and east; and 
from the Mesaba Range on the north 
to a point about midway between Min- 



Oc!-obcr 26, 1918 Vol. 1,1, N». !, 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Charles D. Norton, 

treasurer; Arthur P. Kellogg, secretary. 

10 cents a copy; $S a year; foreign 

postage, $1.50; Canadian 75 cents. 

Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 

Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
25, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March S, 1879. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorised on 
June 26, 1918. 



neapolis and Duluth, one hundred and twenty-five miles south. 
The first place reported as burning was the little town of 
Brookston, thirty miles west of Duluth, which was swept 
absolutely clean of all houses. The railroad company fur- 
nished trains to bring the people in, and there were no casual- 
ties. The most striking instance of such rescue work was 
in Cloquet, a city of between nine and ten thousand people. 
In two hours the railroad company, by flat cars, box cars and 
passenger cars, had emptied that entire city without the loss 
of a person. First they were taken to Carlton, a distance 
of only five or six miles, and then to Superior, about twenty 
miles further. At Moose Lake, however, people were caught 
on all sides by the fire, which destroyed the bridges on the 
railroad as well as on the highways. It was at Moose Lake 
that the largest number of casualties occurred. 

For a time Duluth itself was threatened. Fire came in 
toward the city from the Cloquet region, which is only 
fifteen miles west, and from a lake region on the north, a 
summer-home colony. These two fires approaching Duluth 
from opposite directions threatened to destroy the entire city 
and part of the northern part of Duluth was taken — a few 
beautiful homes in one of its suburbs and the country club were 
totally destroyed. Many of the cottagers lost their lives in 
trying to get into Duluth from the fire. A sudden shift of 
the wind was all that saved the city from total destruction. 

The complete loss of life will never 
be known. The fire burned with such 
intensity that in some places there were 
no traces left of the woods except black 
ashes. The fire occasionally even reached 
down a well and burned up people who 
had taken refuge there. At the present 
writing (October 19) somewhat over 
eight hundred bodies have been recov- 
ered, of which about three or four hun- 
dred have come from the region of 
Moose Lake. The next most dangerous 
point was the summer cottage region 
around the lakes north of Duluth. The 
fire swept across the path of those who 



The Survey, October 26, 1918, Volume 41, No. 4. 112 East 19 street, New York city 



83 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



were trying to get out of its way, and many of them were 
caught. In one place, Pike Lake, a number tried to row 
across the lake to safety, as the fire was only on one side; 
their boats were capsized and only one person survived. The 
most heroic story of the whole fire centers about this place. 
An eight-y^ar-old boy was left in charge of his three brothers 
and sisters by his parents, who had gone to Duluth. When 
the fire broke out he went into the lake, waist deep, and by 
ducking his head and those of his sisters and brothers occa- 
sionally kept them unharmed ; they were the only people, so 
far as I could find, who had sought safety on that lake and 
had been successful. To stand for a couple of hours in a 
northern Minnesota lake in the month of October is no small 
undertaking. 

The death total would doubtless have been much higher, 
especially around Duluth, if it had not been for the automo- 
biles. Most of the people owned their cars, and most were 
successful in getting out of the fire. It is said, however, 
that two hundred machines were caught. This does not mean 
that their occupants were killed, for in many instances the 
automobile was wrecked because of a driver's inability to see 
the road on account of the dense smoke, and the occupants 
were forced to abandon the car. Most of these got in 
safely. 

Three recently organized agencies, working together, pro- 
duced an organization for the relief of the fire sufferers which, 
I do not suppose, has ever been equalled in a disaster. Al- 
though nothing had ever been said about disasters, the Red 
Cross, the Minnesota Guard, and the State Motor Corps, all 
jumped into their respective places without friction and with- 
out a moment's hesitation, and worked as though they had 
been drilled for the task. 

On word of the disaster, the Duluth Red Cross opened 
the armory, the churches, the court house, and commandeered 
all the private automobiles in the city. The Superior Red 
Cross telephoned by an endless chain method to the owners 
of automobiles and householders to be at the station to take 
charge of the refugees as they came in. In both places the 
canteen service arranged for hot meals, the first aid depart- 
ment of the nursing service had physicians and nurses ready 
to meet the trains, and when they came from Brookston and 
Cloquet they were taken at once either to homes in Superior 
or to the headquarters in Duluth. The Motor Corps early 
in the evening began scouring all the roads leading out of 
Duluth to bring in the people exposed to danger, and worked 
practically all night long on such roads as remained open. 
The Minnesota Guard was immediately called out ; it placed 
the district under martial law, and almost entirely prevented 
looting. 

On Sunday arrangements were made to lift the ban on the 
use of gasoline and the automobiles were used to go over the 
roads, furnish provisions for those who had not gone into the 
cities and pick up bodies. 

Outside of Duluth and Superior the small Red Cross organi- 
zations seemed to take hold as efficiently and as promptly as 
they did in the two larger centers. They either organized 
themselves for this work, or appointed special committees. 
In either event, however, the people were cared for as promptly 
as they came in and lists were kept of all refugees. 

This careful registration is being made of all refugees, 
wherever they are, and an effort will be made to return them 



to the towns from which they have come. The country is 
largely newly settled, cut-over lands, on which the settlers 
have not taken firm root. Those in charge of the reconstruc- 
tion work feel very keenly the importance of giving every 
encouragement to these settlers. 

One of the first relief measures was to rush one thousand 
tons of hay into the burned districts in order that the cattle 
which survived might have food, for, of course, the hay 
burned up quickly. 

The loss has been enormous. Insurance adjusters state that 
it is not less than fifty million dollars and may reach seventy- 
five million, while the insurance will not be above twenty 
million dollars. Furthermore, many companies will not in- 
sure real estate in such dangerous localities, and the farmers 
had created a mutual insurance company, which in such a time 
as this is of doubtful benefit. 

While the fire happened less than a week ago, matters have 
already progressed to the point where definite assurances are 
being made to fire sufferers regarding what the Northern Min- 
nesota Fire Relief Commission will do. 

Every bit of the burned area will be covered by searchers 
and appraisers. The county auditors and assessors and their 
deputies are making a thorough estimate of the value of the 
property that is lost, and the committee will estimate how 
much is necessary to place the farmer, or in the case of Cloquet, 
the citizen, on his feet. It is estimated that it will require 
at least five million dollars. 

The Fire Relief Commission has called to its assistance 
experts in every line, as in the matter of assessing the damage. 
It has called on the lumbermen to make the purchases of the 
lumber for the shacks; builders to design the houses which 
are to be built; plumbers to give advice on that part of the 
work ; one of the best lawyers in Duluth to give advice on 
insurance, Liberty Bonds, and any other legal or financial 
matter. It is cooperating with the Federal Employment 
Service with regard to work for the men. Possibly, one of 
the dangers in the situation is that the men attracted by the 
large wages in the two cities may not want to return either 
to their home towns or to their farms, and so the settlement 
of that part of Minnesota may be seriously delayed. 

Fires of this sort are never out, and while the big con- 
flagration is over, favorable conditions might fan it up at 
any moment. The ground is extremely dry, and there are 
large areas yet untouched by the flames. It will take a very 
good rain to put out the fires smouldering in the woods where 
the peat fires are — it will take a< great deal more rain and 
snow than we are likely to have this winter. This situation, 
however, is chronic, and can only be overcome by an adequate 
forestry service, provision for which may result from the 
present fire. 

This calamity, which is the greatest the state of Minnesota 
has ever suffered and one of the greatest the country has ever 
known, is not without its benefits. Afforestation will, without 
doubt, be given a chance by the interest which it has evoked ; 
fire protection and the treatment of the peat bogs, the ever- 
present menace, will be more carefully studied. Agricultur- 
ally, it will probably be a distinct gain. Clearing peat bogs 
of stumps and trees is slow, hard and profitless work, and 
there are thousands if not millions of acres cleared by the 
fire which will, under the circumstances, be that much of an 
addition to the tillable land of Minnesota. 



The Speedwell Plan of Child-Saving in 

Theory and Practice 

By Henry Dwight C ha pin, M. D. 

"If you let a child starve, you are letting God starve." — Bernard Shaw. 



Part I 
THE PLAN IN THEORY 

IN January, 1909, a conference on the care of dependent 
children was held at Washington, D. C, at the call of 
President Roosevelt. Over two hundred practical work- 
ers and experts in child-saving from all parts of the coun- 
try were in attendance at the conference and discussed this great 
subject from every angle and in an exhaustive manner. The 
final conclusions, incorporated in a report, were unanimously 
adopted by all the participants in the conference. While 
many interesting topics were discussed, the following conclu- 
sions especially concern us here : 

"Home life is the highest and finest product of civilization. 
It is the great molding force of mind and of character. Chil- 
dren should not be deprived of it except for urgent and com- 
pelling reasons. . . . As to the children who for sufficient 
reasons must be removed from their own homes, or who 
have no homes, it is desirable that, if normal in mind and 
body and not requiring special training, they should be cared 
for in families whenever practicable. The carefully selected ( 
foster home is for the normal child the best substitute for the 
natural home. . . . After children are placed in homes, ade- 
quate visitation, with careful consideration of the physical, 
mental, moral and spiritual training and development of each 
child on the part of the responsible home-finding agency, is es- 
sential. . . . For the temporary, or more or less permanent care 
of such children different methods are in use, notably the 
plan of placing them in families, paying for their board ancL 
the plan of institutional care. Contact with family life is 
preferable for these children, as well as for other normal 
children. It is necessary, however, that a large number of 
carefully selected boarding homes be found if these children are 
to be cared for in families. The extent to which such families 
can be found should be ascertained by careful inquiry and 
experiment in each locality. Unless and until such homes 
are found the use of institutions is necessary." 1 

The remarkable unanimity with which so many experts 
agreed on the above and other conclusions certainly marked 
an epoch in the development of the theory and practise of 
child-saving. It expresses in brief but decisive language the 
ideal toward which all advanced workers are striving. 

1 he public systems for the care of dependent children by 
the various states have been classified by Homer Folks as 
follows: 2 

1. The state school and placing-out system, adopted by 
Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Rhode Island, Kansas, 
Colorado, Nebraska, Montana, Nevada and Texas. While 
the children may first be collected in an institution, the aim 



'Proceedings of the conference on the care of dependent children, Wash- 
ington, 1909. 

2 The Care of Neglected Destitute and Delinquent Children, Homer Folks, 



of this system is to place them in actual homes as soon as 
possible. 

2. The county children's home system, adopted by Ohio, 
Connecticut and Indiana. While placing-out is practised to 
some extent, it is not an important feature of this system. 

3. The plan of supporting public charges in private insti- 
tutions, which prevails in New York, California, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, and to some extent in several other 
states. By per capita payments this plan encourages a long 
retention and building up of large institutions with a dis- 
couragement of placing-out. 

4. The boarding-out and placing-out system, which is car- 
ried on directly by the public authorities in Massachusetts; 
through a private organization — the Children's Aid Society — 
in Pennsylvania ; and has recently been undertaken by the 
state authorities in New Jersey. 

Thus in three states dependent children are directly boarded- 
out in family homes, followed by efforts made to place them 
in permanent free homes. This plan was earliest developed 
in Massachusetts, where it has been successfully carried out - 
on a large scale since 1882, when the children began to be 
removed from the state primary school. The latter was en- 
tirely abolished in 1895, since which time all the state de- 
pendent children have been boarded out. Three years later 
(1898) the city of Boston likewise abandoned the institutional 
plan and placed all destitute children in family homes. 

In the gradual evolution of saving destitute children, the 
pathway, with many digressions, starts at the almshouse, 
leads up to the congregate and cottage institution and finally 
ends in some kind of boarding-out as the best solution of a 
very difficult problem. The latter systems are often com- 
bined, some organizations putting most stress on the institu- 
tion and others on the boarding-out feature. Boarding out has 
not functioned as well as it should, owing to lack of proper 
oversight and regulation. 

As the minds of all workers are turning toward boarding- 
out as the best disposition to make of the destitute child, the 
disadvantages and dangers of boarding-out as well as its best 
possibilities must be carefully considered. The two main diffi- 
culties consist in, first, picking out a suitable home and then - 
in exercising constant and proper supervision. Where board- < 
ing-out has failed one or both of these factors have not been 
sufficiently emphasized. The old baby-farming experience, 
where an ignorant, careless woman, living in squalor, took as 
many babies to board as she could accommodate, with a sick 
and death rate rivalling the worst institution, at once comes 
to mind. In other cases, well-meaning but careless and igno- 
rant families are poor resting places for the destitute child. 
Many years ago Dr. Elisha Harris, in reporting on this sub- 
ject, stated that in New York, from 1854 to 1859, about one t 
thousand infants were farmed out each year, and ninety out 
of one hundred did not live to see their first birthday. In a 
single hut near the East River it was common to find four 

85 



L- 



86 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26 , 191 



or five young infants lying on the floor, with a single nurse, 
who gave them bottle food until they died. When some 
years later this class of infants was collected in an institu- 
tion on Randall's Island, the results among the young infants 
were frequently worse, as the death rate often reached 95 
per cent if they were kept very long. The defects in boarding- 
out lie in careless selecting of the homes and in lack of super- 
vision. 

Let us briefly look at the underlying theory that stresses 
boarding-out in a home for the abandoned child and then 
see how far any collateral defects can be remedied. The 
family is the oldest human institution, antedating both church 
and state. It is the fundamental and necessary unit for the 
development of humanity and civilization. The home has 

-always been the nursery of life. Human experience is directly 
in line with the modern teachings of evolution in this respect. 

"There are profound biological as well as social reasons why 
remedial efforts for children should take place in individual 
homes in order to attain the best and most lasting results. 

'The young of the human species requires a much greater pro- 
longation of maternal care than the offspring of any other 
animal. In the scheme of evolution, the higher the animal 
the more important becomes the proper management of the 
period of growth. This is especially emphasized in the human 
race by a prolongation of the period of infancy and the many 
subsequent years of development required before complete 
growth can be attained. John Fiske was the first to elaborate 
this fruitful view of one of the fundamental laws of higher 
evolution, that not only throws a strong light on the methods 
of evolution, but lays the greatest importance upon the early 
period of life as influencing the future health and development 
of the person. The whole period of growth is a time of plas- 
ticity, when the career of the individual is no longer directly 
predetermined by the career of its ancestor. The lower ani- 
mal is pretty fully formed at birth and can soon look after itself 
independently of the parent. A slow growth means an increase 



in capacity for high individual development and prolonged 
vigor, and hence must be conserved in a natural way. Those 
dealing with children must recognize the importance of this 
fact, since mistakes made at this time can never be completely 
corrected. The early years of life are, biologically speaking, 
•J the most important ones we live. The growing organism has 
at this time stamped on it the possibilities of future vigorous 
life or of early degeneration and decay. 

Prolonged attention to the offspring has a much wider 
effect than that received by the individual directly benefited. 

^Maternal love is thus developed out of mere rudimentary care, 
as, in the higher forms, the helpless offspring must be sedu- 
lously nursed so that constant attendance becomes physically 
necessary for the mother. During this period she requires care 

land protection, and thus is evolved the father, giving love 
and support to mother and offspring. In this way the family 
is created which is the unit of civilization round which cluster 
all the higher human attributes. The nurture and care of chil- 
dren, if properly conceived and carried out, constitute the great 
educators in the development of the character both of the 

• parents and society. Any community or organization can 
safely be judged by its conception of the problems of child 
life and the way the solution is attempted. 

The necessity of conserving the family relations, as far as 
possible, in all social and philanthropic work is not only 
shown in beneficial, practical results, but, as before noted, has 
a deep philosophical and scientific reason for its operation. 
John Fiske further elaborates this thought so well that it may 
be of interest to quote his own words: 

The feature by which the most rudimentary human family group is 
distinguished from any collocation of kindred individuals among 
gregarious mammals is the permanent character of the relationships 

• between its constituent members. Enduring from birth until death, 
these relationships acquire a traditionary value which passes on 
from generation to generation, and thus there arise reciprocal ne- 
cessities of behavior between parents and children, husbands and 
wives, brothers and sisters, in which reciprocal necessities of be- 
havior we have discerned the requisite conditions for the genesis 







AMONG THE FLOWERS AND TREES OF A SUBURBAN HOME 

One of the boarding-homes at Morristown with the visiting nurse on her rounds of inspection and advice 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



87 




BEFORE AND AFTER THE SPEEDWELL TREATMENT 

Pictures of the same baby: At eleven months, when he was admitted on November 6, 1903, suffering from extreme atrophy, 
usually called marasmus, he weighed twelve pounds. When he was discharged, on May 20, 1904, he weighed twenty-three 
and one-half pounds. While this is an exceptional case, it shows what can be accomplished by intensive boarding-out 



of those ego-altruistic impulses which when further modified by the 
expansion of sympathetic feelings, give birth to moral sentiments. 
.... We bridge the gulf which seems, on a superficial view, for- 
ever to divide the human from the brute world. And not least, in 
the grand result, is the profound meaning which is given to the 
phenomena of helpless babyhood. From of old we have heard the 
monition, "Except ye be as babes, ye cannot enter the kingdom of 
heaven." The latest science now shows us — though in a very differ- 
ent sense of the word — that, unless we had been as babes, the ethical 
phenomena which gives all its significance to the phrase "kingdom 
of heaven" would have been non-existent for us. Without the cir- 
cumstances of infancy we might have become formidable among 
animals through sheer force of sharp-wittedness. But, except for 
these circumstances, we should never have comprehended the mean- 
ing of such phrases as "self sacrifice" or "devotion." The phe- 
nomena of social life would have been omitted from the history of the 
world, and with them the phenomena of ethics and religion. 

As the best physical, moral and social development of child 
life takes place in the indivual home, every effort must be 
made to handle dependent children accordingly. But the iso- 
lated home may prove a weak reed to lean on. The Speedwell. 
system represents a sustained effort so to regulate and systema- 
tize boarding-out as to place its good effects at a maximum and 
its possible bad effects at a minimum. This has been accom- 
plished by developing what may be called a unit system of in-t- 
tensive boarding-out. A unit is a circumscribed neighborhood- 
that has been selected after a survey has been made to learn the 
general conditions of healthfulness and the number of good 
homes that may be available in the locality. The following 
points are then emphasized in carrying on this work: 

(a) Boarding-out in a certain district of the country noted 
for its healthful conditions. 

(b) Constant oversight, especially as to diet and hygiene, on 
the part of a salaried physician and nurse who are thoroughly 
familiar with this class of cases and competent to deal with 
them. 

(c) The children are kept indefinitely until digestion and 
assimilation have improved sufficiently to result in increase of 

'Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, John Fiske. 



weight and strength. Accordingly, the work is kept up dur- 
ing the whole year and not limited to certain seasons. 

(d) The training in a given neighborhood of a number oiw 
foster mothers, who, by constantly taking infants and young 
children into their homes, become fairly expert in handling 
them under conditions totally unlike those offered by institu- 
tions and far superior to them. 

The ideals of the Speedwell plan are especially shown in 
the last point. We try to carry on an important educational^ 
work among the families taking our children. The constant 
oversight of our doctor and nurse are aimed to help instruct 
each foster mother in the care of her own children as well. 
The homes in which the children are placed are to be helped 
financially by the board paid and morally by the good advice 
and watching of the trained observers. Thus the simple ma- 
chinery that endeavors to really help the abandoned or ailing 
child will at the same time assist in educating each community 
in which it operates in prevention and care of its own ailing 
children. This by-product, involving improved social ideals 
and a higher standard of living, may be made a very im- 
portant feature of the work. It need hardly be stated that 
this individual and social ideal, in order to attain its highest 
success, must be operated by those who believe in it and are 
willing to put enthusiastic efforts toward its support. While 
the results of any system depend a good deal upon those who 
administer it, this is pre-eminently true of boarding-out ac- 
cording to the ideals of the Speedwell plan. The purpose is to 
treat these waifs not as cases, but as children — our children — 
to be lovingly served in natural homes. It also means a 
friendly interest and attention in the home and all its inmates 
on the part of the visiting doctor and nurse, such oversight 
always to be tactfully employed. While not a money-making 
proposition, the foster mothers must be paid a sum more com- '- 
mensurate with their services than is usually done. They are 
often so poorly paid as to virtually amount to exploitation, and 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



then surprise is expressed that good homes cannot be found. 
In the future higher payments than are now considered liberal 
will have to be made if the cost of living continues to in- 
crease. Even with more generous payments, the expense of 
this system really falls much under institutional care, as the 
latter has the constant cost of plant and upkeep to consider 
besides the remitted taxes which are a charge on the com- 
munity at large. The curve of infant mortality follows the 
curve of poverty in all conditions — whether in normal family 
life, in boarded-out children or in institutions. The Speedwell 
plan is elastic, expanding or contracting according to the sup- 
port received and the number of children requiring aid. A 
unit can be contracted or temporarily abandoned for such 
causes. In the mean time there are no continuing overhead 
charges for buildings and plant. 

The Speedwell system in order to attain its best efficiency 
calls for high grade workers who can idealize their efforts, 
as well as for good family homes where the boarded-out chil- 
dren will be intelligently reared under the constant oversight 
of doctor and nurse. The emphasis is thus placed on human 
J agents rather than on bricks and mortar. It strives at the 
same time to help both the abandoned child and the home that 
shelters it. Theodore Roosevelt has tersely put it thus — "In 
the final analysis it is the human agent that counts." 

Part II 
THE PLAN IN PRACTICE 

HOW have these ideals been realized ? The Speedwell plan 
has been in operation for sixteen years and three units are 
now in successful operation. As no institution was involved, a 
society was formed and incorporated to carry out the under- 
lying ideas with their consequent operation. The first unit 
was started in 1902 at Morristown, N. J., after a survey 
of a locality that seemed favorable for a start. This was 
found in the region around Speedwell avenue, an outlying 
portion of the town from which the society took its name, 
especially as an appropriate idea was suggested. The forma- 
tion of the unit involved first the picking out of a number of 
promising homes after the preliminary survey. Our exper- 
ience has shown that it is a mistake to be too fastidious in 
selecting the homes. If the woman of the household has 
motherly instincts and fairly healthy children of her own, 
and seems teachable, a certain amount of dirt and disorder 
can well be overlooked at the start. A porch or backyard, 
-\or some open space, is essential, as plenty of fresh air is one 
of the most important features of this work. The next thing 
was to select a doctor and nurse who were to be in constant 
touch with the children and the homes that sheltered them. 
Here personnel, as previously noted, is of the greatest im- 
portance for the ease and efficiency of the work. The doctor 
must have a sympathy and understanding of child nature and 
the nurse requires tact and enthusiasm. The uninterested, 
routine worker will not make much of a success here. The 
good results thus far of the Speedwell Society have depended 
largely upon its good fortune in securing the right kind of 
workers. 

The next step was to select a committee of women living 
in or near the locality selected for the unit, who were familiar 
with the neighborhood and the people, and who constituted 
the local managers of the undertaking. They helped in rais- 
ing money and supplies, assisted in friendly visiting in the 
homes, acquainted themselves with neighborhood conditions 
and in these and other ways exercised general supervision of 
the work. The Speedwell has likewise been fortunate here, 
as its units have secured in each community a. number of promi- 
nent women of energy and vision who have quickly recognized 



the significance of the work. While the society in New York 
exercises general supervision, the idea is for each unit to be 
self-governing, and, as far as possible, self-supporting. 

The records kept of the children are uniform in all the 
units and careful histories on a card system show the condi-i' 
tions and results of their care. The following card blank is 
used for this purpose: 





SPEEDWELL 


SOCIETY 








( x 


Unit) 








Name 


Sex. 


Age. 


Received 


from 




Date of arrival. 


Weight when received. 


Weight when 


dis- 


Previous history. 






charged. 






Present condition. 












Diagnosis. 












Food and treatment 










when received. 












Treatment. 


Boarded with. 











The following rough sketch of the outlines of Morristown 
and the general location of our homes will give an idea of 
how this unit is situated, as well as, in a general way, our 
conception of a unit: 







OUTLINE OF MORRISTOWN, N. J. 

Speedzvell avenue and the Speedwell Unit. Boarding-homes 
marked by crosses 

Three thousand one hundred and sixty-nine children have, 
been boarded-out in this unit during the past sixteen years.' 
While much unpromising material has been sent to us, the 
results have been most encouraging. In the earlier years of 
experiment all kinds of cases were sent out, such as acute 
toxic infections, unresolved pneumonias, and, in the summer 
months, many babies who were near death from bowel dis- 
turbances, in the hope that change and country air would 
give them a chance. After considerable experience it was 
found that this method of work was not adapted to handling 
cases of acute sickness that are best managed in a hospital. u 
After acute disease has subsided, however, the results in rapid 



THE SU RV EY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1 9 1 8 



89 



convalescence have been most satisfactory. It is rarely pos- 
sible for an infant or young child to get strong in a hospital. 
Indeed, if kept too long, recurrences of the original disease 
frequently happen from auto- or hetero-infection. The re- 
sults in those difficult cases of wasting, or atrophic infants, ^ 
taken from institutions or tenement houses, have been most 
encouraging. Although kept on the bottle, we have not lost 
more than 16 per cent of marasmus babies under six months^ 
of age. As is well known, nearly all such cases die in insti- 
tutions. There have been no deaths over two years. 

While acute cases of illness are not now taken, most of the 
infants and children are undernourished on admission. They 1, 
are practically all in the condition included in the term mal- 
nutrition. 

Not only has the death rate been low, but there has been 
little sickness, especially of the communicable variety. Thc- 
latter forms the greatest danger when children are collected 
and handled in mass. A certain amount of illness is un- 
avoidable, particularly among children of this type, but 
communicable diseases and cross infections that abound in insti-< 
tutions are usually a direct result of the environment. This 
danger is largely avoided in the Speedwell plan. As an 
example, 1,094 children were received and treated in a littler 
over five consecutive years. This stay in the boarding-homes 
varied from a few weeks to several months, with an average <. 
of about four months. During these years, and among this 
large number of children, only twenty-one cases of commun- 
icable disease occurred, as follows: Seven cases of chicken- 
pox, seven cases of whooping-cough, three cases of measles, one 
case of Liberty measles, two cases of diphtheria — one nasal 
and one. only bacterial — and one case of scarlet fever. These 
cases were nearly all in the stage of incubation when sent out, 
so that the disease was not contracted owing to the operation 
of the system. Two cases of chicken-pox and one of whoop- 
ing-cough were contracted in the boarding-homes. As far as 
can be learned, few, if any, of the local children have been 
infected by our cases. We know of no other plan that could 
handle such a large number of children of this type with so 
little spread of infection. 

Finally, the children have nearly always left our care in 
good physical and mental condition, such as would be apt to^ 
follow a more or less prolonged stay in a natural home. Too 
much praise cannot be given to some of our foster mothers 
who have done splendid work. They have recreated many a 
weak and ailing child who would otherwise have dragged out 
a feeble and inefficient existence. 

The success of the Morristown unit was such that we 
wished to enlarge the work. After one or two unsuccessful 
attempts we succeeded in establishing a unit in the northern 
section of Yonkers, N. Y. A survey of this region, which 
forms a plateau bounded on one side by the valley of the 
Nepperhan river and on the other by the Hudson, revealed a 
district that seemed ideal for our purpose. Moreover a num- 
ber of detached homes, surrounded by yards, were found to<; 
be willing to take our children. The work was accordingly 
started here in July, 1917. One great advantage is that the 
unit can be reached by subway and trolley. The diagram on 
this page shows the general location of the unit. 

During the past year one hundred cases have been treated " 
with marked success. There have been three deaths of atrophic 
babies who were very low when sent up, one of five months, 
one of seven and one of eight months. The first died thirty- 
six hours after its arrival, never having thriven since birth. 
All the other cases have done well, many showing remarkable 
improvement. It must be remembered that most of these 
children represented a failure of other methods of operation^ 




OUTLINE OF YONKERS, N. Y. 

Roberts Avenue and the Speedwell Unit. Boarding-homes 
marked by crosses 

Eight abandoned children have been adopted and it is hoped 
to increase this feature of the work. It is difficult to get 
children adopted from an institution, but when acclimated to 
home habits and conditions it is much easier to place them. < 
One difficulty in establishing a unit in any locality is the 
objection of many good people who are interested in local 
charitable work. They fear that money and interest will be 
deflected from their own needy charities and hence doubt the 
wisdom of importing a new one. The answer is that we will 
care for their own abandoned children as well as others, and 
we are trying to inaugurate a generally helpful agency in the 
neighborhood. The following circular did much to remove 
objections and stimulate local interests at the beginning of 
our Yonkers' work: 



What Is the Speedwell Society? 

It is an incorporated organization, fifteen years old, which has 
cared for over 3,000 sick, neglected or poorly nourished chil- 
dren, in individual homes in a given locality (known as a 
unit). The Yonkers unit takes children up to twelve years, 
from Yonkers and its neighborhood. 
What Does the Speedwell Do for the Children? 

It nurses them back to health ; 

It provides individual homes, with "mothering"; 

It supervises all food, and supplies grade "A" milk; 

It provides daily supervision by nurse or doctor; 

It has been the means of having several children adopted into 
well-to-do families, in different parts of the country. 
What Does the Speedwell Do for the Foster Family? 

It increases the income ; 

It trains mothers to more intelligent care of their own children; 

It improves the conditions in the homes; 

It raises the standard of living; 

It has brightened the lives of lonely and depressed foster mothers ; 

It has kept families together when the father was out of work; 

It has made charitable aid unnecessary. 
What Does the Speedwell Do for Yonkers? 

It puts $12.00 per month, per child, in each foster family and fur- 
nishes milk; 

It raises the standard of living in that family; 

It improves conditions of the house — thus raising real estate values; 

It benefits Yonkers merchants — through purchase of supplies here; 

It has enabled families to live without charitable aid. 
How Does the Speedwell's Care Differ from Institutional Care 
of Children? 

It gives individual care and "mothering" to the child, as a mem- 
ber of a family; 



90 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 




sessing, undernourished children have been so improved as 
to make a permanent adoption easy of accomplishment. 

The Speedwell Society is ready to help and cooperate with 
any organization, religious or secular, that wishes to attempt 
helping children in this natural way. We would like to sur- 
round the city with units operating in this manner to grad- 
ually supersede most children's institutions. The following 
diagram shows what the Speedwell Society has already ac- 
complished and suggests what it would like to do around 
New York in the way of establishing other units if it were 
given the means : 



SLEEPING OUTDOORS IN A DOLL'S BED IN A LITTLE BACK-YARD 

This baby of six months was cured of an acute bowel 
disturbance by hospital care, but he did not begin to grow 
again until the fresh air and mothering furnished by the 
Yonkers unit supplied his real need. In a few weeks, in 
this unconventional couch, he kicked his way back to health 
with an added two pounds 

It removes a danger of epidemics, from crowding of many into 
a few buildings; 

It has no expense for "upkeep" of buildings, repairs, servants, sup- 
plies, etc. 

All money collected is expended in direct human service. 
How is the Speedwell doing a war Measure? 

It is conserving the lives of the coming generation, thus forming 
the country's great second line of defense. 
How Can I Help? 

By becoming a subscriber in one of the following classes — 

(1) As one of 100 at 50 cents a month; 

(2) As one of 100 at $10.00 for a year; 

(3) As one of 25 at $25.00 or more for a year; 

(4) As one of 100 children at one cent a day; 

(5) As one to support a child for one month; or 

(6) As a visitor to the homes. 

The ideas here expressed may be helpful in starting other 
units. 

Still another unit, at New Rochelle, N. Y., operating on the 
Speedwell plan, has been established by the cooperation of the 
Speedwell Society with the Free Synagogue of New York. 
The object of this unit is to help and prepare abandoned Jewish <. 
children for adoption into good families of their faith. It has 
been in successful operation for over a year and many unprepos- - 




older children also respond to good treatment in 
boarding-homes 
This girl of eight was undeveloped and undernourished. 
On admittance she weighed forty-three pounds, although 
for her height and age she should have weighed forty- 
seven and one-half pounds. In seven weeks she had 
reached forty-seven pounds and was well on the way to 
further gains on returning to her tenement home 




1 — MORRISTOWN UNIT 

1 Doctor 

2 Nurse 

2 — YONKERS UNIT 

1 Doctor 
1 Nurse 

3 — NEW ROCHELLE UNIT 

1 Doctor 
1 Nurse 

? — OTHER POSSIBLE UNITS 

Other large cities might likewise be induced to work in 
this manner for their dependent children. Each village around 
a city could have its unit, with doctor and nurse, working in 
cooperation with a local committee. Boarding out according 
to this unit plan will allow intensive working in many small 
fields. Thus the homeless or parentless child will be cared 
for, more or less permanently as the case may be, in a natural 
home, which, however, if under proper oversight, will usually 
serve a wiser purpose than the best equipped institution. This 
refers only to normal children, however, as all grades of<- 
defectives are handled better in institutions that can give the 
needed special training. 

The Speedwell method can be adapted to all localities. 
It was of great interest to the writer to learn from Dr. 
Armand De Lille, who recently visited this country as a 
representative of the French government, that a similar kind 
of work has been in successful operation in France. In 1903^ 
Professor Grancher instituted this method of boarding-out 
for children from three to fifteen years of age, who are placed * 
in healthy families in country homes when their Paris environ- 
ment exposed them to danger of tuberculosis. He stated that 
at a time when the Germans were covering their country 
with sanatoriums, Grancher saw very clearly that this was 
not the correct method for this class of children, because the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



91 



sanatorium which takes the sick father or mother and abandons 
the child to its more miserable surroundings is accomplishing 
relatively little in the fight against tuberculosis. A series of 
homes in towns along the valley of the Boire has been utilized 
and the children are seen daily by a physician when making 
his round of country visits. Aside from the physical effects, 
J the moral and social results have been most admirable. Be- 
J fore the war 810 children were being satisfactorily handled 
in this normal and inexpensive manner. The society engaged 
in the work is known as the Oeuvre Grancher and was in- 
augurated one year after the Speedwell Society was started 
along similar lines of effort. 4 

The call of the day is for conservation — of effort, of food, 
of health, and, above all, of life itself. But merely saving 
life is not enough. It must be rendered strong and efficient. 
To this end an early start must be made and all remedial 
efforts should be planned, as far as possible, along the line 
of nature's laws. Only in this way can the best and surest 
results be obtained. We have warnings that many of our 
methods of child-caring are not the best. A high percentage 
of rejections for physical reasons among the young men of the 



country, averaging one in four, drawn by draft or volunteer- 
ing in the army, gives food for thought. There should be a 
sustained and prolonged effort for better methods all along 
the line. Those who thoughtfully work for dependent infants 
and children have long felt stirrings of discontent with many 
of the methods in common usage. The forces of idealism re- 
quire more constant play in this work. We need a fresh 
orientation to guide our efforts in newer and more productive 
channels. A new spirit is called for which is not easy to 
get, and in which the individualized needs of every neglected 
child will be considered. 

This is the children's year. The coming age is the chil- 
dren's age. In the new period of general reconstruction let 
us try and put the salvage of abandoned, dependent children 
on a permanent and natural basis. Let a practical idealism 
be formulated for our future guidance. In this period of 
wanton destruction of life let us see to it that child life is 
not only saved, but so conserved and nourished as to attain ^ 
its best development. 

The Speedwell plan is our attempted solution. It re- 
sponds to the pragmatic test — it works. 



4 Oeuvre Grancher — Recomme d'utilite Publique, Paris, 1915. 



Will California Lead? 

By Edward T. Devine 



THE voters of California are called upon in the ap- 
proaching election to pass upon two amendments to 
the Constitution on related although distinct sub- 
jects. One is for the purpose of validating what 
the legislature has already done in the workmen's compensa- 
tion insurance and safety act. This act with some modifica- 
tions and amendments has been in operation for nearly five 
years and has given satisfaction to employers, wage-earners and 
the general public. In the State Compensation Insurance 
Fund the state has built up an important financial institution 
with assets of two and one-half millions and an annual busi- 
ness of about the same amount. The first amendment is 
merely to make sure that the administrative departments al- 
ready established and in operation shall have full constitu- 
tional authority. The amendment gives no power to the com- 
missions beyond that already given by legislative act. 

The other amendment empowers the legislature to establish 
a health insurance system. This amendment is violently at- 
tacked and vigorously defended. The issue which it presents 
is of national interest. The campaign in California for social 
health insurance is only an early stage of what has already be- 
come a national campaign. It is the campaign which was 
fought and won in England seven years ago and which sooner 
or later must be fought and won in every state and nation 
which learns the lesson of national conservation of human life. 
The elementary principle of social health insurance is very 
simple: it is that of preventive medicine and public hygiene. 
It is the principle that the whole community is interested in 
seeing that every illness is treated, that every disease is dis- 
covered, that every danger to the public health is averted, that 
every medical need is met. Social health insurance assumes 
that families with liberal incomes are able to look out for 
themselves and that self-interest may be relied upon to assure 
their doing so; but that those whose incomes are dependent 
upon a moderate daily or weekly wage may or may not be able 
to make such provision and that the only means of assuring 
it is to place a portion of the burden upon the industry in 



which they are engaged and a portion upon the state itself. 

Financially, social health insurance is compulsory on all 
those whose incomes are less than an established amount. But 
it is a financial benefit, and not a burden, that is imposed. The 
compulsory feature does not extend to medical treatment, still 
less to the choice of a physician or surgeon. It does not compel 
a surgical operation or an injection of a serum. It does re- 
quire that all who come within its provision shall be insured 
and shall, therefore, be in position to obtain hospital or home 
treatment when it is needed. It provides for universal in- 
surance within the range of incomes affected, in order to jus- 
tify the contribution by the state and by employers and in 
order to bring the expense within manageable proportions. 
It is not an interference with liberty but an insurance of free- 
dom from neglect at critical times. 

There may or may not be valid objections to particular 
provisions of any statute recommended by the state commis- 
sion which for the past two years has been investigating the 
subject and which has submitted a unanimous report. It is 
exceedingly difficult to see what valid objections there could 
possibly be to the constitutional amendment, which merely un- 
ties the hands of the legislatures and determines a general 
policy in line with progressive tendencies in dealing with public 
health in every enlightened country. 

The amendment provides that the health insurance system 
to be created by the legislature may be voluntary like that of 
France or compulsory like that of England. It does not nec- 
essarily create a new commission. If the legislature prefers, 
the administration of health insurance could be delegated to 
the existing Industrial Accident Commission. An act passed 
under the amendment need not discriminate against any par- 
ticular practitioners. If Christian Scientists wish to call a 
healer of their own faith, or anti-vivisectionists a surgeon who 
has never practised on a live animal, or anti-vaccinationists 
one who prefers the risk of smallpox to the risk of vaccine, 
there is certainly nothing in the proposed amendment that 
would prevent such free choice on the part of the insured in- 



92 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



dividual, however unsound that judgment may appear to 
orthodox practitioners to be. 

The relative merits of compulsory and voluntary health 
insurance, if the proposed amendment is adopted, will have 
to be debated and decided, as is right and proper, by the law- 
making body and by voters in the constituencies acting through 
the varied democratic machinery which California has intro- 
duced. It is quite true that most advocates for social health 
insurance are for the compulsory system, as far as the financial 
provision for treatment is concerned. 

France is cited as the leading example, indeed the only con- 
spicuous example, of a nation which prefers the voluntary sys- 
tem. But certainly the most ardent lovers of France cannot 
be satisfied with the health situation in that country, and 
especially with its abnormally high death-rate from tuber- 
culosis which is now calling forth heroic efforts at prevention 
not only by French agencies but by the American Red Cross 
and the Rockefeller Foundation. France is an agricultural 
country with few industrial centers and she is expending very 
large sums in public medical relief. Until her whole wage- 
earning population, however, is assured of financial provision 
for sickness, whatever may be done by her own public agen- 
cies and by sympathetic allies will fall short of her national 
health needs. 

A false and misleading contrast is sometimes made between 
health insurance and preventive public hygiene. Those who 
opposed health insurance in England on the ground that ef- 
fort should be expended instead on preventive medicine, dis- 
covered and acknowledged their mistake. Health insurance 
has, in fact, promoted preventive medicine. The very com- 
mittees that are administering sickness benefits are keenly 
on the lookout for those who need preventive care. It is 
through them that early cases of tuberculosis are discovered, 
that under-nourishment is brought to light and every conceiv- 



able form of early special treatment is assured. Every 
Sickness Insurance Fund has a direct pecuniary interest in 
diminishing the demands upon it and every official or 
voluntary worker who is called upon to care for the sick 
becomes increasingly interested in preventing sickness. The 
two policies are not alternatives but mutual and complemen- 
tary applications of one sound policy of public hy- 
giene. 

Social health insurance is coming as a permanent national 
policy as surely as the conservation of natural resources. No 
disinterested voice will be raised in favor of restoring or con- 
tinuing after the war the anarchy which has prevailed in the 
social treatment of disease. Our armies are necessarily or- 
ganized on the basis of a constant medical supervision and 
prompt, appropriate treatment of every injury and illness. 
Who does not wish that similar supervision and treatment 
could at the same time be extended to the families of the 
soldiers and all other civilians? What single measure would 
so tremendously promote our national well-being? It is not 
essential that the authoritative and arbitrary establishment 
suitable to the army should be extended in precisely the same 
form throughout civil life. What is desirable is that through- 
out civil society injury and illness shall be discovered with 
equal promptness and shall receive equally prompt attention. 
This is what social health insurance does. This is what the 
California amendment makes possible, and what is under seri- 
ous consideration through official commissions in half a dozen 
other states. 

It is greatly to be hoped that the voters of California will 
overwhelmingly endorse the constitutional amendments sub- 
mitted to them, not only because that would hasten the social 
health insurance law in that state, but because it would en- 
courage the movements towards such laws throughout the 
country. 



The Jews in Poland 

An Account from New Sources Showing How Race Antagonism 

Is Revived by Germany 

By Max J. Kohler 



THE condition and future of the Jews in Poland are 
a matter of deep concern to Jews all over the world, 
particularly by reason of a sweeping anti-Semitic 
boycott that has been raging there for over a decade, 
which the Russian authorities had restrained rather than 
fomented, long before the war broke out, and which the war 
and German occupancy have greatly aggravated. A news 
article, entitled The Jewish Situation in Poland, in the Sur- 
vey for August 31, criticized my views on that important gen- 
eral subject, as expressed in an article in the American Hebrew 
for August 2 on, Czaristic Russia, Poland and the Jews. In 
that article I, incidentally, dissented vigorously from the con- 
clusions expressed in the Survey on July 6 by James C. 
White, director of the Associated Polish Press — which were 
at least qualifiedly approved of editorially — to the effect that 
the present Jewish problem in Poland is "economic and polit- 
ical, rather than racial or religious." My article had not dealt 
with this Polish boycott, but considered mainly the distorted 
account, given by Russian absolutism, of the relation of the 
Jews' to Russia (Count Lamsdorf, Russian minister of for- 
eign affairs, in an official memorandum of January 3, 1906, 



having pictured the Jews all over the world as making revolu- 
tionary propaganda against Czaristic Russia, and falsely por- 
traying the reforms in Jewish education which the famous 
charitable organization, the Alliance Israelite Universelle, was 
working for as avowedly "anti-Christian and anti-monarchi- 
cal"). The Survey article of August 31 reiterated the 
conclusion that the distress of the Jews in Poland today is 
due to economic and not racial or religious causes, and par- 
ticularly because the Jews there, 

by holding themselves for centuries aloof from the rest of the com- 
monwealth — whether necessarily or rightly so, need not here be 
examined without, at the same time, making themselves economically 
self-supporting . . . have built their whole social structure on sand. 

My purpose today is to analyze the supposed causes of this 
economic distress which the war has so terribly augmented. 
Accordingly, I will not elaborate on the report summarized 
by the Survey on May 25, entitled The Tragic Fate of Polish 
Jews, from the Zurich correspondent of the Paris Journal des 
Debats of a few days before, to the effect that proclamations 
had been posted on the walls of Warsaw and other Polish 
cities, inciting the population to anti-Semitic riots, except to 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



93 



say that I see nothing improbable therein. 1 It is in line with 
the earlier reports of credible eye-witnesses of Polish-Jewish 
distress during the war, and with the well-authenticated state- 
ment that more Jews have been killed in pogroms in neigh- 
boring Russia during the Bolsheviki rule than during the 
whole Romanoff regime. From the very nature of the thing, 
however, mob uprisings of this character could not assume 
wholesale dimensions under such martial law as Germany has 
imposed on this occupied territory during nearly the entire 
war. Unfortunately, however, even common suffering and 
persecution, inflicted by tyrannical conquerors, have not abated 
the awful consequences of the terrible economic boycott above 
referred to which the Polish people started against the unhappy 
Jews there some years before the war began. On the con- 
trary, the war has greatly aggravated this boycott. 

The very "economic" conditions referred to in the Survey 
were largely intentionally and avowedly created, as an effective 
and unparalleled weapon of "race and religious persecution" 
against the Jews. Naturally, the reports of Mr. Farbstein 
and Dr. Van Raalte, both antedating April, 1918, and sum- 
marized in the Survey for August 31, do not concern them- 
selves with these questions, but were prepared for our Joint 
Distribution Committee in order to describe the terrible eco- 
nomic condition of the Polish Jews, their need for American 
charitable aid, and the agencies for distributing this pecuniary 
relief. Their silence regarding pogroms and the underlying 
causes of the economic misery, do not bear one way or the 
other on these questions. By a strange coincidence this very 
boycott is said to have originated in connection with the anti- 
Semitic candidacy of some years ago of Romon Dmowski for 
election to the Russian Duma; the Mr. Dmowski who now as 
head of the Polish National Committee is visiting this coun- 
try. It is to be hoped that his attitude towards the Jews has 
greatly changed. 

The economic boycott of the Jews in Poland was very 
graphically and accurately described by as distinguished an 
authority as George Brandes in his work The World at War 
(pp. 93-117), published as recently as 1917. The condition 
in question caused him for the first time in his life to leave 
the realms of literary and academic calm and to identify him- 
self publicly with his Jewish co-religionists, even against his 
friends, the Poles, whose champion he had been in their strug- 
gle for political and cultural liberty. He points out that it 
is well-nigh "unbelievable" that Russian hatred of the Jews 
should have spread to Poland, "where people know how to 
read and write," and "now because of the maelstrom of in- 
sanity which nationalism lets loose over Europe, all fellow- 
feeling is lost, and religious tolerance gives way to burning 
race hatred." He says : 

[In 1912], the so-called cooperative movement organized during 
the last twelve years, which at bottom was nothing else than a 
means of crushing Jewish business, now began to be systematically 
and cruelly turned into a boycotting of the Jewish population. In 
private as well as in public life, the cry rang out: "Don't buy from 
the Jews! Have nothing to do with the Jews!" At the head of 
this movement were Polish intellectuals, some of Poland's most noted 
writers, among them confirmed free-thinkers like Alexandre Swien- 
tochowski. ... All the fiery words which fell from his lips in his 



Since the above was written, two weeks ago, there has been indisputable 
confirmation of the report of the posting of such incendiary anti-Semitic procla- 
mations in Polish towns, and it has even become the subject matter of an in- 
terpellation m the German Reichstag. According to Zurich correspondence in 
the August 9 issue of the London Jewish Chronicle, two Socialist deputies, 
Noske and Cohen, brought up specifically there the matter of the posting of such 
placards, inciting Poles to massacre Jews, and mentioned the fact that some Poles 
had accused the Germans of inciting the Poles to such course, by falsely repre- 
senting the Jews as helping the Germans to subdue Poland, whereas they were 
among the strongest opponents of German annexation schemes. The corre- 
spondent adds: ''The interpellation was addressed to the chancellor, who suc- 
cessfully avoided replying directly, but charged the ministerial representative 
to state that the German police had destroyed large quantities of those procla- 
mations." 



days of glory now turn against him. The entire Polish press gave 
itself over to this anti-Semitic campaign. Young Polish ruffians 
were placed before Jewish shops and maltreated Christian women 
and children who attempted to buy there. By the assistance of the 
celebrated Dmowski, leader of the National Democratic Party, a 
new paper, Diva Groszi, was founded which openly advocated po- 
groms. Bloody encounters soon took place . . . until the Russian 
government stopped the pogrom tendency so as not to strengthen 
Polish nationalism. A relative of the great Mickiewicz, Wadislaw 
Mickiewicz, and a few other prominent men called together a meet- 
ing in Warsaw to try to bring about internal peace. In vain he 
begged and pleaded, at last amid tears, that his countrymen, sur- 
rounded as they were by outside enemies, should not go against the 
Jews who had always been their friends. Not a single Polish paper 
reported his speech. All that happened before the war, and the di- 
rect result was the economic ruin of the Russian-Polish Jews. But 
during the war the hatred for Jews has flamed up again, and so 
far the Russian government has not done anything to stop or put 
out the fire. 

The Economic Boycott Still in Effect 

Space does not permit further quotations from 'Brandes' 
terrible tale, to outline the shocking false reports and incen- 
diary lying charges that were fabricated to foment this anti- 
Semitic spirit. Eye-witnesses confirm the report — some men- 
tioned by him in later papers in the same volume — that this 
economic boycott has continued unabated right through the 
war until today, though much of this data, unpublished even, 
has not been accessible to the Survey and to Mr. White. 
Brandes concludes his article: 

My sympathy is not for the Jews as Jews, but for the oppressed 
and suffering. It was I who wrote a generation ago: "One loves 
Poland, not as one loves France, or Germany or England, but as 
one loves liberty. For what does it mean to love Poland, but to 
love liberty, to sympathize with suffering and to admire courage and 
glowing enthusiasm?" . . . Must I be ashamed of having written 
them, now that Poland's future is hanging in the balance? 

Unfortunately, as shown by the authoritative booklet issued 
by the American Jewish Committee in 1916, entitled The 
War in the Eastern War Zone (pp. 10-11, 39-69), contain- 
ing similar reports of the Polish anti-Jewish boycott and po- 
groms, continued during the war — even religious feelings had 
been appealed to, in fomenting these anti-Semitic persecutions, 
including the declaration of the Polish Church Synod of 1733 
that the Jews continue to exist that 

they might remind us of the tortures of the Saviour, and by their 
abject and miserable condition might serve as an example of the 
first chastisement of God inflicted upon the infidels. 

It was particularly in view of this Polish situation that the 
American Jewish Committee appealed to the Pope and in- 
duced him to issue his famous encyclical of February 9, 1916, 
directed against such Jewish persecutions (American Jewish 
Year Book, 1917-8, pp. 452-8). Doubtless influenced by this 
document, the archbishop of Warsaw and six Catholic bishops 
issued an appeal on August 11, 1916, to Poles to abstain 
from sowing hatred against other inhabitants of the country 
(lb. p. 277), and the archbishop, a few months ago, uttered 
similar views; but the boycott nevertheless continues. 

Unfortunately, the summary of the year's events in Polish 
occupied territory published in the volume just cited (pp. 
271, 307, 277-281), and the successor volume about to be 
issued — advance sheets of which I have been permitted to 
examine — continue to chronicle anti-Semitic action by the 
Polish authorities, evidencing continuing racial and religious 
persecutions. Thus, for example, in June, 1916, Jewish or- 
ganizations had to protest against the decision of the local 
Warsaw Citizens' Committee to limit the franchise at mu- 
nicipal elections to persons able to read and write Polish, ex- 
cluding the bulk of the Jews there, and in other Polish ter- 



94 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 






ritory, fourteen Jews elected to office were unseated in May, 
1917, because unfamiliar with the Polish language. Again, 
on March 22, 1917, notwithstanding the declaration made by 
the Imperial Council six days previously, granting full relig- 
ious and civil liberty and equality to the Jews of Poland, the 
Warsaw Town Council rejected plans for considering Jewish 
interests in the composition of the School Board, continued to 
exclude Jews Wearing the traditional long garments from the 
Lazienki Park, and discriminated against the wives of Jewish 
soldiers, by recognizing only civil marriage certificates, and 
not those issued to Jews under the recognized Jewish mar- 
riage laws. 

Conflicting Testimony 

The 1918-9 Jewish Year Book, on the other hand, records 
that M. Kucharzewski, the Polish prime minister, on Decem- 
ber 28, 1917, in an interview, stated that he is not an anti- 
Semite, and that, by mutual understanding, the Jews of Po- 
land were to receive equal rights, recognizing that the prior 
above-cited declaration of March 16, 1917, was still inopera- 
tive. On March 8, 1918, he promised to submit to the Poli- 
tical Department a rabbinical memorandum on anti-Semitic 
restrictions still prevailing in Poland and to satisfy the Jewish 
demands. In May, 1917, the Jewish leaders in the section of 
Poland under Austrian occupancy had submitted similar de- 
mands. 

On the other hand, the same work was compelled to record 
that during a debate in the Warsaw City Council, on August 
3, 1917, the request of Jewish delegates that Jews be given 
representation in a council of trade-masters being formed, in 
order to relieve the deplorable condition of Jewish mechanics, 
provoked such anti-Semitic utterances that the council had to 
adjourn without giving the Jews an opportunity to reply even. 
Later in the same month, anti-Semites again openly agitated 
in favor of the boycott, and priests who traded with Jews 
were attacked. On December 14, 1917, the Warsaw munici- 
pal authorities took over control of all bakeries and refused 
to permit Jewish bakers to close on Saturday and work on 
Sundays. On January 26, 1917, the local commandant in 
the section of Poland under Austrian occupancy had ordered 
all Jewish dealers to open their premises Saturdays from 8 to 
11 A. M. and 3 to 4 p. m. On April 12, 1918, particular 
reference was made, apparently in the Austrian Reichstag, 
to the Odzydzenie Polski, a movement directed against the 
Jews in Poland, but the Polish press accused the German 
government of spreading antagonism between Poles and Jews 
for political ends of its own. As to educational regulations, 
more anon. 

The recent news item in the Survey gives rise to the infer- 
ence, at least, that the Polish Jews have been at fault in se- 
lecting trades and occupations which have not made them 
economically independent. As above pointed out, however, 
this economic boycott, shortly before the war, suddenly cut 
off, for many hundreds of thousands, their accustomed means 
of livelihood, and ruined them, even before the war began. 
Moreover, artificial state regulation imposed during the war 
by Germany has further injured them, as pointed out in the 
Farbstein report, which mentioned the salt trade as a typical 
example. Until recently, the salt trade was entirely in the 
hands of the Jews; now it is monopolized by the government, 
which estimated that the Jews constituted about 15 per cent 
of the entire population, and thereupon arbitrarily decreed that 
only 15 per cent of the salt stores should be operated by Jews, 
so that the remaining 85 per cent are deprived of their liveli- 
hood, non-Jews being provided for by taking their places. Mr. 
Farbstein fears that this example will be generally followed. 



Similarly, it should not be forgotten that city-dwellers have 
suffered far more than country dwellers, for raw material and 
other supplies and machinery are almost wholly lacking. The 
Russian laws which forbade Jews from living outside of the 
prescribed pale of settlement and prohibited their owning land 
(apparently repealed by the Polish Council of State in August, 
1917), however, resulted in locating nearly all the Jews in the 
cities, and naturally they have suffered far more than country 
dwellers, in consequence. While non-Jews have been freely 
engaged as workers on public improvements, roads, ditches, 
etc., scarcely any Jews have been accepted for such labor. 

There are other reasons besides the Journal de Debats cor- 
respondence cited in the Survey for believing that Germany 
is, on occasion, using the Jews of Poland as "pawns" for its 
ulterior political ends. On June 22, 1917, the Socialists, 
even in a German Reichstag Committee, criticized the chan- 
cellor for forcing Jewish laborers in Poland and Lithuania 
to work for less than the standard wage and the committee 
adopted resolutions in favor of equality of treatment of Jewish 
workmen with German laborers. On September 14, 1917, 
the German authorities expelled from colleges and universities 
in Warsaw all students not natives of the city; this, again, 
particularly affected Jews. The enormous spread of anti- 
Semitism in Germany during the war is, of course, well 
known: The Frankfurter Zeitung, on December 11, 1917, 
reported the sale of hundreds of thousands of copies of a new 
anti-Semitic work entitled A Knife for the Jews ; and Hous- 
ton Stewart Chamberlain has just received a special letter 
of thanks from the German Kaiser for publishing a new leaf- 
let, grossly abusing Englishmen and Jews simultaneously. On 
July 26, 1917, at a meeting of the Warsaw City Council at 
which the plan that Russian reform proposals affecting the 
status of workmen should apply to the Jews also, was vehe- 
mently opposed by Polish anti-Semites — Jews charged anti- 
Semites with deliberately attempting to frustrate all efforts at 
an understanding between Jews and Poles. 

To describe these conditions as "economic," and deny that 
they are instances of racial and religious discrimination, is ob- 
viously fallacious! The Survey article, above cited, joined 
me in deploring the fact that many Polish Jews have not yet 
familiarized themselves with the language, thoughts and aspi- 
rations of their Polish fellow-citizens, but did me a grave in- 
justice by ignoring the fact, outlined by me in the American 
Hebrew article, and much more fully elsewhere, that this is 
primarily due to benighted Russo-Polish laws and methods of 
administration, which have deprived Jews of equal rights, 
closed the public schools to them, interfered with their opera- 
tion of their own schools, and made life almost impossible 
for them in general. That such laws and practices have, in 
turn, created a conservative tendency among the Jews, keeping 
them in general, nolens volens, apart racially, from the lan- 
guage, thoughts and aspirations of their Polish fellow-men, is 
thus a mere result, and not a cause, though we agree that such 
a point of view ought to be changed as rapidly as possible. 

Difficulties of Education 

The subject-matter of education is one of the most im- 
portant factors in this direction and requires most careful 
treatment. In a report on Illiteracy Among Jewish Immi- 
grants and its Causes, prepared February 4, 1914, by a Com- 
mittee of the National Jewish Immigration Council, of which 
I was chairman (published as United States Senate Document 
No. 611, of the Sixty-third Congress, Second Session), much 
detailed attention was given as to the brutal restrictions and 
prohibitions upon Jewish education in Poland under the Rus- 
sian despotic regime. Attention was there called to the fact that 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



95 



these conditions were so acute that even in Czaristic Russia a 
national educational congress attended by six thousand teach- 
ers of all races and creeds at Petrograd in January, 1914, 
adopted strong resolutions of protest at the official efforts to 
throttle primary education among the Jews of the Russian 
Empire. Unfortunately, Poland under German occupa- 
tion has continued to pursue a benighted and 'illiteral 
policy in this regard, though some progress has already been 
made. 

Naturally, instruction in the Polish vernacular is a condi- 
tion sine qua non of true inner Jewish emancipation, and ulti- 
mately in Poland — as in our own country and as in England, 
France, Italy, Germany and Austria, the Jewish children 
should all be taught in public schools — and in Polish, and not 
Yiddish ! But meantime, now that the public schools in Po- 
land are opened to them, the same practical good sense which 
induced American Jewry, in a transition period, to open spe- 
cial schools and classes to prepare more advanced foreign-born 
children for our public schools, and thereafter to secure mainte- 
nance of such classes in the public schools themselves at gov- 
ernmental expense, should be applied there too. The Jewish 
petitions that the government take over their schools should be 
granted. Advanced, older, impoverished pupils, speaking 
Yiddish only, should not be forced into classes with much 
younger beginners, learning in Polish only. Nor should a 
system of public education be made compulsory, wholly bar- 
ring instruction in Yiddish forthwith — which would make it 
impossible for Jewish children to converse with their parents, 
and which would close their eyes and ears to all the sacred tra- 
ditions of hallowed family life! But the Polish authorities, 
even now, refuse to listen to any such pleas, even from a nu- 
merically large portion (14 per cent) of their heavily taxed 
fellow-countrymen, so impoverished that they are dying daily 



from starvation and want, without assuming the additional 
burden of maintaining private schools at their own expense! 

I realize that I am treading on delicate ground ! I fully 
share Mr. White's desire to avoid increasing "the tension 
of a situation which is already serious," and the desirability 
of cooperating in solving "a problem which Poles, Jews and 
Gentiles alike, I [Mr. White] am happy to say, are now trying 
to settle." But this problem cannot be solved by mere vague 
intermittent lip-service, and continuous disregard in practice 
of the underlying fundamental principles, even at a time when 
martial law is restraining Polish volition in the matter of 
pogroms and anti-Semitic outbursts! Unfortunately, the eco- 
nomic boycott against the Jews in Poland is not over! Un- 
fortunately, "deed, not creed," still indicates that the eco- 
nomic distress of the Jews in Poland continues to be largely 
due to "racial and religious persecution." 

To cure evil conditions, they must first be analyzed and 
understood, and a policy of conscious or unconscious evasion, 
and of blaming them on impersonal "economic" conditions, 
instead of frankly describing them as results of deplorable, 
shameful, benighted racial and religious persecution, is no way 
of solving them ! Rumanian trickery and evasion in her treat- 
ment of the Jews after the Congress of Berlin — continued 
under the new treaty of this year — were even worse than Rus- 
sia's public pogroms. Polish patriots must hear, and heed, the 
demands of civilization, especially as voiced in American non- 
sectarian papers, and the "world must be made safe for democ- 
racy" in the future, liberated, independent, self-governing 
Poland, too, which has no greater friends all over the world 
than "the people of the book," with their love for democracy 
and a reign of law and order, and in whose ears their co- 
religionist, Georg Brandes', panegyric on liberated Poland 
finds universal, sympathetic hearing. 



Mobilizing Social Forces Against 

Influenza 



George M. Price, M. D. 



THE sudden and unexpected onset of influenza has 
caught the country unawares and found the public 
health administration unprepared to deal properly 
with the spread of the disease. Brought over in Au- 
gust by some ships from abroad, the infection spread rapidly, 
first to navy and army cantonments, then to adjacent com- 
munities and thence to cities of the eastern states. In less 
than six weeks the epidemic rapidly involved the whole coun- 
try, reaching the extreme western states and taking its ghastly 
toll from the whole population. At present, the epidemic has 
in many places reached its crest and is on the decline, although, 
according to authorities of the United States Public Health 
Service, it is to be expected that it will linger in each locality 
from four to six weeks, affecting from 25 to 40 per cent of 
the population. 

Influenza has for many years been endemic in the country 
during the fall and winter, but never before, except in 1889, 
has the spread of the disease been so rapid, has it involved so 
large a percentage of the population, or has there been so 
large a mortality rate from the disease itself and its main 
complication, pneumonia. The disease is known to be due 
to a micro-organism. It is not certain, however, that the 
bacillus "Pfeiffer," which was found to be the cause of former 



influenzas, is the cause of the present infection. There is as 
yet no specific treatment for the disease, nor has there as yet 
been discovered any vaccine or serum. The several vaccines 
which have been used during the present epidemic have not 
proved effective. According to the conclusions of Dr. M. J. 
Rosenovv, Dr. George C Whipple and other members of com- 
mittees appointed in Massachusetts, "the evidence at hand con- 
vinces the board that the vaccines we have considered have 
no specific value in the treatment of influenza, although the 
statistical evidence indicates the probability that the use of 
this influenza vaccine has some prophylactic value." The 
serum prepared by Dr. Park, of New York, and used by the 
New York Health Department, has as yet not been employed 
in sufficiently large quantities to permit any valid conclusions. 

Influenza is essentially a crowd disease. It runs through 
its course in a given community in from four to six weeks. 
It is best prevented by avoiding overcrowding and congestion, 
by conforming to the precepts of hygienic living, by the 
isolation of infected persons, by the proper care of convales- 
cents, and by the wearing of gauze masks by those in close 
contact with infected persons. 

As soon as the epidemic became widespread, national, state 
and local social forces were mobilized in the attempt to curb 



96 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



the spread of the disease and mitigate its results. Mention 
has already been made by the Survey of the act of Congress 
appropriating one million dollars for the fight against influ- 
enza, and the fact that the United States Public Health 
Service had charge of the expenditure of this sum in the differ- 
ent states affected ; also the taking over by the American Red 
Cross of the provision of nurses, physicians and hospital sup- 
plies throughout the country, for which a special appropria- 
tion of $575,000 has been made. 

The methods of combating the epidemic and its spread 
differ somewhat according to local conditions and to the 
energy displayed by the public health administrators. Massa- 
chusetts was probably the most afflicted state and Boston the 
most afflicted city in the country, according to current reports. 
A detailed report of the situation and how it was met is 
given by Mr. Murphy on another page of this issue. The 
methods of control in Philadelphia were described in the 
Survey of last week, and the latest reports indicate that the 
epidemic is on the decline and the organizations working for 
its control are cooperating harmoniously. 

As soon as the disease appeared in Chicago, the Department 
of Health took vigorous action. The disease was made re- 
portable, educational propaganda against coughing, sneezing 
and spitting was energetically conducted, all the social forces 
of the city were mobilized, an association of commercial, civic 
and social welfare organizations was organized to cooperate 
with the Department of Health, and special regulations were 
promulgated for the isolation of patients, for the wearing of 
masks by nurses and attendants and for other measures. Along 
the lines of precautionary measures, the managers of depart- 
ment stores and other large employers were required to have a 
sick roll-call of their employes every morning, and to refer all 
persons with colds to their house physicians and keep them 
from coming to work. As a means of protecting school chil- 
dren, the Health Department doctors and nurses have been 
asked to give instructions in the schools relating to things that 
people should do to avoid contracting the disease. Special 
care to ventilate schoolrooms properly and to examine and 
send home all children who did not feel well. As to further 
conditions in Chicago, G. Walter Lawrence, of that city, 
reports : 

For the first time since the great Chicago fire (Oct. 12, 1871) the 
theaters are closed, as are the "movies" and dance halls. The 
schools and churches have not yet been suspended, but practically 
all other public gatherings are forbidden. Here, too, street-car con- 
ditions are receiving needed attention, the fifteen thousand car men 
being "mobilized to fight the 'flu'." Cleanliness, ventilation, and the 
enforcement of the order forbidding smoking on cars are to receive 
special attention. 

The settlements are furnishing investigators to go into the homes 
where cases are reported to be, in order to determine whether aid is 
needed either for nursing or for preparing meals. In this way much 
weeding out is done and the time of the visiting nurses is saved for 
the most serious cases. It is enlightening to note that a great ma- 
jority of these appeals for assistance which the social workers aid in 
investigating, do not come from the settlement neighbors but from 
the middle-class people of better districts. The former, of course, 
not only have the habit of coming directly to the settlements with 
their troubles, rather than reporting to the Red Cross or other 
agencies, but also have an advantage over their somewhat better situ- 
ated brethren in being in touch with the infant welfare nurses. 

Community kitchens to prepare food for the sick families not other- 
wise cared for are also a part of the Chicago health campaign. The 
Red Cross, in cooperation with the settlements and other centers, is 
establishing these food preparation stations in the sections where they 
are most needed. This work is rendered necessary by the impossi- 
bility of obtaining a sufficient number of people to nurse all the 
families needing aid, though the Red Cross is providing many such 
volunteers to supplement the services of the registered nurses. Masks 
are worn by all these attendants. 

The latest reports from New Jersey show that the epidemic 



there is receding and that the disease is less prevalent now 
among the shipyard workers. Sanitary squads are inspecting 
the homes in which cases have occurred and are volunteering 
their services to clean and to disinfect. 

In New York city and state the epidemic still rages, al- 
though the number of cases reported during the last few days 
seems to be reduced and there are hopes that here also the 
disease may have reached its zenith. From the first appearance 
of the disease in the city there seemed to be a difference in the 
attitude towards its control by the health commissioner and 
other public-health authorities. The commissioner was at the 
beginning very optimistic, has asked for and obtained only 
the sum of $55,000 for combating the disease and has strenu- 
ously opposed the movement for the closing of amusement 
places and schools. The most important act of the health 
commissioner was the order for industrial zoning, so that em- 
ployes in various parts of the city should be permitted to leave 
their places of work at different hours. 

Valuable work was done by the Emergency Council ap- 
pointed by the health commissioner, as well as by the Women's 
Section of the Mayor's National Defense Committee. 

A Nurses' Emergency Council was organized on October 
10 and in less than twenty-four hours was in action, with Lil- 
lian D. Wald, of the Nurses' Settlement, as chairman, and 
Parmelia Doty, of Teachers' College, as secretary. The 
council has succeeded in coordinating many organizations, and 
of their work in the homes of those afflicted with the disease 
too much cannot be said. 

A noteworthy action of the Mayor's Defense Committee 
was to supply thousands of gallons of soup to be distributed 
throughout the city through various social agencies and neigh- 
borhood centers. Teachers' College, as well as the School of 
Philanthropy, has closed, turning over their forces to the 
Emergency Council and converting Whittley Hall into a 
soup kitchen. The medical colleges have cooperated by mo- 
bilizing their senior students and offering their services wher- 
ever necessary. 

The greatest difficulty in controlling the influenza epidemic 
was and is the shortage of trained nurses and of physicians 
and the insufficiency of hospital beds and dispensary facilities. 
The physicians are said to be greatly overworked and many 
of them are themselves suffering from the disease. Forty to 
fifty calls a day is said to be the minimum number made by the 
ordinary physician. Physicians appearing on the East Side 
have been known to be mobbed by women demanding their 
services. Druggists have been swamped with prescriptions, 
and there is a notable lack in certain drugs commonly used for 
the treatment of this disease. The nursing staff of the Henry 
Street Settlement has been entirely taken over by the Nurses' 
Emergency Council and devotes all its time to influenza work. 

In conclusion, it is interesting to note that a bill has been 
introduced in Congress to appropriate an additional ten mil- 
lion dollars for the fight against influenza and that strenu- 
ous efforts are being made to push Senate joint resolution 63, 
providing for adequate increase in the personnel of the Public 
Health Service and the appointment of a sanitary reserve 
corps in the service. This would authorize the commissioning 
in the Public Health Service, with necessary rank and author- 
ity, of men with national reputations in the field of sanitation, 
hygiene and public health administration ; also the appointment 
of full-time state health commissioners, who would also be 
federal health officers, with details of public health service 
officers to state health officers to act in cooperation between 
state and national health agencies, and to assist in securing 
improved health conditions in the states. 



Meeting the Scourge 

How Massachusetts Organized to Fight Influenza Told for the 

Benefit of Other States 

By J. Prentice Murphy 



GENERAL SECRETARY BOSTON CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY 



SICKNESS and death affecting hundreds of thousands 
have stalked through Massachusetts in the wake of the 
epidemic of influenza, with its aftermath of pneumonia, 
which first appeared in and about Boston late in August. 
The epidemic presents many serious and acute medical and 
social problems, reaching to disaster proportions. The chief 
problems are the care of large numbers of sick, the relief of 
many made temporarily destitute due to the illness or death 
of the wage-earner, and also care for children who have been 
exposed to influenza or pneumonia, and whose parents have 
died or are ill; children convalescing from influenza or pneu- 
monia and who cannot return home immediately because other 
members of the family are ill or perhaps have died, and also 
care for children convalescing in hospitals or elsewhere, but 
who have not had influenza or pneumonia or been exposed to 
it, and who cannot return to their own homes for the reason 
indicated above. 

The epidemic is exhausting itself in the eastern part of the 
state but is still raging in the western and northern parts, as 
well as in a number of the manufacturing cities in the eastern 
and southeastern parts of the state. On the authority of Dr. 
David Brough, deputy commissioner of health of Boston, there 
had been up to October 5 approximately 200,000 influenza 
sufferers in Boston alone. There is no possible way of in- 
dicating the actual number of cases throughout the state, but 
conservative estimates place the total number to date in excess 
of 500,000. 

Between September 14 and October 17 there had been a 
total of 3,815 deaths from influenza and grippe in Boston 
alone, and approximately 4,000 throughout the rest of the 
state. Certain officials of the State Department of Health 
estimated that the total to date of approximately 7,800 deaths 
would reach 12,000 deaths before the epidemic has subsided in 
the state, which will not be for eight or ten weeks. 

The last epidemic of influenza occurred in the winter of 
'89 and '90, when it was estimated that about 800,000 people 
were affected, with a total of 2,500 deaths. The population 
of the state at that time was about 2,250,000. Today it is 
about 4,000,000, and the epidemic bids fair to reach as many 
victims per 100,000 of population as in '89, but with a very 
much higher death-rate. 

For days the deaths in Boston from these two diseases 
alone averaged more than 175, running up from 21 on Septem- 
ber 14 to 202 on October 1 and then slowly declining to 60 on 
October 18. The unusual situation is brought out by com- 
paring these recent daily death-rates with the Boston Health 
Department statistics showing the influenza deaths for each 
of the last four years, as follows: 1917, 51 ; 1916, 80; 1915, 
- 37 ; 1914, 12. The epidemic caused the death-rate to soar to a 
point without precedent in annals of the Health Department. 
The first manifestations of the epidemic appeared in the 
naval training stations within the Metropolitan area ; namely, 
the great Commonwealth Pier, Boston, which is a barracks 
for naval men; Wakefield Rifle Range; the Radio Training 



School, Cambridge; the Naval Aviation School at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology; the Charlestown Navy 
Yard, and elsewhere. There were about 20,000 men in at- 
tendance at these various stations and barracks, this number 
not including many other enlisted men coming and going from 
Boston on ships. 

Early in September alarm was expressed by various ob- 
servers at the rate the epidemic was spreading in the first naval 
district, which includes Boston. Up to September 15 there 
had been a total of 1,897 cases, with 37 deaths. Cases also 
broke out among naval men in New London and elsewhere in 
New England, due it was felt, to the recent transfer of men 
from Boston. 

From that time on, the number of cases and the number of 
deaths began to mount, so that on September 17 Greater Bos- 
ton physicians were practically agreed that the epidemic was 
making great headway and that the public should be warned 
that conditions were rapidly becoming very serious. On this 
date there were 2,273 cases in the first naval district. Then 
suddenly cases began to appear in a great many cities in eastern 
Massachusetts. 

By this time many cases had developed at Camp Devens, 
just outside Ayer, Mass., and some forty miles northwest of 
Boston, there having been more than 3,500 cases up to the 
eighteenth. The camp and training stations were closed to 
visitors. The death-rate amongst the afflicted in these places 
became a discouraging feature of the daily epidemic reports. 
The Negro soldiers were especially susceptible. 

By the nineteenth, hospital facilities in Boston and the cities 
and towns surrounding were becoming exhausted. Various 
school boards were ordering schools closed, acting quickly on 
the word that children were becoming ill or were coming from 
homes where other members of the family were ill with in- 
fluenza. Somerville on the sixteenth reported 4,300 pupils 
absent out of a total enrollment of 12,300. At least one- 
fourth of these children were known to be ill. Many of the 
teachers were ill. 

With conditions becoming so serious in the eastern part of 
the state and giving every evidence of spreading over the whole 
state, acting Governor Coolidge created a State Emergency 
Health Committee as follows: chairman, Henry C. Endicott, 
chairman of the State Public Safety Committee ; A. C. Ratche- 
sky, vice-chairman of the Public Safety Committee; Surgeon- 
General William A. Brooks, of the State Guard, Adjutant- 
General Jesse F. Stevens ; State Health Commissioner Eugene 
R. Kelley; Mrs. Nathaniel Thayer, chairman of the Massa- 
chusetts Committee of the Women's Branch of the Council 
of National Defense, John F. Stevens and James J. Phelan. 

The Governor's Council followed the appointment of this 
Emergency Health Committee with an appropriation of $100,- 
000, to be placed at the disposal of the committee in a state- 
wide fight. This appropriation was later increased to $500,- 
000 and will probably have to be still further increased before 
the end of the chapter is reached. 

97 



98 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1 9 1 8 



With the organization of the State Emergency Health Com- 
mittee, Mayor Peters, of Boston, quickly followed with the 
appointment of a Boston Emergency Health Committee com- 
posed as follows: chairman, Dr. William C. Woodward, 
health commissioner of Boston; Dr. James J. Minot, Judge 
Michael J. Sullivan, Mary Beard, director of the Boston Dis- 
trict Nursing Association, and Victor Heath, chairman of the 
Boston Committee of the State Public Safety Committee. 
Other cities and towns also organized emergency health com- 
mittees. The state committee established emergency head- 
quarters in the State House, under the immediate direction 
of Mrs. Frederick S. Mead. The office was efficiently manned 
by a force of 75 volunteers, including a great many school 
teachers, and has been open from eight in the morning until 
nine in the evening every day in the week. 

The Boston Health Committee opened offices in City Hall 
and organized a registry of medical and social resources in 
Boston, which led quickly to the best use of overworked phy- 
sicians, nurses, social workers and aides. The state commit- 
tee assisted in focussing reports from various parts of the state, 
the bulk of the execution of necessary tasks resting with the 
State Health Department and under the direction of Commis- 
sioner Kelley. 

The existing hospital equipment was almost immediately 
taken up, and one of the first jobs for the state committee to 
handle was the providing of places all over the state with 
emergency hospital equipment. This meant furnishing thou- 
sands of cots, mattresses, sheets, blankets, towels, medicines 
and other hospital equipment, motor service, and assigning 
doctors, nurses, aides and other volunteers not needed in their 
own communities to places where they were more urgently 
needed ; and moving them all from place to place as rapidly 
as the conditions in one town were under control and were 
getting beyond control in the next town. 

Probably the first announcement of the state committee was 
an appeal for doctors and nurses, as follows: "The great 
need in the influenza situation is doctors and nurses. We ap- 
peal to all doctors and nurses who may have had any train- 
ing and who are not now engaged to offer their services to 
help check this disease. To all private homes who have now 
in their service nurses who could possibly be released, we ap- 
peal to make such releases immediately." This was repeated 
day after day in newspapers throughout the commonwealth, 
and was followed by the announcement that the committee 
was prepared to pay for the services of all nurses, doctors and 
aides who could help in the epidemic, and who were unable to 
give their services without remuneration. The rate quickly 
established in Boston was $26 per week for nurses and $10 
to $15 a week for aides; that is, women who were willing to 
go in and do the less technical but most necessary cleaning up, 
cooking, etc. 

The State Department of Health, under the special direc- 
tion of Commissioner Kelley and Dr. John S. Hitchcock, has 
done a very notable piece of work in keeping health officers 
in cities and towns advised as to the very latest information 
as to the treatment of the disease, in anticipating local needs, 
of knowing what was happening throughout the state, and in 
circulating short, concise bulletins telling people what to do. 

Schools, churches and town halls were opened up as hos- 
pitals in many places. In each of the eight health districts or 
divisions in the state, under the direction of the district health 
officers, open air hospitals were rapidly created and were very 
successful in their treatment of patients. Surgeon-General 
Brooks, of the State Guard, opened an emergency influenza 
hospital on Corey Hill, Boston, for the reception of three or 
four hundred of the worst victims of the epidemic among men 



from the training ships of the United States Shipping Board. 
All over the state invaluable services were rendered by divi- 
sions of the State Guard in assembling hospital equipment, 
assisting in maintaining and operating them, operating trucks, 
getting supplies, acting as aides, guards, etc. 

New Bedford furnishes an example of one of many cities 
with complete plans for the meeting of a disaster or epidemic 
such as the one we are now facing. Under the direction of 
Dr. Garry DeN. Hough, seven emergency hospitals were 
organized in the early stages of the epidemic in that city, in- 
cluding hospitals for men/ women, children and maternity 
cases. There was almost a complete pooling of medical re- 
sources in the city. 

On September 25, with the number of new cases and death- 
rate still mounting, the State Emergency Committee requested 
that "all public gatherings, parades, etc., be called off on ac- 
count of the influenza conditions throughout the common- 
wealth ; that theaters, moving picture shows and other places 
of amusement be closed temporarily, and that in so far as the 
proper authorities considered it advisable, all schools — public, 
parochial, private, etc. — be closed." 

Acting on this request from the state committee the Boston 
authorities, through Commissioner Woodward, got into im- 
mediate touch with amusement managers. In spite of the 
protests of the amusement men an order was issued by Com- 
missioner Woodward with the approval of Mayor Peters, 
ordering that beginning at midnight, September 27, and cover- 
ing a period of eight days, "no assemblages or gatherings 
should be permitted or held in theaters, moving picture houses 
or dance halls within the city of Boston, and no other un- 
necessary assemblages or gatherings of people should be per- 
mitted or held within said city. This regulation to be effective 
during the period named unless later modified or extended by 
the Health Department of the City of Boston." The time 
was extended from week to week until October 20. 

Almost as quickly similar action was taken by health boards 
in cities and towns throughout the state. Many churches vol- 
untarily suspended services on the twenty-ninth. All schools 
were by this time ordered closed. The order affected various 
county fairs, conferences and conventions, including the Con- 
ference of Social Work ; and the state political conventions, the 
responsible officials of which have practically abandoned the 
idea of anything like state rallies. All Liberty Loan soliciting, 
parades and subscription meetings were likewise called off. 

In connection with the school situation it is interesting to 
note that especially in the Metropolitan area many of the 
school boards, including the Boston board, moved slowly in 
the matter of ordering the schools closed. On September 24 
Commissioner Kelley in an interview said: "The schools 
should not be closed except in exceptional instances ; that is, 
children coming from homes where there haa been an active 
case should be excluded until the danger of carrying infection 
is passed. Also those who show symptoms of beginning in- 
fection are to be sent home immediately. Influenza has not 
been declared a reportable disease by this department ; there- 
fore the quarantine of householders or wage-earners should not 
be undertaken unless deemed absolutely necessary." Ten days 
ago both influenza and pneumonia were made reportable dis- 
eases. 

The alarm of parents was expressed in the large number of 
absences amongst the children. The number of cases r^norted 
among school children in Boston schools up to th^ twenty- 
sixth was small, being on that date not more than 500 out of 
an attendance of 100,000 children. However, many teachers 
were reported ill. 

The original closing order did not refer speci^cr^i y to 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26 , 191 



99 



churches. Many of the Boards of Health outside of Bos- 
ton read into the State Emergency Committee's request that 
there should be no public meetings, and ordered all church 
services discontinued until further notice. A week later the 
Boston Board of Health in extending its closing order fol- 
lowed with the specific request that the holding of .church 
services be discontinued. The result has been almost no 
church services throughout Massachusetts for a period of three 
weeks up to October 20. 

Emergency canteens were established under the leadership 
of Margaret J. Stanndard, who conducts a well-known 
private school in Boston, and Mary A. Barr, chairman of the 
Women's Committee on Food Conservation of the State Pub- 
lic Safety Committee. Emergency canteens were opened in 
various parts of the city, settlements, churches, etc. Food pre- 
pared especially for the sick was sold at cost. Where families 
were unable to pay it was provided gratuitously, private phil- 
anthropic agencies often meeting the expense. The chief dif- 
ficulty in many instances was not inability to pay for the food, 
but the large number of self-respecting families so completely 
affected by the epidemic as to be unable to do any cooking. 

Automobile service was established in connection with some 
of the stations. Fireless cooker arrangements were installed 
so that the food was delivered piping hot to the families where 
there were sick and convalescents. This canteen service un- 
doubtedly saved many, many lives and also resulted in a 
quicker convalescence for many of those recovering. 

The question of feeding and nutrition for all those who have 
been ill will continue to be a very serious problem for many 
months to come. So many have been exhausted by reason of 
the illness that only the most careful and thorough dieting 
during the full period of convalescence will save them from 
permanently impaired health. It is not an exaggeration to 
say that tuberculosis will play a prominent part in the next 
four or five months in the lives of many of those now recov- 
ering from the immediate epidemic. Lucy H. Gillett, of the 
Boston Dietetic Bureau, has prepared special dietaries and is 
now organizing a special corps to be concerned with the task 
of following up this feeding problem. 

Unless those who have influenza and pneumonia are prop- 
erly fed there is grave danger that they will become tubercu- 
lar. One doctor said he thought a great many would proba- 
bly develop tuberculosis because they would not get proper 
food. 

The immediate handling of the sick in their homes in Boston 
was left by the Boston Committee in the hands of the Boston 
District Nursing Association, under the very able direction of 
Mrs. Ernest Amory Codman, president; Mary Beard, di- 
rector, and Grace O'Brien, associate director. There was a 
close tie-up between the nursing association and the emergency 
registration bureau at City Hall, so that very quickly physi- 
cians, nurses and aides were working by districts under the 
closest supervision, making accurate daily reports on all those 
visited. Within a few days it was possible to answer all 
emergency calls for ambulance, hospital, doctor or nursing 
care. Hundreds of school teachers, Sisters of Charity, social 
workers and others were working in families under the super- 
vision of nurses. 

So far as the state was concerned, there was a most effective 
pooling of nursing resources under the direction of Bernice 
W. Billings, of the State Department of Health. During the 
most acute days Miss Billings used every woman who volun- 
teered for nursing work, even if she came without real nurs- 
ing experience. Under the emergency training given, women 
of intelligence rapidly became of great use. 

Industrial establishments were immediately affected. At 



one time between three and four thousand of the men con- 
nected with the Fore River shipbuilding plant were out sick. 
Only by quick and effective work on the part of federal, state 
and local authorities was the situation there held in check and 
the plant kept in operation. Department stores were seriously 
affected, because people refrained from going into the city and 
stayed at home, and because many of the workers were ill. 

The telephone operators were so badly affected as to neces- 
sitate an order by W. R. Driver, Jr., general manager of the 
New England Telegraph and Telephone Co., requesting the 
public to eliminate unnecessary calls, refrain as far as possible 
from appealing to chief operators, and to show leniency to 
those members who were still keeping at their jobs. 

Under the order of state and local health departments 
offices for a while closed at four o'clock in an effort to obviate 
congestion on transportation lines. An effort was also made 
to rearrange the hours for factories, stores, offices, etc., so that 
for three or four days Boston stores were operating on a sched- 
ule holding from 10 A. M. to 4 P. m. This readjustment of 
the economic life of the community involved many diffi- 
culties and failed also to produce results in the congested 
transportation, so that there was a quick return to normal 
working hours. 

On September 27 it was requested that all soda fountains 
be closed and this order was observed very generally. 

On October 6 saloons, bowling alleys, auction rooms and 
soda fountains were "ordered closed," first in Boston and later 
in most of the cities and towns in the state. An effort was 
made to have more trolley cars in operation on Boston streets, 
and while the companies were willing to comply with this re- 
quest they were unable to do so because of the shortage of men. 
However, smoking car service was discontinued on the score 
that these cars were breeders of disease. 

The loss to many industries will be very heavy. Theatrical 
men estimate that their losses will approximate a million and 
a half dollars for each week they have to close, and this is only 
one of many industries affected, and does not include indi- 
vidual costs due to sickness and loss of work. Hotels, clubs 
and restaurants were greatly affected. 

Commissioner Kelley, through reports coming to his de- 
partment quickly foresaw the need for more doctors and 
nurses than could be provided by Massachusetts alone. The 
result was a series of appeals to federal and state authorities 
for medical help. Major Warren F. Draper was assigned by 
the United States Public Health Service to assist in the di- 
rection of federal, state and municipal forces fighting the epi- 
demic. Requests were made for 500 doctors and 1,000 nurses. 

While many doctors and nurses came in response to the 
request to Washington, probably none of them were assigned 
to civilian service. They were used in camps and barracks to 
care for soldiers and sailors. The state of Maryland sent a 
fully-equipped hospital train of six cars, and rendered a very 
special service in the situation at Quincy and in the Fore 
River shipbuilding plant. Many nurses came from the other 
New England states and throughout the country and from 
Canada ; the call even reached to Halifax, that recently dis- 
aster-swept city sending every nurse it could spare. The prom- 
ises of more distant cities to send doctors and nurses could not 
be fulfilled because of the rapid spread of the epidemic in their 
own borders. 

The fuel-saving campaign which was conducted in 
the state had to be called off to the extent of urging people 
to light moderate fires and of seeing that all office and public 
buildings were heated. This no doubt tended very materially 
to check the spread of the epidemic. 

Many of the state institutions were very badly hit. The 



100 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 1918 



Canton State Hospital for Crippled Children had a tragic 
time, the epidemic affecting many of the children at one time, 
and presenting an enormous nursing job to a staff greatly de- 
pleted by sickness. Many cases developed in the two schools 
for the feebleminded, one cottage of 150 children at the 
Wrentham School developing 117 cases. The State Prison at 
Charlestown had a number of cases but a relatively low death- 
rate. Early in the epidemic visiting to state institutions was 
absolutely prohibited. 

The holding of court sessions throughout the commonwealth 
was practically suspended. This meant that save in all but 
exceptional instances there were no court proceedings. For 
more than two weeks no children were committed through the 
courts. This was in accordance with a request from the State 
Board of Health and the State Board of Charity to keep those 
exposed in their own localities until all danger from further 
spread was over. Massachusetts has about 10,000 dependent 
children in families, the Division of State Minor Wards of 
the State Board of Charity being responsible for about 7,500 
of these and the city of Boston for about 1,000. All public 
and private agencies agreed not to move children from one 
community to another save where it was necessary and to re- 
sort to every emergency scheme to prevent transfers. This 
meant the opening of emergency shelters for children in Bos- 
ton, New Bedford, Fall River, Gloucester and other parts of 
the state. The shelters are small, never more than thirty in 
charge at one time. A number of private families have been 
equipped with cots, bedding, etc., and are caring for groups 
of from six to eight children, at special rates of board. 

Many of the day nurseries, including the large industrial 
day nurseries in connection with war industries, had to close 
because so many of the children were ill or were coming from 
homes where other members of the family were suffering. In 
some of the cities and towns day nurseries were immediately 
taken over for emergency shelter work, and have rendered 
very good service in this connection. 

The number of deaths throughout the state in the age 
group of twenty to thirty means many broken homes. Pub- 
lic and private agencies throughout the state are receiving 
large numbers of applications from families where the mother 
or father has died. This means a special task for the chil- 
dren's organizations. Applications are now coming for whole 
families of children, beginning with babies a few days old. 
Because of the many instances where it is the mother who has 
died, foster-care will be necessary. Deaths have been very 
great amongst women in confinement. 

The problem of dependency presented in widows' families 
means a vast increase of work for the Division of Mother's 
Aid of the State Board of Charity. It is impossible to give 
the total number of orphans and half-orphans resulting from 
the epidemic, but it is certainly not small. The problem of 
dependency among adults has already greatly increased, and 
will continue to do so, certainly through the winter; it will 
call for greatly enlarged relief programs on the part of relief 
agencies. Serious physical conditions in families of dependent 
mothers will necessitate much higher standards in public out- 
door relief. Stories like this are now coming in : Ten moth- 
ers or fathers dead in one block ; twelve applications in thirty- 
six hours to the Overseers of the Poor from as many widows, 
all of whose husbands were under thirty, and leaving families 
ranging from two to six each. 

At the suggestion of Mrs. Nathaniel Thayer, of the State 
Emergency Health Committee, and Ida M. Cannon, head of 
the Social Service Department of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, the state committee created an Advisory Council on 
Social Problems to meet the urgent and emergent social situa- 



tions rapidly developing throughout the state. Edith N. Bur- 
leigh, superintendent of parole at the Lancaster School for 
Girls, is now supervising the work of the council, and has as 
her assistants supervisors in each of the eight health districts 
who are working in the closest possible way with all public of- 
ficials, especially the health officials. Things have developed 
so rapidly that Miss Burleigh's office is now in touch with 
many parts of the state so far as social needs are concerned, and 
has the assistance of a number of leading medical and social 
workers over the state in the preparation of bulletins giving 
suggestions as to how the social situation may be met, and also 
giving the experiences of various communities in working out 
their own problems. The district assistants are presenting 
invaluable suggestions, all of which will be assembled by Miss 
Burleigh for the benefit of those interested. This council 
program has been one of the most important developments 
within the past week. 

As it was evident that the care of convalescents would be a 
serious problem, public and private agencies have made in- 
ventories of all organizations able to receive discharged pa- 
tients who could not go directly home. In Boston, the mag- 
nificent St. John's Seminary was offered by Cardinal O'Con- 
nell as a convalescent hospital, and within three days it was 
receiving men patients. Other convalescent homes through- 
out the state have also opened or been organized to meet the 
emergency. 

The disposal of the dead was for many days a very serious 
matter. Undertakers were overworked, short of help, or sick 
themselves, and it was impossible to obtain equipment as rap- 
idly as needed, so that at times it was found that bodies were 
not buried as promptly as health requirements made necessary. 
In the North End of Boston a hall was opened to which 
bodies were taken and kept until they could be buried, the 
bodies having been prepared in the meanwhile. In many in- 
stances families had to dig graves for their own dead. Public 
funerals were forbidden. 

The vaccine prepared by Dr. Timothy J. Leary, of Tufts 
Medical College, is now being made the subject of a very 
careful study by a special committee appointed by Commis- 
sioner Kelley. Thousands of exposed persons have been in- 
oculated, as well as those ill and convalescing. It is too soon 
for the committee to make a report, but it will no doubt appear 
in due time in the medical journals. 

The risks assumed by nurses in attendance is illustrated in 
the statement made by Surgeon-General William A. Brooks, 
of the State Guard, that in one leading hospital 70 out of 250 
nurses were stricken. The use of masks was required in all 
institutions where there were sick, and was very general on 
the part of those going into the homes. 

The Red Cross, through the office of the New England 
Division, James M. Jackson, director, while in no way bring- 
ing the Red Cross officially into control of the emergency, 
gave every help. 

To date the heaviest responsibilities and strain have been 
with the doctors and nurses, who in many instances will feel 
the effect of their ceaseless labors for months to come. Only 
for the fact that there was a general pooling of medical re- 
sources, doctors and nurses would have given out entirely long 
ago. 

At this writing the epidemic is spreading in northern New 
England — Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont — and this 
means a repetition of Massachusetts's experiences. Doctors, 
nurses and social workers are agreed that there must be care- 
ful follow-up work for many convalescents. In a number of 
cities and towns surveys are now being made so that actual 
conditions in the home of each sufferer may be known. 



cosraco: 




"W 



BOHEMIAN INDEPENDENCE 
A REALITY 

E can't go on with this war, 
even if we try," a pessimist 
was overheard to say the other day. 
And he was not a pro-German or a de- 
featist either. "We can't go on fight- 
ing," he said, "because we no longer 
know who are our friends and who our 
enemies." He explained: "We are sup- 
posed to be at peace with Russia ; but 
every day our newspapers regale us with 
items such as this: 

An annoying trench from which a Bolshe- 
vist pom pom had shelled our advanced posi- 
tions for a week was taken today in an 
assault by American troops. 

"On the other hand, we read of some- 
one in the Hungarian parliament saying 
— without being immediately shot — 'to 
hell with the Kaiser,' or words to that 
effect, and 'we are friends of the En- 
tente' ; and now comes the news that the 
flag of our Ally La Nation Tcheque is 
flying over the castle of Prague — accord- 
ing to my map an Austrian town — with- 
out apparently any battle having been 
fought or any blood having been shed." 

"And last night," joined in another, 
"they have been singing the Marseillaise 
in Unter den Linden. But then those 
who did it were jugged." 

However that may be, this confusion 
in the minds of many Americans reflects 
pretty accurately the real confusion of 
European politics at the present moment. 
Certain facts, to be sure, stand out 
prominently; ?nd among these this week 
the most important, perhaps, is the 
fact that our valiant allies, the Czecho- 
slovaks, have made themselves masters in 
their own house. Next week Prof. A. 
H. Miller will tell in the Survey of 
the Bohemians in America and their re- 
lation to their country's emancipation. 

The successful uprising of the last 
two weeks in Bohemia resulted from 
meetings called by the Czechoslovak 
council to protest against the export of 
foodstuffs. A general strike was called 
and rapidly developed into revolt. Ac- 
cording to Swiss dispatches, the move- 



ment has spread to Moravia, and there 
has been fighting at Brunn, the capital, 
at Skoda where the Austrian govern- 
ment has large armament plants, and 
other cities. 

The official declaration of independ- 
ence of the Czechoslovak nation, pre- 
sented to the State Department in Wash- 
ington by Prof. Thomas G. Masaryk, 
prime minister and minister of finance 
of the provisional government, is dated 
Paris, October 18. Most interesting, as 
showing the spirit in which the leaders 
of the new government see their demo- 
cratic aims and their responsibility to 
the rest of the world are the following 
paragraphs : 

We accept the American principles as laid 
down by President Wilson: the principles of 
liberated mankind, of the actual equality of 
nations, and of governments deriving all 
their just power from the consent of the 
governed. . . . 

The Czechoslovak nation shall be a re- 
public. In constant endeavor for progress, 
it shall guarantee complete freedom of con- 
science, religion and science, literature and 
art, speech, the press, and the right of as- 
sembly and petition. The church shall be 
separated from the state. Our democracy 
shall rest on universal suffrage. Women 
shall be placed on an equal footing with men, 
politically, socially and culturally. The 
rights of the minority shall be safeguarded 
by proportional representation. National mi- 
norities shall enjoy equal rights. The gov- 
ernment shall be parliamentary in form and 
shall recognize the principles of the initia- 
tive and the referendum. The standing army 
shall be replaced by militia. 

The Czechoslovak nation will carry out 
far-reaching social and economic reforms. 
The large estates will be redeemed for home 
colonization. Patents of nobility will be 
abolished. Our nation will assume its part 
of the Austro-Hungarian pre-war public debt. 
The debts for the war we leave to those 
who incurred them. 

In its foreign policy the Czechoslovak na- 
tion will accept its full share of responsi- 
bility in the reorganization of Eastern Europe. 
It accepts fully the democratic and social 
principle of nationality and subscribes to the 
doctrine that all covenants and treaties 
shall be entered into openly and frankly 
without secret diplomacy. 

Our constitution shall provide an efficient, 
rational and just government which shall ex- 
clude all special privileges and prohibit class 
legislation. 



SHALL WOMEN WORK 
AT NIGHT? 

A CONFERENCE of trade union 
women representing ten interna- 
tional unions with women members, the 
Women's Trade Union League and the 
American Federation of Labor, met in 
Washington the other day and adopted 
a vigorous resolution opposing all night 
work for women, even in factories with 
government contracts, unless the need 
for it has been certified by the Council 
of National Defense and the secretary of 
labor after investigation by the Woman 
in Industry Service of the United States 
Department of Labor. 

The meeting was the result of many 
requests that have come to the War De- 
partment from firms engaged in govern- 
ment work, for permission to employ 
women at night. 

These requests, all of which have been 
turned over to the Woman in Industry 
Service of the Department of Labor for 
investigation, have raised the whole 
question of night work in a new way. 
In eight states the employment of 
women at night is prohibited either by 
statute or by executive regulation. In 
the other forty states there are no re- 
strictions and women are required to 
work at night both upon government 
work and on private contracts. 

The situation is complicated by the 
fact that there is tremendous pressure 
for women to go into industry to take 
the place of men who have been drafted. 
Many factories have already reached the 
point where half of their working force 
is made up of women, and others will 
soon reach this point. It is obviously 
impracticable, the manufacturers say, to 
put all of the men on the night shift, for 
that would leave none but women to 
work in the day-time. Since workers at 
strategic points possessing the highest 
skill are almost invariably men, the fac- 
tories would be crippled by such an ar- 
rangement. Furthermore, many skilled 
men are taking advantage of the situa- 
tion to refuse to work at night. Gov- 
ernment officials, consequently, are com- 
ing to the conclusion that where condi- 

101 



102 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



tions of extreme necessity prevail either 
women must be permitted to work at 
night or production must be curtailed, 
and, they tell you, production must not 
be curtailed. 

Accordingly, two conferences have re- 
cently been held in Washington under 
the auspices of the Department of Labor. 
The first included officials from the 
labor departments of the various states. 
The problem was put up to them and 
they agreed unanimously that so far as 
government work is concerned, full 
power to regulate the employment of 
women at night should be placed in the 
hands of federal officials, both in the 
states where there is statutory regula- 
tion and those where there is no regu- 
lation. 

The second conference was that of 
the trade union women, mentioned above. 
After the situation had been explained 
to them by Secretary of Labor William 
B. Wilson, Felix Frankfurter, chairman 
of the War Labor Policies Board, and 
by Mary Van Kleeck and Mary Ander- 
son, director and assistant director re- 
spectively of the Woman in Industry 
Service, they took the action noted 
above. It was their unanimous opinion 
that night work for women is undesir- 
able. When, however, it becomes ap- 
parent that production essential to war 
activities will be curtailed unless women 
do work at night, it was their equally 
unanimous opinion that it would be justi- 
fied if properly controlled. That is, per- 
mission should be granted only on request 
of the Council of National Defense and 
after full investigation by the Woman in 
Industry Service in cooperation with the 
American Federation of Labor and 
should be limited to the particular fac- 
tory or factories thus approved. 

The plan favored by the Department 
of Labor was clearly set forth by Secre- 
tary of Labor Wilson in his address to 
the conference of Trade Union Women. 
Secretary Wilson said in part: 

The Woman in Industry Service and our 
War Labor Policies Board have been work- 
ing upon that question, and they have evolved 
what appears to me to be a method by which 
the federal government can secure control of 
the whole problem, the whole question of the 
employment of women at night. And the 
method they propose to pursue grows out of 
the fact that the government today is the 
great employer of labor, either directly or 
indirectly. The government is issuing con- 
tracts for billions of dollars of material that 
requires the employment of millions of 
workers. If there can be written into those 
contracts a provision that women shall not 
be employed at night until the Department 
of Labor has found that it is necessary that 
they should be employed at night, and the 
Department of Labor refuses to approve the 
employment of women at night until the 
Council of National Defense has determined 
that it is essential for the prosecution of the 
war, then we have control of the employ- 
ment of women not only in these states where 
you have laws preventing it, but in the larger 
number of states where you have no laws 
preventing it. And that is the thought that 



has been worked out by the Woman in In- 
dustry Service and the War Labor Policies 
Board, consulting with each other. It seems 
to me to be basically sound. 

It is not wise when you are dealing with 
the problem of a national emergency to allow 
local authorities to determine the necessity for 
doing this, that or the other thing. Local 
pressure becomes difficult to resist, but if you 
have the policy determined by a national 
body in a position to see all of the situation, 
to know all of the facts, to know where 
changes may take place which may relieve 
conditions and prevent the necessity in any 
locality; if you have the policy determined 
by a national body that has power to enforce 
its policy, then it is far better than permitting 
it to be controlled by any local agency any- 
where. 

My judgment is that there should be no 
night work for women unless it becomes an 
absolute necessity for the prosecution of the 
war, and so far as I am personally con- 
cerned, I shall give no approval to night 
work for women unless it becomes necessary 
for the prosecution of the war, and then I 
shall not rest solely upon my own judgment 
as to the necessity for it. I shall not give my 
approval until after my associates of the 
Council of National Defense have come to 
the conclusion that it is needed as a war 
measure, and that is the thought that has 
been worked out by the Woman in Industry 
Service. 

Labor department officials take the 
view that this action would have the 
effect of raising the standards for the 
employment of women throughout the 
United States. As Secretary Wilson 
pointed out, it would give the federal 
authorities power not only to permit 
night work in the eight states where there 
is regulation, but to prevent it in the 
forty where it is now permitted. In- 
vestigations would be made in the latter 
case, just as in the former, and in both 
cases night work would be permitted 
only if the national emergency demand- 
ed it and only in those factories that 
conform to federal regulations. 

The Woman in Industry Service has 
been making investigations at a number 
of points to determine the necessity or 
advisability of night work. One investi- 
gation recently made at Niagara Falls, 



THE QUEEN'S SCHOOL 
AT VINCKEN 

From a letter from a Red Cross 
worker in Belgium: 

"Flowers in profusion on the edge 
of a precipice, sweet young life full 
of promise on the edge of the great 
death, and everything is well done. A 
bomb fell 150 meters from the school 
the other day. Shells have come very 
near. I do hope and pray that this 
place can come through untouched. 
Her Majesty has done much and 
dared much for it. People who say 
she ought to move these 530 children 
away don't understand things. Many 
of them are children of parents who 
would not let them go away into 
France. She took the big responsi- 
bility, and I believe she will come 
through all right." 



N. Y., was the result of a request from 
the Chamber of Commerce of that place 
asking that permission be granted to all 
of the factories there to employ women 
in the hours now prohibited under the 
New York law, 10 p. M. to 6 a. m. 
Many of the industries at Niagara Falls 
are especially hazardous, so it was de- 
cided to include that locality in an in- 
vestigation of dangerous trades now be- 
ing conducted. The work was under- 
taken jointly by the Woman in Industry 
Service, the War Department, the Pub- 
lic Health Service and the Industrial 
Commission of the state of New York. 

The investigators assigned to the 
work have not yet completed their re- 
port. It is known, however, that in 
some of the factories at Niagara Falls 
they found conditions which made them 
unfit places for women to work at any 
any time, either day or night, and in 
most of the factories it was found that 
changes would be desirable. It is un- 
derstood that recommendations have 
been made to employers and that im- 
provements are on the way. 

That women who work have not re- 
ceived all the consideration that is due 
them was the opinion of the delegates to 
the conference of trade union women 
which met in Washington recently at 
the call of the Woman in Industry Serv- 
ice of the United States Department of 
Labor. They adopted resolutions fav- 
oring the appointment of two women to 
serve on the National War Labor Board 
and favoring the appointment of a 
woman on all wage boards. The prin- 
ciple of equal pay for equal work was 
re-affirmed and, in another resolution 
the conference declared that wages for 
women should be fixed on the same 
basis as for men. The War Labor 
Board, it was pointed out, has assumed 
in fixing wages for men that the aver- 
age man is the head of a family con- 
sisting of five persons. The conference 
declared that the same assumption should 
apply in the case of women. 

Another resolution demanded for 
women the same training and oppor- 
tunity that men receive. They anti- 
cipated after-the-war competition for 
jobs in the proposal that if there is not 
work enough for both the women and 
the returned soldiers, working hours 
should be reduced and both should work 
equal time. Any plan, furthermore, that 
the government may put into effect, to 
prevent exploitation of disabled or pen- 
sioned soldiers should apply equally to 
women. 

Another group of resolutions called 
on the government to "insist" on sani- 
tary conditions in workshops and safety 
provisions in hazardous occupations. The 
conference also endorsed the principle of 
health insurance "as a means toward 
health conservation." 

Several resolutions were adopted fav- 
oring changes in civil service employ- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



103 



ment and the conference finally resolved 
itself into a permanent advisory council 
to the Woman in Industry Service. 

FEDERAL COMPENSATION 
AT PERTH AMBOY 

IN our account of the disaster in the 
Gillespie shell-loading plant at South 
Amboy, the Survey [October 12] con- 
trasted the relief which could be af- 
forded to the victims and to the families 
of the killed under the federal and state 
compensation laws, respectively. For- 
tunately for them the Gillespie shell- 
loading plant turns out to be a United 
States establishment. 

The employes of the plant are 
United States employes and entitled to 
the benefits of the federal compensa- 
tion act. The explosion occurred on 
Friday night. Saturday evening six 
representatives of the United States 
Employes' Compensation Commission 
arrived in Perth Amboy. Their mission 
was to see that the injured had adequate 
care; to see that the dead had decent 
burial ; to disseminate information as 
widely as possible among the relatives 
of the dead and to inform the injured 
of the benefits to which they were en- 
titled under the United States compen- 
sation act; to secure from the sur- 
vivors all possible information as to the 
employes at work in building 611 at 
the time of the explosion ; and to secure 
all possible information regarding the 
dead and their surviving dependents. 

Some of the injured had been sent to 
the Perth Amboy City Hospital. Others, 
in the excitement, had been sent to va- 
rious towns within a radius of fifty 
miles. The dead, that is, the few that 
had been removed from the ruins, had 
been taken to various undertaking estab- 
lishments in Perth Amboy and South 
Amboy. The families of the injured 
and the surviving dependents of the dead 
were widely scattered and their where- 
abouts in most cases unknown. Many 
of these families had lived in South Am- 
boy and neighboring towns. Some lived 
in other states. Perth Amboy was the 
center for relief measures. 

The representatives of the compensa- 
tion commission opened headquarters in 
the City Hall at Perth Amboy. Certain 
ones of the party were given the task of 
making a systematic search of the towns 
and cities within a radius of fifty miles 
looking for surviving injured employes, 
visiting particularly the hospitals and 
running down all clues. Visits were 
made to all the undertaking establish- 
ments in South Amboy and Perth Am- 
boy and arrangements made to have all 
the bodies of those killed at the explo- 
sion taken to two undertaking establish- 
ments at South Amboy. This was for 
the convenience of the relatives desiring 
to identify the dead. Arrangements were 
made with undertakers for the burial 



Kirhy in the New York World 







THE BONDS ARE LOOSENING 



As the Allied armies push back the invaders, the Commission for Relief in Bel- 
gium follows at their heels. It announces that food, clothing and shelter have 
been arranged for the 250,000 civilians freed up to October 16. 



of the dead, identified and unidentified. 
Signs were posted instructing persons 
desiring information of those employed 
at the plant at the time of the explo- 
sion and of the injured and dead to go to 
the headquarters of the commission at 
the City Hall. There, they were not 
only given all the information in the 
possession of the representatives of the 
commission but the commission obtained 
from them all the information it could 
regarding the employes for the purpose 
of substantiating future claims. 

The injured, wherever found, were 
not only instructed as to the benefits to 
which they were entitled under the com- 
pensation act and assured that the com- 
mission would see to their medical and 
hospital treatment but the commission 
secured from them all possible informa- 
tion regarding other employes who were 
or might have been injured or killed. 
All this was made necessary by the fact 
that there was no existing record of the 
employes actually at work in building 
611 at the time of the original explosion. 
The commission's representatives were 
at Perth Amboy and vicinity from the 
evening of October 5 to October 1 1 and 
three of them a week later were still 
out looking up the survivors. 



"WAR POWER" TO RESTRICT 
CHILD LABOR 

THE Committee on Labor of the 
House of Representatives has de- 
cided by a vote of five to three to report 
the Keating federal child labor bill fa- 
vorably. This bill is based upon the 
"war power" of Congress. It exactly 
embodies the standards of the former 
federal child labor law declared uncon- 
stitutional by the United States Supreme 
Court. It would continue in effect for 
six months after the end of the war 
[see the Survey for September 7, page 
642]. 

The minority of the House Commit- 
tee on Labor declares that the federal 
war power, on which the constitution- 
ality of the bill rests, is non-existent. 
This contention, in view of the fact that 
President Wilson has endorsed the bill, 
is expected to meet vigorous opposition. 
The National Child Labor Committee 
which, with the American Federation 
of Labor, drew the bill, answers the 
contention as follows: 

The war power may be vague, but it is 
actual and effective, as shown by a long list 
of legislative and executive acts in the in- 
terest of national morale and efficiency. Judg- 
ing by conscription, food and fuel control, 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191S 



the taking over of the railroads and tele- 
graph lines, and so on, it hardly seems that 
the federal war power is non-existent. 

The federal war power is the federal 
power in wartime. Its exercise is accepted 
by the people as a matter of course. 

The Keating bill is a war measure, de- 
signed to take care of a situation which has 
been greatly aggravated by the war. It is 
further designed to conserve the man-power 
of the nation. Children under sixteen are not 
far from the age of compulsory military 
service. Rejections from the national army 
have already shown the national need of 
letting children have a proper chance for 
physical development. 

Objection to the bill is raised on the ground 
that the war will soon be over. Who knows 
when the war will be over? Congress does 
not know and does not need to know when 
the war will end in order to pass war meas- 
ures. Congress did not know or need to 
know when it passed the recent selective 
service act. 

President Wilson, after the receipt of the 
German request for an armistice, reaffirmed 
his approval of the Keating bill. 

Announcement is also made that the 
managers of the Boys' Earn and Give 
Division of the United War Work 
Campaign, in cooperation with the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee, have es- 
tablished protective standards set forth 
in the following preliminary instructions 
to leaders of the "victory boys:" 

Leaders are urged to become thoroughly 
familiar with and carefully observe federal 
and state laws and municipal regulations 
which govern child labor. They are also 
cautioned to use their best efforts to promote 
no work which will interfere with the boys' 
school work or in any way undermine their 
physical health or moral character. 

Solicitation of money or pledges is not 
earning. One of the chief objectives of the 
Boys' Division of the campaign is the de- 
velopment of character through sacrifice. It 
is clear that this purpose would be defeated 
if boys solicited money rather than earned 
it. . . . Boys should not be allowed to col- 
lect money on the streets, in theaters, or in 
other public places. 

It is further stated that, whatever 
may be the child-labor standards in a 
given state, "regular work" by "victory 
boys" would best be confined to boys 
over fourteen years of age. 

Evidence of the enormous increase of 
child labor, due to the war, says a 
statement issued by the committee, is 
accumulating daily. The Children's 
Bureau of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor has been conducting in- 
vestigations in typical industrial and 
commercial centers. In Wilmington, 
Del., the bureau announces, 61 per cent 
more children have taken out working 
permits than last year. From Massa- 
chusetts, says the committee's statement, 
reports have come to the bureau of thou- 
sands of children leaving school — in 
some localities twice as many as in nor- 
mal times. The State Industrial Com- 
mission of Wisconsin says that a large 
number of cases of industrial accidents 
to children illegally employed are com- 
ing to their attention under the work- 
men's compensation law. The causes 



of wartime child labor, says the com- 
mittee, are "principally the lure of high 
wages, the indifference or avariciousness 
of parents, lax enforcement of child- 
labor and compulsory-education laws 
(where there are good laws), and the 
fact that employers are appealing to 
children and parents in the glamorous 
language of patriotism, and are widely 
advertising the supposed labor shortage." 

A CAMPAIGN FOR THE 
STUDY OF WAR ISSUES 

TWO tendencies have coincided of 
late to make the education of the 
people in the stakes of the war and of 
the American war aims an educational 
task of immediate urgency. On the one 
hand, the government has recognized 
that to get the utmost popular support 
for its war program it must have behind 
it intelligent, i. e. well-informed, pub- 
lic opinion. On the other, there is re- 
ported from many parts of the country 
a deep and earnest desire for informa- 
tion on questions of history, international 
relationships and economics as affected 
by world trade which is an entirely new 
phenomenon and which existing educa- 
tional institutions have not generally un- 
dertaken to satisfy. 

Lecturers, prepared for the usual 
passive if not somnolent reception of 
facts concerning foreign affairs, lately 
have found themselves subjected to cross- 
fires of such questions as these: Who 
are the Jugo-Slavs? What does Presi- 
dent Wilson mean by "self-determina- 
tion?" Why are the Germans so ex- 
cited about "freedom of the seas?" Are 
the mines of Lorraine essential to Ger- 
man industry? Is a league of nations 
the same thing as a world state? Have 
all the Allies accepted the fourteen points 
of President Wilson's war aims declara- 
tion, or on what points do they differ? 
What is Japan fighting for? These are 
questions not easy to answer, but they 
show a breadth of interest that did not 
formerly exist. 

The government already has taken 
steps to encourage and organize the 
study of some of these issues. Thus, for 
example, we had in September a Czecho- 
slovak week when speakers up and 
down the country explained on behalf 
of the government why the sovereignty 
of that nation had been recognized al- 
though at the time its territory was un- 
defined and its de facto government 
without a permanent seat. Thus, defi- 
nite instruction in America's war aims 
and in the principal questions at issue 
between the Allies and the Central 
Powers has been made part of the com- 
pulsory course of study for the military 
training given at the colleges and officers' 
training camps. 

A little conference of educators and 
other interested men and women recently 
met in the New Hampshire hills to con- 
sider what further steps could be taken 



to meet by voluntary effort and organi- 
zation the manifest demand for serious 
study of the war issues and to make that 
study the beginning of a well thought- 
out national system of education in mat- 
ters of public concern generally. The 
following paragraphs are quoted from a 
memorandum prepared for that confer- 
ence by Prof. James Harvey Robinson, 
of Columbia University: 

. . . The overwhelming catastrophe of 
the world war and the heavy personal sacri- 
fices that it has entailed have brought home 
to millions the importance of governmental 
problems of social and economic reform and 
the vital relations of the nations to one an- 
other. The war has begun a process of pop- 
ular education by rousing an unprecedented 
eagerness to find some solution for the press- 
ing evils which beset mankind. The ques- 
tion is being asked on all sides, What shall 
we do to reap the greatest possible advan- 
tages from the incalculable outlay of blood 
and treasure which our people are manfully 
facing with the hope of creating a safer and 
better world? 

The responsibilities of democracy have 
been greatly increased by the war and by 
the urgent need of reconstruction which will 
follow it. Never before has it been so es- 
sential for the people to be in a position to 
select capable and high-minded leaders and 
to follow their guidance intelligently. Our 
popular education, excellent as it may have 
been in various ways, has not hitherto dealt 
with current issues, and now the time has 
come to help our people get the necessary in- 
formation to enable them to form their opin- 
ions upon important questions and to choose 
the proper men to act as their representa- 
tives. 

With a view to rousing a sense of civic 
obligation, cultivating a general desire to 
learn the facts about important governmental 
problems and a disposition to discuss public 
questions in an intelligent spirit, as free as 
possible from the influence of party bias and 
class interest, the conference has agreed upon 
a plan of organization to promote the study 
of these questions. 

Without waiting for the formation 
of a representative national committee, 
thus saving precious time, the conference 
asked the convener, Prof. H. W. Rolfe, 
formerly of Leland Stanford Univer- 
sity, who originally conceived the idea 
and tried out methods of advancing the 
study of current issues in California, to 
organize on its behalf an intensive edu- 
cational campaign in one district so that 
it should be possible in two or three 
months to know definitely whether the 
methods proposed really answer the 
need — whether they satisfy the quest for 
information, stimulate the desire for 
further study and arouse sufficient in- 
terest to create from local resources and 
initiative a system of popular education 
in current public issues that will be self- 
supporting and self-perpetuating. 

A first course of study will begin on 
October 27 in Concord, Mass., Edward 
T. Devine, Edwin E. Slosson, G. Hill, 
librarian of the Shipping Board, and 
other well known men taking part. A 
more elaborate plan is in preparation for 
the Connecticut Valley where some in- 
terest in the proposal has already shown 
itself and a number of colleges, schools, 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



105 



newspapers and other organizations have 
promised their active aid. Operations 
in Springfield, Mass., are scheduled to 
begin in January, and the effort will 
radiate also from Northampton into the 
surrounding rural and manufacturing 
centers of that region. 

During the period of try-out, as many 
parallel lecture courses as possible will 
be given by competent instructors, usu- 
ally to existing groups, large and small, 
that desire to take part in the study 
plan. The lectures will always be fol- 
lowed by discussion, leading up, perhaps, 
in some places to a town forum for com- 
mon counsel on the issues of greatest 
immediate moment for all citizens. 

From the outset, Professor Rolfe has 
the cooperation of a board of some of 
America's ablest educators who, with 
the lecturers, will form the "faculty" of 
the enterprise. A number of community 
organizers in different parts of the coun- 
try have intimated their intention of 
coming to Massachusetts to study the 
project in all its bearings with a view of 
forming a branch of the proposed na- 
tional organization in their own towns. 

THE SOCIAL EFFECT OF 
DAYLIGHT SAVING 

A BILL passed by the Senate to 
leave the clocks and watches of 
the American people indefinitely an hour 
in advance of real time has been with- 
drawn when it was found that there was 
little support for it in the country, least 
at all from people who had been most 
zealous last winter to get the daylight- 
saving measure on the statute book. 

Marcus M. Marks, former borough 
president of Manhattan, and president 
of the National Daylight Saving Asso- 
ciation, in a letter to the Survey, says: 

The great blessing of summer daylight 
saving will be turned into a loss by con- 
tinuing during the winter a plan applicable 
only to the long summer days. In winter 
we shall arise in the dark if the clock is not 
turned back and shall consume artificial 
light and coal, beside undergoing the other 
discomforts of darkness. . . . The move- 
ment which has been so beneficial will be 
seriously threatened by its extension into the 
ridiculous. . . . We have no precedent or 
experience upon which to base this attempt 
to save daylight before daylight. 

Frederic Almy, secretary of the Char- 
ity Organization Society of Buffalo, N. 
Y., remarks on this proposal: 

If the change is perpetual instead of sea- 
sonal, society will soon get back to its old 
habits. 

Anyhow, the daylight-saving measure 
automatically expires tomorrow; and the 
question of interest now is whether its 
effects have been beneficial enough to 
warrant a repetition of it next year — 
or, perhaps, every year by passing Sena- 
tor Calder's bill to the effect that with- 
out fresh legislation we cheat Father 
Time of an hour every last Sunday in 



Sketch by Walter Crane for a painting exhibited in 1887 




THE RACE OF THE HOURS 



March and give it back to him every 
last Sunday in October. While no ex- 
haustive answer to that question is pos- 
sible after the first year's experiment, 
there is already sufficient evidence to 
show that the results have, on the whole, 
been decidedly desirable. 

The enormous increase in home gar- 
dening this year as compared with last 
has already been mentioned in the Sur- 
vey; by several correspondents and by 
Charles Lathrop Pack, president of the 
National War Garden Commission, it 
is directly attributed to the extra hour 
of daylight available for that purpose 
after the day's work in factory and of- 
fice. Of the effect on health it is least 
possible to secure concrete evidence ; but 
it seems that the only possible serious 
danger anticipated by some people — that 
the number of hours given to sleep 
would be curtailed for many children — 
has not materialized noticeably. So far 
as public recreation is concerned, special 
steps were taken in some communities 
to send the children home at a reason- 
able hour. 

Senator Calder is authority for the 
statement that the daylight-saving 
scheme saved the people of the District 
of Columbia $60,000 in their gas bills — 
a national saving of $8,000,000, if the 
same proportion applies for the whole 
country. He believes that at least a 
million tons of coal have been saved — ■ 
and the United States Fuel Administra- 
tion says it is a million and a quarter 
tons. These estimates are based on in- 
vestigations made in St. Louis and on the 
experience in France. 

The best effect, to judge from the re- 
plies received to an inquiry, has been on 
adult recreation and .health. "Our parks 
and our automobiles were never so much 
used," writes Mr. Almy. The super- 
visor of playgrounds in a New Jersey 
city says the chief effect has been that 
the younger working people have played 
tennis and baseball during the long eve- 
nings. The playgrounds have remained 
open until nine o'clock and were in con- 
stant use. Similarly, the recreation sec- 
retary of Mount Vernon, N. Y., reports 
that the playgrounds were open for 
working boy9 and men from seven until 
dark, younger children being sent home 



at seven so that they would get their re- 
quired hours of sleep. 

In a suburban community, probably 
typical of many, playgrounds for small 
children were kept open an hour longer 
than in previous years, until six o'clock. 
"This has enabled the parents i returning 
from the city to stop and observe the 
playground work and has caused in- 
creased interest in the children's play- 
ground." 

"The moral condition among the 
boys and girls is easier to regulate with 
this extra hour of daylight," says Lula 
Morton, of the Parks and Playgrounds 
Association of the city of New York. 
She also observed many parents sitting 
on the curb stones watching the children 
play. 

In a number of towns "twilight" or 
"sunset" leagues have been organized for 
grown-ups, after a plan originated in 
Kalamazoo, Mich., twenty years ago, 
and now adopted in Portsmouth, N. H. 
The idea is described as follows: 

There are teams galore representing the 
different factories, the business and profes- 
sional men, etc. A schedule is arranged, and 
every night from the fifteenth of May to the 
middle of October when the six o'clock 
whistles blow, everyone makes a bee line for 
the ball field. This big play field is almost 
in the center of the town, not more than five 
minutes from the very center. In addition 
to the children's playground, a lot of tennis 
courts and the diamond, there are one or two 
practice diamonds. The athletic field is kept 
in order by the money taken in at the games. 
No admittance fee is charged, but the hat is 
passed and people may or may not drop in 
a few cents, just as they see fit. Several 
years ago from these voluntary contributions 
a splendid big concrete grandstand, with 
dressing rooms and shower baths underneath, 
was built. There is an average daily at- 
tendance of fifteen hundred to two thousand 
people. 

C. F. Weller, Chicago, associate sec- 
retary of the Playground and Recrea- 
tion Association of America, says: 

Not only recreation in the recognized sense 
but a general feeling of freedom of life, of 
neighborliness, of time in which to visit with 
the home folks, to walk about the neighbor- 
hood and to invite one's soul through the 
congenial exercise of leisure, have been pro- 
moted by daylight saving. This increase of 
informal personal recreation has been more 
important even than the increase of specific 
public provision for outdoor recreation — al- 
though that has been considerable. 



106 



T HE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26 , 1 9 1 8 






Book Reviews 



Social Insurance in the United States 

By Gurdon Ransom Miller. A. C. Mc- 

Clurg & Co. 136 pp. Price $.60; by mail 

of the Survey $.65. 

That social insurance is a permanent de- 
parture from the laissez-faire theory of so- 
ciety, and "places emphasis on definite pur- 
poseful effort to accelerate social advance" is 
Dean Miller's keynote in this brisk little book. 
Among the general benefits directly to be ex- 
pected are included education of employers 
and employes on safety and health, publicity, 
development of thrift and of insurance, and 
a guarantee of the necessaries of life to those 
living in the lowest economic strata. Some- 
what more speculative consequences are the 
reduction of overwork and of child labor, 
certification of workers, more attention to the 
fitness of the employe for his service, and a 
large increase in vocational training. Social 
insurance, in short, is presented as a whole- 
hearted, large-scale "assurance of efficiency," 
national as well as personal. 

The status and prospects of the various 
types of social insurance in the United States 
are taken up in successive interesting chap- 
ters. Workmen's compensation has rapidly 
spread over the large majority of states, and 
the commission plan of administering it is 
growing in favor. Our former ignorance on 
the prevalence of work-accidents is justly de- 
scribed as a "positive indictment of the moral 
sense of the American people," and their ap- 
parent increase is largely ascribed to better 
reporting in more industries and in wider 
areas. Important as is the function of sup- 
porting injured workmen and the widows 
and orphans left by 25,000 occupational fa- 
talities yearly, "compensation laws are the 
greatest incentive to prevention ever evolved 
in the history of industry." 

From the viewpoint of the worker, dis- 
ability from sickness and from accident are 
considered identical. Indemnity for both 
should, therefore, exist; in fact, thinks Dean 
Miller, since the employe knows less about 
hazards to health than about those to limb, 
he is morally more entitled to compensation 
against the former than against the latter. 
Moreover, "there probably is no industry that 
is not directly or indirectly the cause of some 
degree of sickness." The decreased expect- 
ancy of life among the adult American in- 
dustrial population is cited as showing the 
need for corrective measures. Growth of 
health insurance in Europe and developments 
in America are briefly outlined, and the au- 
thor takes the stand that "health insurance, 
once accepted in principle and instituted in 
practice, becomes a continuous social force 
for the general betterment of the economic 
conditions of all working people." 

Unemployment data are discussed at 
length, with much attention to the various 
factors in the problem. The conclusion that 
"no complete solution of the problem is either 
possible or desirable," is perhaps unneces- 
sarily hopeless, but it paves the way for the 
proposal that insurance be utilized, the same 
as in the case of sickness and industrial ac- 
cidents to fend off the worst of the financial 
distress. 

With regard to old age, many data on its 
relation to dependency are given, together 
with a rapid survey of various proposed 
plans for relief. On the whole the author 
inclines to contributory old age insurance 
rather than to "straight pensions." 

Full tribute is given to pioneer organiza- 



tions, such as the American Association for 
Labor Legislation, which have stood from the 
beginning behind the American movement 
for adequate social insurance legislation. The 
book is well written and forms a valuable 
introduction to a subject which it will stimu- 
late many to pursue further. Its helpfulness 
would have been enhanced by its having been 
brought a little closer to date before publi- 
cation. 

Solon De Leon. 
< 
Women as Sex Vendors 

By R. B. Tobias and Mary E. Marcy. 

Charles H. Kerr & Co. 59 pp. Price 

$.50; by mail of the Survey $.54. 

To refute the half-truths which appear in 
this bit of propagandist literature would oc- 
cupy space out of proportion to the merits 
of the work. The thesis of the authors is 
that women are conservative because as a 
sex they "occupy a position similar to the 
petty shopkeeper" in that "they possess a 
commodity to sell or to barter" (sex grati- 
fication), besides their laboring power. In 
the opinion of the reviewer there is no ade- 
quate fact basis offered to support their 
thesis, but instead, frequently, assertions are 
made, not only unsubstantiated by fact but 
in some instances contrary to the latest re- 
sults of science. The authors, suffering from 
the myopia of all followers of panaceas, 
have attempted to reduce to a simple for- 
mula some of the most complex questions in 
the realm of social science. Their efforts 
were foredoomed to failure. 

Frank D. Watson. 

The Near East from Within 

Anonymous. E. P. Dutton & Co. 265 pp. 

Price $5 ; by mail of the Survey $5.12. 

This is indeed a remarkable book. After 
one reads a few pages he wonders whether 
the author is a fakir or whether he has an 
acquaintance with diplomacy and intrigue in 
the Near East more intimate and exact than 
any other writer has evinced since the be- 
ginning of the great war. Before one has 
gone through many chapters, however, he is 
convinced that the writer is relating what 
has actually happened, and, in so far as he 
indulges in conclusions, speaks the truth. 
Nothing could be better than to have this 
man who served William II as political 
agent lift the veil of secrecy, and thus reveal 
a whole volume of evidence touching the 
events leading up to the war. 

While pretending to be a lover of peace, 
the Kaiser was ever getting ready for war, 
and was constantly intriguing and bargain- 
ing with the lesser sovereigns. The author 
was sent upon difficult political errands to 
the Sultan Abdul Hamid and was brought 
in close contact with Enver Bey long before 
he reached his high post. It is evident that 
the Kaiser, in his far-sighted scheme for the 
control of the Near East, including the Otto- 
man Empire, had no easy task, but he per- 
sistently pursued it with tireless vigilance. 
He was ready to corrupt anyone who stood in 
his way; vast sums which have been spent in 
Turkey and Bulgaria are evidence of this. 
He was not always successful. He pretended 
to restrain the Balkan states from attacking 
Turkey in 1912, but in reality played his 
cards in favor of their doing so. 

The Bulgarian debacle in the second war 
was a grave disappointment. He labored to 
keep Russia unreconciled to Bulgaria and 



even wanted to separate her from Serbia. 

All that this unknown diplomat re- 
lates of his visit to King Carol of Ru- 
mania, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria, and 
Nicholas of Montenegro coincides so com- 
pletely with what we know of those sov- 
ereigns, and the ends which he desired 
to gain. He speaks most interestingly of 
Princess Clementine, King George of Greece, 
and Crown Prince Boris of Bulgaria who 
lately has been elevated to the throne. He 
discusses Ferdinand's character, some will 
think, with too much leniency; but the fact 
that he has now returned to his botanical 
studies may gain him some sympathy. 

There has always hung around the assas- 
sination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand 
of Austria a fearful mystery. The author of 
this work affirms that at a meeting of the 
archduke with the Kaiser only a month be- 
fore his death a serious controversy arose, 
and they separated with the bitterest senti- 
ments towards each other. It is possible that 
this throws a little light upon the murder 
of the archduke and the Archduchess Isabella. 

The book is not a history, neither is it a 
record of diplomacy. It is a story of intrigue 
the agent of which is so revolted at the part 
which he had to take that he has decided 
to tell what he knows, feeling that this is 
due to an outraged world. 

Samuel T. Dutton. 

Girls' Clubs 

By Helen J. Ferris. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

383 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Survey 

$2.12. 

This manual for workers contains useful 
and helpful knowledge gained by Miss Ferris 
through years of experience in girls' club 
work. Starting with an eloquent statement 
in regard to the opportunity and the task, 
she proceeds to a discussion of the qualifica- 
tions for club-leadership and then for club- 
membership. The value, the extent and the 
method of organization; the planning of a 
program; an outline of activities that inter- 
est girls; the question of how and when to 
introduce classes and courses of instruction, 
and of how to relate the club's activity to 
that of the community and country are all 
dealt with. 

There is a chapter on the club in the out- 
of-doors, another that tells what the club 
should mean in the every-day life of the 
girl. There are chapters summing up the 
little things that count in club life, methods 
of keeping up the interest, and finally, a 
resume of girls' club work in war-time "over 
there" and "over here." . 

The book is interestingly illustrated and 
tells specifically about all types of clubs. 
The appendix with its excellent bibliography 
and sample constitutions is particularly help- 
ful. The whole book, in fact, should be use- 
ful both for the experienced and the inexpe- 
rienced worker, but the latter should per- 
haps be warned not to be overwhelmed by 
the wealth of suggestions. There is repeti- 
tion, often helpful ; but to one who has had 
experience in the work much of it is such 
an old story that she may wish the author 
had taken the time to be brief. 

Mary Shupp. 

Home and Community Hygiene 

By Jean Broadhurst, Ph.D. J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co. 428 pp. 118 illustrations. Price 
$2.00; by mail of the Survey $2.15. 
How to live? To know this is the aim 
and purpose of all education and all educa- 
tional institutions. The cloak of mystery 
which was once wrapped about the art of 
right living is at present being discarded by 
the physicians and the hygienists. To in- 
crease the knowledge of the public in public 
health matters is now the aim of all sani- 
tarians and health administrators. 

As Prof. C.-E. A. Winslow rightly says in 
his introduction to the book, "The physician 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



of today takes both patient and public into 
his confidence and, so far as possible, secures 
their intelligent aid and cooperation in the 
difficult task of repairing the ravages of 
disease." 

You can't make people clean by law, or 
healthy by compulsion. Unless the coopera- 
tion and intelligent assistance of the public 
is gained in health matters, all health rules 
and regulations, sanitary codes and legisla- 
tion are futile, and to no purpose. 

Professor Broadhurst's new manual of 
Home and Community Hygiene is one of the 
books, of which so many have been written 
lately, to gain that cooperation. The dis- 
tinction of this book, however, is that it is 
comprehensive as well as authoritative, well 
planned and executed, scientific, and well 
written. It is full of technical knowledge, 
but written in a popular and illuminating 
language. 

The subjects treated in the twenty-six 
chapters of the book are many and varied: 
Bacteria and micro-organisms, food, milk, 
water, air, ventilation, disinfection, treatment 
and prevention of disease. Tests for dis- 
ease, tuberculosis, and infective diseases are 
treated in separate chapters. Considerable 
space is devoted to the home summer camps, 
schools, infant welfare, and to military, rural 
and urban hygiene. The subjects of vital 
statistics, health education, and health ad- 
ministration are also well taken care of. 

In a book of a comprehensive scheme, like 
the present manual, it is inevitable that some 
subjects must be much curtailed in their 
treatment. Thus, for instance, the important 
subject of industrial and occupational hy- 
giene is given but four pages, and only a 
half dozen pages are devoted to tuberculosis. 

There are 118 illustrations, a glossary and 
an appendix. The book is the finest of those 
published on the subject of hygiene for the 
general reader and ought to be in the home 
library of every intelligent family. 

G. M. P. 



107 









PAMPHLETS 
RECEIVED 







Pamphlets are listed once in this column 
•without charge. Later listing may be made 
under CURRENT PAMPHLETS (see page 
109). 

President Wilson and His Critics. Re- 
printed from Boston Herald, Boston, Mass. 

President Wilson's War Mind. By Prof. 
L. P. Jacks, editor, the Hibbert Journal, 
Oxford, England. 

The Challenge of the City. Based on a 
sermon preached at St. John's Church, 
Elizabeth, N. J., February 3, 1918. The 
Challenge of the Country. By Frank 
Monroe Crouch, Executive Secretary, The 
Joint Commission on Social Service of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, 281 Fourth 
avenue, New York city. 

The War Garden Guyed. The National 
War Garden Commission, Washington, 
D. C. 

Social Work as a Profession in Los An- 
geles. By Mary Chafee. Studies in So- 
ciology. Vol. III., No. 1. Southern Cali- 
fornia Sociological Society, University of 
Southern California. University of South- 
ern California Press, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Outline Studies on the Problems of the 
Reconstruction Period. Prepared by a 
special committee. Association Press, 347 
Madison avenue, New York city. 15 cents. 

Espionage Act Cases with Certain Others 




Fancy Table Linens 

For Wedding and 
Christmas Gifts 




Luncheon set of Italian 
Needle'point and Em- 
broidery, made on heavy 
hand-woven Linen. Set 
consists of 23-inch Cen- 
terpiece and two dozen 
Doylies. 

$42.50 Set 



Attention is invited to our comprehensive stock of 
fancy Linens from which selections may be made 
for Wedding and Holiday Gifts. 

Practically every allied country in Europe and Asia 
has contributed toward making this collection com- 
plete. Many of these goods cannot be duplicated, 
regardless of price, when our present stock is ex- 
hausted. 



Tea Cloths, with Napkins to 
match, in Irish and Maderia Em- 
broidery, French and Italian Filet, 
Needlepoint, Cutwork, Japanese 
Mosaic work, Fayal and Porto 
Rican drawn work, etc., $2.00 to 
275.00. 

Tea Napkins, plain Linen and 
figured Damask, Hemstitched, also 
Embroidered and Trimmed with 
Lace, $5.00 to 65.00 doz. 

Luncheon Sets. Twenty - five 
piece sets in Maderia, Spanish, 
andChinese Embroidery, also Lace, 
Needlepoint and Mosaic openwork, 
$8.50 to 175.00. 



Scarfs. Sideboard and Serving 
Table, Bureau, Dressing Table and 
Chiffonier Scarfs of every size and 
description. $2.00 to 165.00 each. 

Tray Cloths, oval and oblong, 
Embroidered, also Lace and Em- 
broidery, 25c to $17.50 each. 

Ljice Luncheon and Dinner 
Cloths, circular, 72 inch to 126 
inch diameter, or oblong, 2)^x3 
to 23^x5 yards. $65.00 to 550.00. 

Centerpieces in every kind of 
Hand Needlework, $1.50 to 125.00 
each. 



We respectfully suggest that in so far as possible you 
act on the Government's request that you do your 
Christmas shopping during October and November. 

Our Christmas stocks are now complete in all 
departments. 



James McGutcheon & Go. 

The Greatest Treasure House of 
Linens in America 

Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33rd Streets 

New York 




Reg. Trade Mark 



108 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26 , 191 



on Related Points. Compiled and edited 
by Walter Nelles. National Civil Liber- 
ties Bureau, 70 Fifth avenue, New York 
city. 

School Patriotism. Hand book for Teach- 
ers' Patriotic League and Little Citizens' 
League. State Department of Education, 
St. Paul, Minn. 

Child Welfare in War Time. Department 
of Child Welfare, University Extension 
Division, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 
Kansas. 

Liberty Loan Meeting. Held at Metropoli- 
tan Opera House, September 27, 1918. Ad- 
dresses by President Wilson and Benjamin 
Strong. Liberty Loan Committee, Second 
Federal Reserve District, New York city. 

Statistical Manual for the Use of Insti- 
tutions for the Insane. Bureau of Sta- 
tistics, National Committee for Mental Hy- 
giene, SO Union square, New York city. 

Community Schools for the Training of 
Religious Leaders. Joint Committee of 



Are You a Supporter of the 
Work of the National Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of 
Colored People? 

The Association 

Leads in the Fight 
against Lynching. 



Opposes Race 
crimination. 



Dis- 



Works for Equal Edu- 
cational Opportunities 
for Colored Children 
in all the States. (In 
many states school ap- 
propriations for Ne- 
groes are but a fraction 
of those made for 
white children.) 

Demands "Votes for 
Men," as well as wom- 
en — Black Men, who 
are Disfranchised in 
certain States, despite 
the Constitution. 

Publishes THE 
CRISIS, a record of 
the darker races (circ. 
80,000). 

Negroes are loyal to America. 
America must be loyal to them 
and to the laws granting them 
equal rights with other citizens. 

Join the Association Today. 
Send $1.00, $5.00, $10.00 or 
any amount to John R. 
Shillady, Secretary, 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. 



Massachusetts Council of Religious Educa- 
tion and Committee on Education of the 
Massachusetts Sunday School Associa- 
tion. George A. Goodridge, 72 Mount 
Vernon street, Boston. 

Child Labor and Education. Children's 
Year Bulletin No. 2. By California Wom- 
en's Committee of Councils of National 
and State Defense. Juvenile Protective 
Association, 1022 Phelan building, San 
Francisco. 

Physical Traininc an Essential to the 
Better Health Defense of Society. By 
Thomas A. Storey. Reprinted from the 
Pedagogical Seminary, September, 1918. 
Thomas A. Storey, City College, New York 
city. 

The Problem of Tuberculosis in New York 
State Cities as Intensified by the War. 
By George J. Nelbach. Tuberculosis Com- 
mittee, State Charities Aid Association, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

Dementia Praecox as a Social Problem. 
By Horatio M. Pollock. Reprinted from 
the State Hospital Quarterly, August, 1918. 
New York State Hospital Commission, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

A Study of Fifty Feebleminded Prosti- 
tutes. By Mary E. Paddon. Reprinted 
from the Journal of Delinquency, January, 
1918. Committee on Criminal Courts, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

Organize the World Through a League of 
Nations. Executive Board of the League 
for Permanent Peace, 421 Boylston street, 
Boston. $1 per hundred. 

A Statistical Study of 102 Truants. By 
Willis W. Clark. Reprinted from the Jour- 
nal of Delinquency, September, 1918. Whit- 
tier State School, Whittier, Cal. 

Defective Children a Challenge to the 
State. By George A. Hastings. Commit- 
tee on Mental Hygiene, 105 East 22 street, 
New York city. 

City Planning for Davenport, 1918. Ros- 
coe E. Sawistowsky, city engineer, Daven- 
port, Iowa. 

How to Overcome the Shortage of Skilled 
Mechanics by Training the Unskilled. 
Reports. Section on Industrial Training 



for the War Emergency, Council of Na- 
tional Defense, Washington, D. C. 

Aims and Needs in Negro Public Education 
in Louisiana. By Leo M. Favrot. State 
Department of Education, Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana. 

Coke-Oven Accidents in the United States 
During the Calendar Year 1917. Com- 
piled by Albert H. Fay. Bureau of Mines, 
Technical Paper 206. Superintendent of 
Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

The Root of the Evil. A letter by David 
Starr Jordan. Democracy the Heritage 
of All. A speech by Richard Lieber. 
American Friends of German Democracy, 
32 Union square, New York city. 

A Preliminary Syllabus for a Study of the 
Issues of the Present War. Part I, His- 
torical. Department of History and In- 
ternational Relations, Clark College, Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

Learning How to Save. Suggested for use in 
arithmetic classes. Limited number from 
National War-Savings Committee, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

A Brief Record of Progress in the Govern- 
ment's War Housing Program. Reprinted 
from the Journal of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, September, 1918, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 







BOOKS 
RECEIVED 









The American Girl and Her Community. 
By Margaret Slattery. Pilgrim Press. 170 
pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.35. 

The Valley of the Giants. By Peter B. 
Kyne. Doubleday, Page & Co. 388 pp. 
Price $1.40; by mail of the Survey $1.50. 

Unchained Russia. By Charles Edward 



00* 




000 



m "A Perverted Prussia and an Archaic Kaiser!" Read Israel Zangwill's searching 

I _/\_ analysis of the ideals and "national mission" of Germany, England, America, 

M Japan, Judaea,— in one of the most brilliant masterpieces the war has brought 

H forth: "Chosen Peoples: The Hebraic Ideal versus the Teutonic"— published in THE 

jj MENORAH JOURNAL for October. Unless you send for a copy immediately, your 

= chance of getting one will be slim (the last two issues of the JOURNAL were quickly 

=j exhausted). The October number contains many other notable features, including 

M further contributions to the Symposium on "Palestine Regained" by Prof. Roland G. 

M Usher, Dr. John Haynes Holmes, Albert M. Hyamson, author of "Palestine", and others, 

j Send for it at once (35 cts.), or better still, subscribe for a year, $2.00, and get all the 

H other good things in store for MENORAH readers in the months to come! Address 

= The MliNOKAil JOURNAL, 600 Madison Avenue, New York. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 26, 191 



109 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travels, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per agate line; fourteen lines to 
the inch. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED — General secretary, man or 
woman of experience. Associated Chari- 
ties, Jacksonville, Fla. 

WANTED — Ten nurses for child welfare 
work. Salary up to $1440. Apply Dr. Julius 
Levy, Division of Child Hygiene, State De- 
partment of Health, Trenton, N. J. 

WANTED — Supervisor of nurses. Sal- 
ary $1800-$2500. Apply Dr. Julius Levy, 
Division of Child Hygiene, State Depart- 
ment of Health, Trenton, N. J. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

EMPLOYMENT MANAGER, college 
woman with industrial background and 
wide experience with people, desires posi- 
tion. Address 2892 Survey. 

WOMAN OF CULTURE, ability and ex- 
perienced in institutional and school work, 
wishes position as managing housekeeper 
and caterer, or housemother in motherless 
home. Address 2895, Survey. 

WELL QUALIFIED and experienced 
social worker (male) seeks position as ex- 
ecutive. Address 2891 Survey. 

INSTITUTIONAL SUPERINTEND- 
ENT, who has developed from the begin- 
ning one of the most successful institutions 
of its kind in this country, where he has 
been for seven years and can remain in- 
definitely, desires, for sufficient reasons, to 
make a change. University education, in the 
prime of life, and can produce from present 
employers and many others convincing evi- 
dence of ability to conduct successfully 
institutional work where social vision, ex- 
ecutive ability, and common sense are de- 
manded. Address : 2896 Survey. 

Russell. D. Appleton & Co. 322 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of the Survey $1.62. 

Finding Themselves. By Julia C. Stimson. 
Macmillan Co. 231 pp. Price $1.25; by 
mail of the Survey $1.35. 

A Study of State Aid to Public Schools in 
Minnesota. Bulletin No. 11 of Studies in 
the Social Agencies. By Raymond Asa 
Kent. University of Minnesota. 183 pp. 
Price $1, paper; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $1.10. 

The Eve of Election. By John B. Howe. 
Macmillan Co. 283 pp. Price $1.25; by 
mail of the Survey $1.35. 

The Results of Municipal Electric Light- 
ing in Massachusetts. By Edmond Earle 
Lincoln. Hart, Schaffner and Marx Prize 
Essays. Houghton Mifflin Co. 484 pp. 
Price $3; by mail of the Survey $3.15. 

Industrial Fatigue. By Lord Henry Hen- 
tinck. P. S. King & Son, Ltd., London. 
43 pp. Price 6d. ; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $.30. 

Economic Addresses. Bulletin No. 9 of Cur- 
rent Problems. By William Watts Fol- 
well. University of Minnesota. 99 pp. 
Price $.50; by mail of the Survey $.53. 

The Religion of a Man of Letters. By Gil- 
bert Murray. Houghton Mifflin Co. 49 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.04. 



League of Nations. By Theodore Marburg. 
Macmillan Co. 139 pp. Price $.60; by 
mail of the Survey $.68. 

The Ethics of Cooperation. By James H. 
Tufts. Houghton Mifflin Co. 73 pp. Price 
$1; by mail of the Survey $1.08. 

The A B C of the Federal Reserve System. 
By Edwin Walter Kemmerer. Princeton 
University Press. 182 pp. Price $1.25 ; by 
mail of the Survey $1.35. 

Psychology and the Day's Work. By Edgar 
James Swift. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
388 pp. Price $2; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $2.12. 

The Woman Citizen. By Horace A. Hol- 
lister. D. Appleton & Co. 308 pp. Price 
$1.75; by mail of the Survey $1.85. 

Dispensaries. By Michael M. Davis, Jr., 
and Andrew R. Warner. Macmillan Co. 
438 pp. Price $2.25 ; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $2.40. 

The Interpreter, By Washington Gladden. 
Pilgrim Press. 268 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of the Survey $1.62. 

Out of the Shadow. By Rose Cohen. George 
H. Doran Co. 313 pp. Price $2; by mail 
of the Survey $2.15. 

City Tides. By Archie Austin Coates. 
George H. Doran Co. 192 pp. Price 
$1.25; by mail of the Survey $1.35. 

Rural Life. By Charles Josiah Galpin. Cen- 
tury Co. 386 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of 
the Survey $2.65. 

The American Spirit, a Basis for World 
Democracy. Edited by Paul Monroe and 
Irving E. Miller. World Book Co. 336 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of the Survey $1.12. 

Democracy in Education. By Joseph Kin- 
mont Hart. Century Co. 418 pp. Price 
$1.80; by mail of the Survey $1.92. 

Commercial Arbitration and the Law. By 
Julius Henry Cohen. D. Appleton & Co. 
339 pp. Price $3; by mail of the Sur- 
vey $3.15. 



216,000 children in New York city schools 
are undernourished. 



JOTTINGS 



THE American Association for the Study and 
Prevention of Infant Mortality has indefi- 
nitely postponed its ninth annual meeting, 
scheduled for Asheville, N. C, November 
11-14, because of the epidemic of influenza. 
Similar action has been taken by the Cali- 
fornia Conference on City Planning. In fact, 
so great a number of postponements have 
been received that the Survey omits this week 
its customary Calendar of Conferences. 



WILLIAM C. DELANOY, who has been di- 
rector of the Bureau of War Risk Insurance 
since it was established in 1914 to "provide 
for the export shipping trade of the United 
States adequate facilities for the insurance 
of its commerce against the risks of war," has 
been obliged by ill health to resign his posi- 
tion. Herbert D. Brown, of the National Bu- 
reau of Efficiency, who had been acting in an 
advisory capacity to the bureau, is serving as 
temporary director. The Division of Military 
and Naval Insurance, which deals with al- 
lotments and allowances, compensation and 
insurance for soldiers and sailors and their 
families, remains under the direct super- 
vision of Commissioner Nesbit. 



THE Board of Education of New York city 
has requested an appropriation of $50,000 to 
extend lunches in the public schools. At a 
hearing on the tentative budget, held before 
the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 
Dr. Henry Dwight Chapin, a leading special- 
ist in children's diseases, declared that over 



JACOB H. SCHIFF'S philanthropies are so 
many and so frequent that it would be diffi- 
cult to keep track of them. It may, however, 
be observed in passing that in addition to his 
generous answer to the calls of the war, Mr. 
Schiff has just extinguished a $40,000 mort- 
gage on the home of the Hebrew Sheltering 
and Immigrant Aid Society in New York, an 
organization that recently has widened its 
sphere to the extent of rescuing 1,700 stranded 
Jews in Japan and connecting some 1,500 of 
them with friends and relatives in the United 
States. 



SERVICE duplication in the delivery of 
milk, according to the New York Municipal 
Reference Library Notes, will be eliminated 
in San Francisco under a zone system of 
distribution that is shortly coming into ef- 
fect. In zones where there are now from 
five to fifteen dealers, only two will be al- 
lowed in future, and all delivery wagons 
will be routed in such a way as to avoid 
long trips. By this means it is hoped to keep 
the price of milk down to 12 cents a quart. 
Dealers handling over 25,000 gallons of San 
Francisco's daily consumption of 32,000 gal- 
lons of milk have agreed to participate in 
this plan which was worked out by a milk 
distribution commission appointed by the 
federal food commissioner. 



CURRENT PAMPHLETS 

Listings fifty cents a line, four weekly insertions; 

copy unchanged throughout the month 

Order pamphlets from publishers 

A Model Constitution and By-Laws for a Con- 
sumers' Cooperative Society. 5 cts. Published 
by The Cooperative League of America, 2 West 
13 St., New York. 

A Bibliography of Social Service. By F. Ernest 
Johnson, Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America, 105 E. 22 St., N. Y. C. Price 
$10 per hundred. 10 cents per copy. 

For Value Received. A Discussion of Industrial 
Pensions. John A. Fitch. Reprinted from the 
Survey. 5 cts. Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 St., New York. 

Girls and Khaki. Winthrop D. Lane. Reprinted 
from the Survey. 10 cts. Survey Associates, 
Inc.. 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Immigration Literature distributed by National 
Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 1261, 
New York. Arguments free on request. 

Making the Boss Efficient. The Beginnings of 
a New Industrial Regime. John A. Fitch. 
Reprinted from the Survey. 5 cts. Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 

Toward the New Education. The case against 
autocracy in our public schools. 164 pp. 25 
cents. Teachers' Union of the City of New York. 
70 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

Women Workers in Factories. By Annette Mann, 
Consumers' League of Cincinnati, 38 Pickering 
Bldg. Postage, 12 cents. 

You Should Know About Credit Unions. A 
manual furnished gratis upon request. Massa- 
chusetts Credit Union Association, 73 Devon- 
shire St., Boston. 



PERIODICALS 



Fifty cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month 

American Physical Education Review; nine issues 
(October to June); $3 official organ for the 
American Physical Education Association. Orig- 
inal articles of scientific and practical value, 
news notes, bibliographies and book reviews. 
American Physical Education Association, 93 
Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year; published 
by The National Committee for Mental Hygiene. 
50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly; $2 a year; pub- 
lished by National Organization for Public Health 
Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

Southern Workman; illustrated monthly; $1 for 
700 pages on race relations here and abroad. 
Hampton Institute, Va. Sample copy free. 

The Survey; once a week, $3; once a month, $2; 
a transcript of social work and forces; Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 St., New York. 



110 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



Survey 




Associates 
Inc. 



KEY 

// you know the name of the agency 
or organization, turn direct to the list- 
ings (3d column) for address, corre- 
sponding officer, etc. [They are ar- 
ranged alphabetically.] 

// you seek an unknown source of 
information, turn to the subject index, 
following. The initialings correspond 
to capital letters in names of agencies. 

// you want to know the agencies 
at work in any great field of social 
concern, turn also to this index. [They 
are grouped under major subject clas- 
sifications, as "HEALTH," printed in 
capitals.] 

Correspondence is invited by the 
agencies listed; questions answered 
(enclose postage for reply, and pamph- 
lets supplied free or at nominal 
charges. Membership is not required 
of those seeking information, but of- 
fers an opportunity for you to share 
spiritedly and seriously in your com- 
munity or profession in an organized 
movement which is grappling with 
some country-wide need or cause. 

// you are uncertain where to turn, 
address the Survey, and we shall en- 
deavor to get your inquiry into the 
right hands. 



WARTIME SERVICE 

i i T TO W the Survey can serve" 
jljl was the subject of an infor- 
mal conference held early in the war, 
in our library, to which ice asked the 
executives of perhaps twenty national 
social service organizations. The con- 
ference was a unit in feeling that as a 
link between organized efforts, as a 
means for letting people throughout 
the country know promptly of needs 
and national programs — how, when 
and where they can count locally — the 
Survey was at the threshold of an 
opportunity for service such as has 
seldom come to an educational enter- 
prise. 

The development of this directory 
is one of several steps in carrying 
out this commission. The executives 
of these organizations will answer 
questions or offer counsel to individ- 
uals and local organizations in ad- 
justing their work to emergent war- 
time demands. 



Listings $3 a month for card of five lines (in- 
cluding one listing in SUBJECT INDEX by full 
name and three by initials), fifty cents a month 
for each additional line. No contracts for less' 
than three months. Additional charge of $1 for 
each change of copy during three-month period. 



SUBJECT INDEX 

Athletics. Amer. Phy. Education Assn. 
Birth Registration, Aaspim. 
Blindness, Ncpb. 
Cancer, Ascc. 
Charities, Ncsw. 



CHARITY ORGANIZATION 

Russell Sage Fdn., Ch. Org. Dept. 
Charters, Sbo. 

CHILD WELFARE 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 
Nat. Child Welf. Assn. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Child-Helping. 
Child Labor, Nclc, Aaspim, Ncsw, Praa. 

CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Ser., Fccca. 

General War-Time Commission of the Churches. 

CIVICS 

Am. Proportional Representation Lg. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Short Ballot Org. 

Survey Associates, Civ. Dept. 
Commission Government, Sbo. 
Conservation, Cchl. 

[of vision], Ncpb. 
Clubs, Nlww. 
Consumers, Cla. 
Cooperation, Cla. 
Correction, Ncsw. 
Cost of Living, Cla. 



COUNTRY LIFE 

Com. on Ch. and Country Life, Fccca. 

County Ywca. 
Crime, Sa. 

Cripples, Red Cross Inst, for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men. 
Disfranchisement, Naacp. 

EDUCATION 

Amer. Physical Education Assn. 
Cooperative League of America. 

Natl. Boaid of the Ywca. 

Public Ownership League of Amer. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Ed. 

Survey Associates, Ed. Dept., Hi. 
Electoral Reform, Ti. Aprl. 
Employment, Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 
Eugenics, Er, Rbf. 
Exhibits, Aaspim, Ncpb. 
Feeblemindedness, Ncmh. 

FOUNDATIONS 

Race Betterment Foundation. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 

HEALTH 

Amer. Assn. for Study & Prev'n't'n Inf. Mort. 

Amer. Social Hygiene Assn. 

Amer. Soc. for Cont. of Cancer. 

Campaign on Cons, of Human Life, Fccca. 

Eugenics Registry. 

Mass. Soc. for Social Hygiene. 

Natl. Assn. for Study and Prevt. Tuberculosis. 

Natl. Com. for Ment. Hygiene. 

Natl. Tom. for Prev. of Blindness. 

Natl. Org. for Public Health Nursing. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Rbf. 

Survey Associates, Health Dept. 
Health Insurance, Aall. 
Home Economics, Ahea. 
Home Work. Nclc 
Hospitals, Naspt. 
Hygiene and Physical Education, Ywca, Apea. 



IMMIGRATION 

Im. Aid, Council of Jewish Worn. 
International Institute for Foreign-born Women 

of the Ywca. 
Industrial Education, Rcicdm. 



INDUSTRY 

Amer. Assn. for Labor Legislation. 

Industrial Girls' Clubs of the Ywca. 

Natl. Child Labor Com. 

Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 

Natl. Worn. Trade Union League. 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Ind. Studies. 

Survey Associates, Ind. Dept. 

Ncsw, Ncwa, Nlws, Nlucan. 
Insanity, Ncmh. 
Institutions, Ahea. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

Com. on Int. Justice and Good Will, Fccca. 

Survey Associates, For. Serv. Dept. 
Labor Laws, Aall, Nclc. 
Legislative Reform, Aprl. 



LIBRARIES 

Russ. Sage Fdn. Library. 
Mental Hygiene, Cpfm, Ncmh. 
Mountain Whites, Rsf. 
Municipal Government, Aprl, Nfs. 
Negro Training, Hi, Nlucan, Ti. 
Neighborhood Work, Nfs. 
Nursing, Apha, Nophn. 
Open Air Schools, Naspt. 
Peonage, Naacp. 
Playgrounds, Praa. 

Physical Training, Apea, Praa, Wccs. 
Prostitution, Asha, Mssh. 
Protection Women Workers, Ntas. 
Public Health, Nophn. 
Race Betterment, Er. 

RACE PROBLEMS 

Er, Nlucan, Rbf. 
Hampton Institute. 
Natl. Assn. for Adv. Colored Peop. 
Russell Sage Fdn., South Highland Div. 
Tuskegee Institute. 
Reconstruction, Ncsw. 

RECREATION 

Playground and Rec. Assn. of Amer. 
Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. of Rec. 
Nbvwca, Nwwcymca, Apea, Wccs. 

REMEDIAL LOANS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Div. of Rem. Loans. 
Sanatoria, Naspt. 
Self-Government, Nlww. 

SETTLEMENTS 

Nat. Fed. of Settlements. 
Sex Education, Asha, Mssh. 
Schools, Ahea, Hi, Ti. 
Short Ballot, Sbo. 
Social Hygiene, Asha, Mssh. 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

Com. on Ch. and Soc. Service, Fccca. 

Natl. League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes. 

Nwwcymca, Pola, Wccs. 

SOCIAL WORK 

Natl. Conference of Social Work. 
Natl. Social Workers' Exchange. 

Statistics, Rsf. 

SURVEYS 

Russell Sage Fdn., Dept. Sur. and Ex. 
Ncmh, Praa, Ncwa. 

TRAVELERS AID 

National Travelers Aid Society. 
Iacjw. 

Tuberculosis Naspt. 

Vocational Education, Nclc, Rsf. 

Unemployment, Aall. 

WAR RELIEF 

Preventive Constructive Girls' Work of YwcA. 

Gwcc, Nwwcymca, Rcicdm. 

WOMEN 

Amer. Home Economics Assn. 
Natl. Board of the Y. W. C. A. 
Natl. League for Woman's Service. 
Natl. League of Worn. Workers. 
Natl. Women's Trade Union League. 

Work for Soldiers, Natl. War Work Council, 
Y. M. C. Assns. of U. S., Gwcc. 
War Camp Community Service. 
Working Girls, Iacjw, Ntas, Nlww. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGIS- 
LATION — John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 E. 23 St., 
New York. For national employment service for 
mobilizing and demobilizing war workers; main' 
taining labor standards; workmen's compensation; 
health insurance; efficient law enforcement. 



AMERICAN ASSN. FOR STUDY AND PRE- 
VENTION OF INFANT MORTALITY— Gertrude 

B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral St., Balti- 
more. Literature. Exhibits. Urges prenatal in- 
struction; adequate obstetrical care; birth registra- 
tion; maternal nursing; infant welfare consultations. 



' 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



//' 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION 

—Miss Cora Winchell, sec'y, Teachers College, 
New York. Organized for betterment of condi- 
tions in home, school, institution and community. 
Publishers Journal of Home Economics. 1211 
Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION— William Burdick, M.D., pres., McCoy 
Hall, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. Persis B. McCurdy, 
acting sec'y, 93 Westford Ave., Springfield, Mass. 
Object to awaken a wider and more intelligent 
interest in physical education. Annual member- 
ship fee $3 includes magazine. 

AM. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 
LEAGUE — Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y; 801 Franklin Bank Bldg., Philadelphia. Ad- 
vocates a rational and fundamental reform in elect- 
ing representatives. Pamphlet free. Membership $1. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION — 105 W. 40 St., New York. For the re- 
pression of prostitution, the reduction of venereal 
diseases, and the promotion of sound sex education. 
Information and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Associate Membership, $2.00; Annual, $5.00; 
Sustaining, $10.00. Memberships include quarterly 
magazine and monthly bulletin. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL 
OF CANCER — Miss Marion H. Mapelsden, acting 
exec, sec'y; 25 W. 45 St., New York. To dissemi- 
nate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues, $3. 

COOPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA— Scott 
H. Perky, sec'y; 2 W. 13 St., New York. 
To spread knowledge, develop scientific methods, 
and give expert advice concerning all phases of 
consumers' cooperation. Annual membership, $1, 
includes monthly, Cooperative Consumer. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY— Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human in- 
heritance, hereditary inventory and eugenic pos- 
sibilities. Literature free. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA— Constituted by 30 Protes- 
tant denominations. Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 
gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22 St., New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service; 
Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; Miss Grace 
W. Sims, office sec'y. 

Commission on International Justice and Good- 
will; Rev. Sidney L. Gulick, sec'y. 

Commission on Inter-Church Federations; Rev. 
Roy B. Guild, exec, sec'y. 

Commission on Church and Country Life; Rev. 
Charles O. Gill, sec'y; 104 N. Third St., 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Strengthen America Campaign, Charles Stelzle. 

mgr. 

GENERAL WAR-TIME COMMISSION OF THE 

CHURCHES— Constituted by the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America. Robert E. 
Speer, ch'm; William Adams Brown, sec'y; Gay- 
lord S. White, asso. sec'y. Coordinates the work of 
denominational and inter-denominational war-time 
commissions; surveys camp conditions; promotes 
erection of inter-church buildings; other general 
wai-time work. 105 East 22 Street, New York. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE— J. E. Gregg, principal; 
G. P. Phenix, vice-prin.; F. K. Rogers, treas.; 
W, H. Scoville, sec'y; Hampton, Va. Trains 
Indian and Negro youth. Neither a State nor a 
Government school. Free illustrated literature. 

IMMIGRANT AID, COUNCIL OF JEWISH 
WOMEN (NATIONAL) — Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Winkler, ch'n. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. Has international system of safeguarding. 
Coi.ducts National Americanization program. 

INTERCOLLEGIATE SOCIALIST SOCIETY— 
Harry W. Laidler, sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Object — To promote an intelligent interest in so- 
cialism among college men and women. Annual 
membership, $2, $5 and $25; includes quarterly, 
The Intercollegiate Socialist. 

THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR SO- 
CIAL HYGIENE, INC.— 50 Beacon St., Boston; 
pres., Charles W. Eliot; acting sec'y, L. V. In- 
graham, M.D. Circulars and reading list upon 
request. Quarterly Bulletin 25 cents a year. Mem- 
berships: Annual, $3; Sustaining, $10; Life $100 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE— Moor- 
field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American citizen- 
ship. Furnishes information regarding race dis- 
crimination, lynching, etc. Membership, 10,000, 
with 100 branches. Membership, $1 upwards. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOM- 
EN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION— 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York. To advance physical, social, 
intellectual, moral and spiritual interests of young 
women. Student, city, town, and county centers; 
physical education; camps; rest-rooms, lunch-rooms 
and cafeterias; educational classes; employment; 
Bible study; secretarial training school; foreign 
work; war work councils. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE— 
Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22 St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agricul- 
tural investigations; legislation; studies of admin- 
istration; education; delinquency; health; recrea- 
tion; children's codes. Publishes quarterly Child- 
Labor Bulletin. Photographs, slides and exhibits. 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION 

■ — Chas. F. Powlison, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Originates and publishes exhibit mate- 
rial which visualizes conditions affecting the health 
and education of children. Cooperates with com- 
munities, educators and organizations through ex- 
hibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HY- 
GIENE— Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 50 Union Sq., 
New York. Pamphlets on mental hygiene, mental 
disorders, feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, 
criminology, war neuroses and re-education, social 
service, backward children, surveys, state societies. 
Mental Hygiene; quarterly; $2 a year. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS— Edward M. Van Cleve, 
managing director; Gordon L. Berry, field sec'y; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22 St., 
New York. Objects: To furnish information, ex- 
hibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish literature 
of movement — samples free, quantities at cost. In- 
cludes New York State Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK 

■ — Ju|ia C. Lathrop, pres., Washington, D. C; Wil- 
liam T. Cross, gen. sec'y; 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. General organization to discuss principles 
of humanitarian effort and increase efficiency of 
agencies. Publishes proceedings annual meetings. 
Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, etc. Information 
bureau. Membership, $3. 46th annual meeting 
June 1-8, 1919, Atlantic City. Main divisions and 
chairmen: 

Children, Henry W. Thurston. 

Delinquents and Correction, Cyrus B. Adams. 

Health, Dr. C. E.-A. Winslow. 

Public Agencies and Institutions, Albert S. 
Johnstone. 

The Family, Joa*na C. Colcord. 

Industrial and Economic Problems, Mrs. 

Florence Kelley. 
The Local Community, Frances Ingram. 

Mental Hygiene, Maj. Frankwood E. Williams, 

M. O. R. C. 
Organization of Social Forces, William]. Norton. 

Uniting Native and Foreign Born in America, 
Graham Taylor. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 
— Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative study 
and concerted action in city, state, and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed 
by settlement work; seeks the higher and more 
democratic organization of neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE ON URBAN CONDITIONS 
AMONG NEGROES— L. Hollingsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 200 
Fifth Ave., New York. Investigates conditions of 
city life as a basis for practical work; trains Negro 
social workers. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR WOMEN'S SERVICE 

— Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'n; 257 Madison Ave., 
New York. To mobilize and train the volunteer 
woman power of the country for specific emer- 
gency service; supplemental to the Red Cross; co- 
operating with government agencies. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN WORKERS— 

Jean Hamilton, org. sec'y; 35 E. 30 St., New York. 
Evening clubs for girls; recreation and instruction 
in self-governing and supporting groups for girls 
of working age. Magazine, The Club Worker, 
monthly, 75 cents a year. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING— Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N., exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

CHARLES FRANCIS PRESS, NEW YORK 



Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of technique; 
to maintain a central bureau of information. Bul- 
letins sent to members. 

NATIONAL SOCIAL WORKERS' EXCHANGE 

— Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 130 E. 22 St, 
New York. A cooperative registry managed by 
social workers, to supply social organizations with 
trained workers. 

NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID SOCIETY— Gil- 
bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treas.; Orin C. 
Baker, sec'y; rooms 20-21, 465 Lexington Ave., 
New York. Composed of non-commercial agencies 
interested in the guidance and protection of travel- 
ers, especially women and girls. Non-sectarian. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION— 
Charles J. Hatfield, M.D., exec, sec'y; Philip P. 
Jacobs, Ph. D., ass't sec'y; 381 Fourth Ave., New 
York. Organization of tuberculosis campaigns; 
tuberculosis hospitals, clinics, nurses, etc.; open 
air schools; Red Cross seals, educational methods. 

NATIONAL WAR WORK COUNCIL OF THE 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
OF THE UNITED STATES— 347 Madison Ave., 
New York. To promote the physical, social, in- 
tellectual, moral and spiritual interests of men in 
uniform. Wm. Sloane, ch'm; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
treas.; John R. Mott, gen: sec'y. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE — Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 139 N. 
Clark St. (room 703), Chicago. Stands for self- 
government in the work shop through organization 
and also for the enactment of protective legislation. 
Information given. Official organ, Life and Labor. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSN. OF 
AMERICA— H. S. Braucher, sec'y; 1 Madison Ave., 
N. Y. C. Playground and community center ac- 
tivities and administration; cooperating with War' 
Dept. Commission on Training Camp Activities. 

PUBLIC OWNERSHIP LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

— Organized to secure the public ownership and 
operation of railroads and other public utili- 
ties and natural resources. Inquiries solicited. 
Address Public Ownership League of America, 
1438-1440 Unity Building, 127 N. Dearborn St., 
Chicago, 111. 

THE RACE BETTERMENT FOUNDATION— 

Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Betterment 
Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and lecture 
courses and various allied activities. J. H. Kellogg, 
pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 

RED CROSS INSTITUTE FOR CRIPPLED AND 
DISABLED MEN— Douglas C. McMurtrie, dir.; 
311 Fourth Ave., New York. Maintains indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research in re-educa- 
tion for disabled soldiers and industrial cripples. 
Publishes reports on reconstruction work here and 
abroad, and endeavors to establish an enlightened 
public attitude towards the physically handicapped. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION— For the Im- 
provement of Living Conditions — John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 130 E. 22 St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Education, 
Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Surveys 
and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Library, Southern 
Highland Division. 

SHORT BALLOT ORGANIZATION— Woodrow 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Childs, sec'y; 383 
Fourth Ave., New York. Clearing house for in- 
formation on short ballot, commission gov't, city 
manager plan, county gov't. Pamphlets free. 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC.— Robert W. de 
Forest, pres.; Arthur P. Kellogg, sec'y; publishers 
of the Survey; Paul U. Kellogg, editor; Edward 
T. Devine, Graham Taylor, Jane Addams, associate 
editors; departments: Civics, Graham R. Taylor; 
Industry, John A. Fitch; Health, Alice Hamilton, 
M.D., Gertrude Seymour; Education, Crime, Win- 
throp D. Lane; Foreign Service, Bruno Lasker, 
112 East 19 St., New York. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE— An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in race 
adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; fur- 
nishes information on all phases of the race prob- 
lem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin.; Warren Logan, treas.; 
Emmett J. Scott, sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 

WAR CAMP COMMUNITY SERVICE— 1 Madison 
Ave., New York. Conducted by the Playground 
and Recreation Association of America under the 
War Department and Navy Department Commis- 
sions on Training Camp Activities, to mobilize all 
the resources of the communities near the camps 
for the benefit of the officers and men. The War 
Camp Community Service stimulates, coordinates 
and supplements the social and recreational activi- 
ties of the camp cities and towns. Joseph Lee, 
pres.; H. S. Braucher, sec'y. 



How to Make Your Salary 
Worth 10% to 30% More 



A Simple Device That Anyone Can Apply With Quick Results 

By Peter Rhodes 



HOW much are you earning — twenty, 
twenty-five, fifty, one hundred dol- 
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I dou't deny that it is unusual to make 
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Two years ago I made $2,000 a year, and 
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went. Neither my wife nor I were spend- 
thrifts. Our tastes were simple. We had 
two little children whom we dressed well 
but not extravagantly. Yet our income was 
absolutely inadequate. 

Finally things came to such a state that 
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bad to worse. I simply had to have more 
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make both ends meet. 

In a quandary I consulted a friend of 
mine, a Mr. Underwood, whom I admired 
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family as mine he lived better than we did 
and I had heard him talk about invest- 
ments he had made, so I knew he was get- 
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Imagine my amazement when this friend 
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save $600 a* year — in other words, he was 
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I couldn't understand how he did it. 
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My friend, Mr. Underwood, saw my 
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They had no plan ; they were living in 
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Finally, he came to the realization that 
what was keeping them poor was the money 
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money and even meeting their bills on time. 

Then he determined that he could easily 
live within his income and also save money 
if he could in some way make his money 
go further. With this idea in mind, Mr. 
Underwood worked out a plan which 
enabled him to save $600 each year and 
still en'oy the pleasures and enjoyment 
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This plan which has worked so success- 
fully for my friend has been incorporated 
in the Ferrin Money Saving Account Book 



and Budget System, a system that can add 
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me as an increase in salary because I can 
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— and I get real joti out of them — because 
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The Ferrin Account System 
grew from the realization that a simple 
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READ! 



Letter from Head of Financial Department of 
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the United States. 
INDEPENDENT CORPf 'IATION. 
Gentlemen: 

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This amazingly simple ifietkod has been 
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July 2. 1918. 
Independent Corporation, New York City. 

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July 28. 1918. 
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FREE EXAMINATION COUPON 

Division of Business Education, 119 West 40lh Street, New York 
Publishers of The Independent (.and Harper's Weekly) 
Please send me the Ferrin Money Saving 
Account Book on Free Examination. I will 
send you $2 within 5 days after receipt, or 
return the book. 

I 



Name 



i 

| Address 
I 




[ADVERTISEMENT] 



' 



,3C 




NOTICE TO READER. 
When you finish reading this magazine 
place a one-cent stamp on this notice, 
mail the magazine, and it will he placed 
in the hands of our soldiers or sailors 
destined to proceed overseas. 

NO WRAPPING— NO ADDRESS. 



A. S. Burleson, Postmaster-General. 



SUVWEff 



■ ■ 



This issue consists of 48 pages 
Regular section' 32 pages. Second section T6 pages 







^/7^ 



Mi* 



The Purpose of Reconstruction 
By Franklin K. Lane 

Mid-Europe: The New Declaration of Independence 

The Rebirth of a Nation: The Czechoslovaks 
By Herbert Adolphus Miller 

A Dream of a League of Nations Six 
Hundred Years Ago 

By Lilian Brandt 
America Overseas: A New Department 



Price 25 Cents 



November 2, 1918 



114 THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2, igi8 

Declaration of Common Aims of the Inde- 
pendent Mid-European Nations 

IN convention assembled at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Penn., United States of 
America, on October 26, 1918, we, representing together more than fifty million people 
constituting a chain of nations lying between the Baltic, the Adriatic and the Black Seas, 
comprising Czechoslovaks, Poles, Jugoslavs, Ukrainians, Uhro-Rusins, Lithuanians, 
Rumanians, Italian Irredentists, Unredeemed Greeks, Albanians, Zionists, and Armenians, 
wholly or partly subject to alien dominion, deeply appreciating the aid and assistance given 
our peoples by the government and people of America and of the Entente Allies, on behalf of 
ourselves and our brethren at home, do hereby solemnly declare that we place our all — 
peoples and resources — at the disposal of our allies for use against our common enemy, and 
in order that the whole world may know what we deem are the essential and fundamental 
doctrines which shall be embodied in the constitutions hereafter adopted by the people of our 
respective independent nations, as well as the purposes which shall govern our common and 
united action, we accept and subscribe to the following as basic principles for all free peoples: 

1. That all governments derive their just power from the consent of the governed. 

2. That it is the inalienable right of every people to organize their own government on such prin- 
ciples and in such form as they believe will best promote their welfare, safety and happiness. 

3. That the free and natural development of the ideals of any state should be allowed to pur- 
sue their normal and unhindered course unless such course harms or threatens the common interest of 
all. 

4. That there should be no secret diplomacy, and all proposed treaties and agreements between na- 
tions should be made public — prior to their adoption and ratification. 

5. That we believe our peoples, have kindred ideals and purposes, should coordinate their efforts 
to insure the liberties of their individual nations for the furtherance of their common welfare, provided 
such a union contributes to the peace and welfare of the world. 

6. That there should be formed a league of the nations of the world in a common and binding 
agreement for genuine and practical cooperation -to secure justice and therefore peace among nations. 

In the course of our history, we have been subject to, and victims of aggressive and selfish 
nations and autocratic dynasties, and held in subjection by force of arms. 

We have suffered destruction of our cities, violation of our homes and lands, and we have 
maintained our ideals only by stealth, in spite of the tyranny of our oppressors. 

We have been deprived of proper representation and fair trial — we have been denied 
the right of free speech, and the right freely to assemble and petition for the redress of our 
grievances — we have been denied free and friendly intercourse with our sister states, and our 
men have been impressed in war against their brothers and friends of kindred races. 

The signers of this declaration, and representatives of other independent peoples, who 
may subscribe their names hereunto, do hereby pledge on behalf of their respective nations, 
that they will unitedly strive to the end that these wrongs shall be righted, that the sufferings 
of the world war shall not have been in vain; and that the principles here set forth shall 
be incorporated in the organic laws of whatever governments our respective peoples may 
hereafter establish. 

Signers : 

Thomas G. Masaryk Charles Thomazolli 

[prime minister of the Czechoslovak Republic] [representative of the Political Association of Italian Ir- 

T. M. Helinski redentists] 

[representative of the Polish National Department} Christos Vossilakaki 
Hinko Hinkovich [representative of the Central Committee of Unredeemed 

[representative of Jugoslav National Council} Greeks] 

Nicholas Ceglinsky Qhristo A. Dako 

[representative of the Ukrainian Federation] [representative of the Albanian National Council] 
Gregory Zsatkovich 

[representative of the National Council of Uhro-Rusins] Ittamor Ben-Avi 

Thomas Narushevitchins [representative of the Zionist Organization of America] 

[representative of the Lithuanian National Council] r^ P a i;derjnadioin 

Capt. Vasile Stoica [special envoy of His Holiness The Catholicos of All 

[representative of the Rumanian National League] Armenians] 




/ 






Mid-Europe 



The New Declaration of Independence Under the Old Liberty 

Cupola 



IN the same room in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 
in which John Hancock and his associates signed the 
American Declaration of Independence 142 years ago, 
representatives of twelve mid-European nations put 
their names to a second declaration last Saturday, a "declara- 
tion of common aims" proclaiming their irrevocable hatred 
of the autocratic tyranny that had held them in subjection for 
centuries, and their belief in the principle that "all govern- 
ments derive their just power from the consent of the gov- 
erned." 

The occasion was one of extreme solemnity. To the 
minds of those who signed the document it was fraught with 
immense possibilities, not only to the future of mid-Europe 
but to the peace of the world for, in the words of one of 
them "so long as there is oppression in central Europe, the 
world will know no peace." 

Sitting in the chair in which Hancock sat, with a fac-simile 
copy of the American declaration above him and with the 
new declaration resting on the table used by Hancock, Jef- 
ferson, Franklin and the others, Thomas G. Masaryk, prime 
minister of the Czechoslovak republic, was the first signer. 
On either side of him stood at attention a Czechoslovak sol- 
dier just arrived from Siberia, and on either side of these stood 
men holding the flags of the nations whose destinies were en- 
tering a new phase. As Masaryk affixed his signature to the 
paper some of those present reflected that not only was he 
signing a document which might become of great historical 
interest, but that he, like John Adams, 
had a "price" on his head, and that if he 
were to set foot in Bohemia he would 
doubtless be clapped into prison. 

As each representative stepped for- 
ward and took the gray-black quill tipped 
by a gold pen used in the signing, the 
audience showed its enthusiasm by pro- 
longed applause. This pen, together 
with the original signed copy of the 
declaration, will be permanently de- 
posited in Independence Hall. Other 
copies will subsequently be signed and 
sent to each of the nations represented. 

As a spectacle, the occasion presented 



November 2, 1918 Vol. 1,1, No. 5 

THE SURVEY 

Published weekly by 

Survey Associates, Inc. 

112 East 19 Street, New York 

Robert W. de Forest, president; Paul 

U. Kellogg, editor; Charles D. Norton, 

treasurer; Arthur P. Kellogg, secretary. 

2o cents a copy; $3 a year; foreign 
postage, $1.50; Canadian, 75 cents. 
Copyright, 1918, by Survey Associates, 
Inc. 

Entered as second-class matter March 
85, 1909, at the post office at New York, 
N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1911, authorized on 
June 26, 1918. 



striking contrasts, of course, to the event that it had taken 
for a model. The manuscript of the declaration had not been 
written out laboriously in long hand to be treasured by future 
generations for that alone but carried its message in the crisp 
lettering of a modern typewriter. Those who signed it had 
not ridden to the place on horseback but had been brought 
by steam and electricity, so that the hitching posts to which 
Adams and the other American patriots tied their horses stood 
unused just outside the windows. Cameras clicked as each 
name was signed. And within a few hours after the ceremony 
was completed, both the text of the declaration and the names 
of the signers had been put upon the cable for Europe, thence 
to be distributed by wireless to all the civilized world. 

Following the signing Professor Masaryk read the declara- 
tion to thousands of persons gathered in Independence Square. 
As he finished, a second Liberty Bell, cast in the model of 
the first and paid for by children of the oppressed nationali- 
ties in this country, rang out its twentieth century defiance to 
the autocracy of Austria-Hungary. 

The declaration is printed on the page opposite. In its 
final paragraph it expressly provides for the addition of other 
signatures. Among the peoples whose representatives may 
add their names to the list are Arabs, Letts, Esthonians and 
others. 

The signing of the document came at the close of a three- 
day conference called by the recently formed Democratic Mid- 
European Union, of which Professor Masaryk is chairman and 

an American, Herbert Adolphus Miller, 

is director. (See Professor Miller's 
article The Bulwark of Freedom in the 
Survey for October 5 and his second 
article on page 117 of this issue.) This 
conference did more than give a new 
setting and application to political con- 
cepts old in American history. Perhaps 
its most significant discussions touched 
on the possibility of an economic as well 
as a political alliance of the oppressed 
nationalities of Central Europe. The 
abolition of selfish or secret combinations 
in trade as well as in international rela- 
tions was dwelt upon as one of the 



The Survey, November 2, 1918. Volume 41, No. 5. 112 East 19 Street, New York city 



115 



116 



THE S U RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 1 9 1 S 



desirable objects of tbe union. The delegates listened with 
interest to statements that cooperative industry had increased 
50 per cent in England during the war, and that 70,000,000 
people were today being fed in Russia by cooperative societies 
instead of 40,000,000, as before the war. Henry L. Gantt, 
efficiency expert, outlined the possibilities of an economic al- 
liance as a foundation for the union and was asked to become 
an adviser to it on that aspect of its future work. 

Other conclusions were tentatively adopted as a result of 
the conference. One of these is that in fixing the boundaries 
of nations, which are to be determined fundamentally along 
racial lines, absolutely free plebiscites must be assured. Coer- 
cion springing from any display of German, Austrian or 
Turkish force would be fatal, it was agreed. Captain Vasile 
Stoica, speaking for the Rumanians of Transylvania, Bukowina 
and other provinces dominated by Hungary, gave instances 
of coercion by infantry and cavalry at elections and said : 
"With such a system I would guarantee to make Phila- 
delphia vote to be annexed to Buda-Pesth." The proposal 
that United States troops occupy the countries during the tak- 
ing of a plebiscite, and that United States commissioners count 
the votes, was applauded. 

Another conclusion was that since, no matter what care 
and justice are exercised in fixing the boundaries, more than 
one race will necessarily be included in every nation, the rights 
of the minority races shall be protected by international law. 
This, said Professor Masaryk, is the "most vital" question 
before the union. Among the rights mentioned as necessary 
to be guaranteed to minority races were the right to speak 
their own languages, to vote as full citizens, to have schools 
in their own languages and to have courts that will adequately 
protect them. 



A third conclusion was that as a part of the economic union, 
each nation must be assured of access to the sea. Where all 
the coast is inhabited by one people, with another people back 
of it deprived of actual contact with the sea, the coast nation, 
it was held, must make its ports free to the nation in the 
rear, without tariffs or other restrictions. 

The Jugoslav representative, Dr. Hinko Hinkovich, for- 
mally filed with the secretary the statement of his nation re- 
pudiating, as a basis for peace, all agreements at the London 
Convention of 1915, in which the Allies ceded to Italy, as 
an inducement for her to enter the war, certain lands re- 
garded by the Jugoslavs as belonging to them. A climax oc- 
curred in the discussions when representatives of the Jugoslavs 
protested against the distribution of territory in a map that 
had been posted near the hall showing roughly the geographic 
boundaries of the various nations. Amity was restored when 
it was explained that this map had no standing in the confer- 
ence and when a resolution was passed declaring that the 
conference had no official map of any kind. 

Nevertheless, T. M. Helinski, representing the Poles, pointed 
out the necessity for some sort of map to educate the American 
public in regard to the location of the various peoples, their 
ignorance being, he said, astounding. Delegate Helinski 
expressed some surprise, also, that the Jugoslavs and Italians 
should have referred to military considerations in establishing 
a border, since, if the peace conference is to be what it is hoped 
it will be, militaristic considerations will have no weight. 

Professor Masaryk concluded a summary of what had been 
accomplished by the conference with the statement that "the 
league of nations contemplated by President Wilson will be 
prepared for by the amity of all these nations whose liberties 
will be the best guarantee of peace." 




CZECHOSLOVAK SOLDIERS SINGING 

'Because for the first time in three hundred years we are serving as soldiers in our own army, and not in the army of 

a haled master" 




HE BULWARK OF FREEDOM 

II 

The Rebirth of a Nation: The Czechoslovaks 
By Henry Adolphus Miller 

DIRECTOR OF THE DEMOCRATIC MID-EUROPEAN UNION 



WHO or what is a Bohemian? Are the Bohe- 
mians a people, or does the term name by familiar 
implication a pleasant irresponsible kind of life 
see-sawing on the edge of the moral sanctions? 
And now we find the word connected with this new nation 
of Czechoslovaks, which latter name no one dares to try to 
pronounce. 

It seems unfair, somehow, that such a handicap should rest 
upon a nation which is giving the world one of the most 
heroic spectacles it has ever witnessed. For some months past 
a few thousand of its men have been making a march to the 
sea which makes the retreat of Xenophon's ten thousand seem 
a very mild expedition indeed; and there has been a stirring 
on all sides to realization of an epic endurance, a deep moral 
vitality in the national character of these people, which has 
swept the war-jaded watchers away to a thrilled admiration 
of a force until now so little perceived as to be still almost 
mysterious. 

The Czechoslovaks at present are a people constituting some 
ten million allies of the Entente powers, thrust between Aus- 
tria and Germany. In that wedge the western end is held 
by the Czechs, whose other name is "Bohemians." The 
Slovaks form the eastern part of this newly emancipated na- 
tion. Their name is the name of a particular people, and 
should not be confused with the name "Slav," which is a 
generic term covering majry groups of which the Slovaks are 
only one. It should be noted that the word "Czechoslovak" 
is composed of two nouns, while "Jugoslav" consists of 
"jugo," an adjective meaning "south," and the race name, 
"Slav"; this designation includes Slovenians, Croatians, and 
Serbians. 

Some years ago, when I decided to study the Bohemians of 
Chicago as an academic problem, I went to the public library 
and drew all the books that had the word "Bohemian" in their 
titles. Most of them turned out to be books of poetry dealing 
with the irresponsible life — what might be defined as the 
highbrow gypsy life. Just how this connotation fastened it- 
self upon the word cannot perhaps be definitely learned. There 
are several plausible explanations, of which the following is 
one. 

At the time of the Hussite wars, about 1430, all of Middle 
and Western Europe, except for the Bohemians, was Roman 
Catholic. At this time gypsies from the southeast began to 
appear in Germany; they .vere much despised, and the name 
"gypsy" became a term of opprobrium which the Germans, 
venting their feelings against heretics, made synonymous with 
the name of the Bohemians. 1 This application held long after 
the cause for it disappeared, and was revived for a new use by 
literary allusion about the middle of the last century. The 
English word is derived from the German Bohmen, which is 
anglicized "Bohemia." "Czech" is the name the Bohemians 
use in their own language, but they do not spell it that way. 
The Czechs, the Slavic race, and the Slavic language with its 

'See Lutzow's Bohemia. 



sounds existed long before alphabets. The alphabet was intro- 
duced among the Slavs by two missionaries, Cyril and Metho- 
dus, who brought the Greek form. The Greek or Cyril- 
lic notation was adopted by the Serbians, Bulgarians and Rus- 
sians ; and since it had no letters appropriate for certain 
existing sounds, these peoples introduced new characters to 
meet their phonetic necessities, so that in the Russian alphabet 
there are thirty-six letters. The Croats, Bohemians, and Poles 
adopted the Latin alphabet; but since the latter had become 
standardized in Western Europe they could not make addi- 
tions to it, and therefore resorted to two different methods. 
The Poles made combinations of letters to which they gave 
sounds quite different from those current in Western Europe; 
for example, they use z frequently in combination, but with a 
sound quite strange to an Anglo-Saxon ear. The Bohemians 
met the same difficulty by the use of diacritical marks. Thus 
in their name they use an initial C; the Cz to which we in the 
West are now becoming accustomed is the usage popularized 
by an English newspaper, though this combination, unless it is 
explained, is as difficult as the other to pronounce, since it 
stands for a Polish sound. The French spelling Tcheque 
more nearly indicates the actual pronunciation of the word. 
Ch (pronounced like ch in "church") is better than Cz, but 
the final ch in "Czech" is like a gutteral k, or ch in the Scotch 
"loch." 

The first Bohemians came to America in colonial days, and 
some of them had a great deal of influence upon early Ameri- 
can history ; but the mass of Bohemian immigration began 
shortly after 1848 and continued down into the '90s. There 
are at present in the United States, counting first and second 
generations, over half a million Bohemians. Their largest 
center is Chicago, and there are large agricultural communi- 
ties in Texas, Nebraska, and Iowa, with smaller settlements in 
many states. The coming of the Bohemians in those years 
indicates that their migration was largely due to political 
causes. Emily Greene Balch relates that when a visitor from 
his native country said to one of the early Bohemian settlers 
in Texas, "Why, Valentine, at home your pigs are housed bet- 
ter than you are here!" he replied: "That is true, but I 
would rather live here in this log cabin than in a palace under 
the Austrian government." 

The Bohemians are simply one illustration of a fact that 
has not been sufficiently taken into consideration, namely, that 
every immigrant group comes here equipped with distinctive 
attitudes and habits of mind, only through the understanding 
of which can the unusual things about them be explained. 
There are several outstanding facts in Bohemian history which 
are reflected in every Bohemian community in the United 
States. The most interesting social manifestation among the 
Bohemians has been that of "free-thinking," so called. It has 
made many religious people feel greatly disturbed; it has led 
missionary organizations sometimes to undertake very unwise 
methods of converting those whom they thought to be unfor- 
tunate atheists. This "free-thinking," however, has been of a 

117 



118 



THE SURVEY F O R NOVEMBER 2 , 191 




PREPARING FOR THE DAYS OF FREEDOM 

Bohemian girls from Chicago on the way to the great national 
sokol exhibition at Prague, Bohemia, in 1912 

very sturdy sort ; and whatever might be one's attitude toward 
religious values, when one knew the history and saw the effi- 
ciency of the organizations through which this movement was 
promoted, one could but have very great respect for it. To 
the free-thinker himself his negation was a rational attitude 
to which he had deliberately come. But this is not an ade- 
quate explanation. The free-thinking movement in Bohemia 
can only be explained in connection with the burning of John 
Hus in the year 1415. Hus was a priest, a scholar, and a 
moral leader of more than ordinary ability. From the time of 
his martyrdom he has been the personification of Bohemian 
purposes. He made Bohemia Protestant a full century be- 
fore the time of Luther, although to the very end he insisted 
that he merely desired consistency and morality for the clergy. 
This, however, was not the only basis of his greatness. He 
had been rector of the university of Prague, founded in 1348, 
which developed such a strong nationalism that the German 
students who were there withdrew in a body in 1409 and 
founded the university of Leipsic. According to Count Lut- 
zow, "in Bohemia, whose inhabitants instinctively saw in Hus 
the greatest man of their race, he was from the first revered. 
Hus, the Bohemian patriot, is loved even by many of his coun- 
trymen who are devoted adherents of the Church of Rome." 

Hus was burned at the stake by reason of an unfortunate 
alliance of the church with the Holy Roman Empire in an 
attempt to override the claim of the Bohemians to the right of 
directing their religious affairs according to their own national 
tradition. Thus in his death, which aroused violent anti-papal 
outbursts in Bohemia, he became a symbol of Bohemian na- 
tional freedom. Immediately following his martyrdom there 
broke out the Hussite wars, which lasted for many years ; and 
the Bohemians became very conscious of the relation between 
their nationalistic and religious aspirations. 

In 1620, at the Battle of the White Mountains, near Prague ( 
the Austrian government finally crushed Bohemian independ- 
ence. The attempt was made not merely to remould and domi- 
nate the external life of the Bohemian people, but even to crush 
out its very soul. Not only so-called heretical works but 
every form of Bohemian literature was suppressed. One priest 
boasted of having destroyed 60,000 volumes. 

From that time down to the year 1918 the Bohemians have 
been a subject people. Since Hus was the standard-bearer of 
Bohemian nationality, while the Austrian government was 
linked with clericalism, Bohemians in America, finding them- 
selves free to believe as they wish, have formed their national 
organization upon an anti-church, if net anti-religious, basis, 



with the result that half or more of the Bohemians in the 
United States have been in varying degrees free-thinkers. 
Practically all the rest, with more or less devoutness, are mem- 
bers of the Roman Catholic church. A highly developed 
group of organizations, benevolent and cultural, have grown 
around this free-thought movement, and I have for years con- 
sidered it one of the most interesting and one of the most 
distinctive situations that I had come in contact with. It 
needed only history to explain it, and the events of the last 
year have shown that it has been, as a matter of fact, a de- 
velopment resulting from a national and not a religious move- 
ment. Within a few days after the United States declared 
war on Austria-Hungary, a meeting was held by the Bohe- 
mians and Slovaks in Cleveland for the purpose of commemo- 
rating the event. All shades of opinion were represented, 
but the men who received the greatest applause were a Roman 
Catholic priest and the leader of the Socialists and there were 
other priests and several leading free-thinkers who spoke. As 
the priest said afterward, the Bohemians in these two camps 
had come to hate each other as much as either hated the 
Germans; but when the issue of freedom from Austrian con- 
trol became possible, these differences were immediately laid 
aside, and during the winter in Cleveland the Bohemian 
workers in the Red Cross organization met in alternate weeks 
in the parochial school and the free-thinkers' hall, and the en- 
thusiasm of each for the other became most surprising to one 
who had known their relations a few months before. 

Bohemia a Country Rich in Schools 

Another fact of the Bohemian immigration which can only 
be explained by a knowledge of history is its very low rate of 
illiteracy; among the Czechs who come to this country it is 
measurably lower than that among the Germans. One of 
the most influential contributors to educational method and 
theory in Bohemia was John Amos Comenius, or Komensky. 
He was exiled during the Thirty Years' War and went to 
Germany, later to Sweden and England. He was at one 
time offered the presidency of Harvard College, but did not 
accept it. He originated many principles of the modern sys- 
tem of popular education. The traditions which gather around 
him make it inevitable that Bohemians should have a great 
respect for education. As one goes through villages in Bohe- 
mia, he is struck by the magnificence of the schoolhouses ; and 
it is not at all strange that a very large majority of the offi- 
cers in the Czechoslovak army in Siberia are graduates of 
higher schools. 

The Slovaks come from Hungary, and although the region 
they occupy is contiguous to Bohemia, they have had no inde- 
pendent political territory for a thousand years ; they have 
lived largely in the mountains and have preserved many of 
the old national customs and, it is said, a purity of language 
which the Bohemians have lost. The Slovaks have suffered 
greatly from the efforts of the Magyars to wipe out their 
nationality. They have been forbidden the use of their own 
language, and have had priests imposed upon them who did 
not speak their tongue. They have been poor, but, unlike 
most of the' nationalities of Europe, they belong to several 
religious sects, of which the largest numerically is the Roman 
Catholic, though the Lutherans form an important minority. 
The Slovaks began coming to this country considerably later 
than the Bohemians; but they have come over in great num- 
bers in recent years. There are probably not more than 
three million of them in Slovakia, and at least half a million 
of them in the United States. Because of the methods pur- 
sued by the Magyars, which prohibited the Slovaks from 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 1 9 1 8 



119 



^ :1f * 4fl mi,^ its 




1 ' \T • ™- 'lit" 


WjllUilitP 1 - ^W^ 



AN OUTPOST OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC 



getting any education in their own language, they show a very 
much larger percentage of illiteracy than the Bohemians, 
though many of the most prominent leaders in Bohemian life 
have been Slovaks who came to Bohemia for education. Pro- 
fessor Masaryk himself was born a Moravian Slovak. 

One interesting activity of the Czechs or Bohemians, as well 
as other Slavs, is represented in the athletic organizations 
called sokols. These also have a distinctively nationalistic 
character. The organization as a national institution was 
founded by a professor of philosophy in 1862 for the very 
purpose of developing for the sokol in Bohemia a character 
that would make it a virile instrument for the nation and at 
the same time would not seem to present opposition to the Aus- 
trian government. In this nationalistic character it is quite 
natural that, among the Bohemians, free-thinking should have 
been one of the characteristics of the sokols, although discus- 
sion of neither politics nor religion is allowed in them. They 
have been the source of promoting excellent physical develop- 
ment and discipline, and most certainly account in a very large 
degree for the present efficiency of the Czechoslovak army. 

One may well wonder what is the relation between these 
immigrants in America on the one hand and, on the other, the 
armies which they support and the movement in Europe. The 
Czechoslovak National Council is a very good illustration. It 
is a combination of the Bohemian National Alliance, of which 
the Bohemian Catholic Alliance is a part, and the Slovak 
League. None of these was very vigorous until the outbreak 
of the war. It was my good fortune to be present at the 
Hotel Statler in Cleveland one Sunday in February, 1915, 
when the National Bohemian Alliance was reconstituted, 
with the definite purpose of raising money to support the work 
of Professor Masaryk in Europe, thus making possible what 
has culminated in the rebirth of the nation which died in 1620. 



This alliance has raised many hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars, which have been used for promoting the cause of Bohe- 
mian liberation. The Slovak League and the Catholic Alli- 
ance had also been contributing, but last February these three 
groups, in a great meeting in which delegates from all over the 
country gathered in Chicago, organized into a common coun- 
cil with representatives from each of the three, and they 
constitute at present the American branch of the Czechoslovak 
National Council, with Professor Masaryk as president and 
General Stephanik, formerly of Paris, and now in Siberia, as 
vice-president of the de facto government. Most of the sup- 
porters of the movement are American citizens. Their atti- 
tude toward the freedom of their ancestral land is simply 
more intense and more idealistic than that of other Ameri- 
cans toward the country of their birth. It conflicts in no 
way with the common American life. These people come 
here largely for freedom, and they more nearly fulfill the aims 
of America when they fight and sacrifice to make those who 
are near to them also free. 

Much favorable mention has lately been made of the gal- 
lant Czechoslovak army, especially the division operating in 
Siberia. The following description from the personal letter 
of an American citizen written recently from Vladivostok is 
vividly perceptive of the inter-current forces that now are gal- 
vanizing a complex group character : 







JOHN AMOS KOMENSKY 



On the whole, they [the Czechs] are the most whole-hearted allies 
I ever saw. If they know you for an ally they will open their 
hearts to you and get you to hold their hand-grenades while they 
go in swimming. If you are a Boche they shoot you immediately 
and without malice. 

In my ignorance I thought that the Czechoslovaks were tarred 
with the same brush as the Russians. Never was there a bigger 
mistake! I have brothered with these chaps and I never saw a 
keener, cleaner crowd. Take a Yankee officer of the best type and 
give him a knowledge of four languages and something of the French 

alertness, and train him under Prussian officers in the Austrian army, 

taking care not to cut out his humor or sense of decency; last of 

all, give him the most elaborately thought out system of physical 

gymnastics that has been evolved, and then oppress his beloved 

Bohemia, and you have a Czech officer. 

The Czechoslovak army in France received official recogni- 
tion with the presentation of their national colors to the 
regiments in Paris by President Poincare on July 14 last. 
During the parade in Paris on that day, the Czechoslovak sol- 
diers attracted a great deal of attention by their singing. 
One of my former students, who is in the army there, wrote 
me of this singing, and said that the men of the Czechoslovak 
army also sang going and coming from drills. 'At first," he 
said, "it puzzled me, but now I understand. It is because 
for the first time in 300 years we are serving as soldiers in 
our own army, and not in the army of a hated master." Re- J0HN HUS 




120 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 191 



cruiting for this army is going on in America under the aus- 
pices of the Czechoslovak National Council, and there is a 
receiving camp at Stamford, Conn., from which the recruits 
are sent overseas. In little towns and large cities in all parts 
of the United States, you will find relatives of these men ex- 
pressing the same attitude, pouring out their money for the 
same cause and with the same joy. What could be more in 
harmony with the ideals with which America was born and 
the principles which President Wilson has been laying down 
for the guidance of the world than this concrete manifes- 



tation of the reality of the impulse which is compelling the 
Czechoslovaks ? 

The attitude of these men toward America and the prin- 
ciples for which she has come to stand in the world could 
not be better illustrated than by the following story which has 
come from the front. A soldier in the Czechoslovak army 
took from his pocket a tin box and, when asked what was in 
it, opened the lid and showed it full of dark earth. "This 
soil," he said, "is from Mount Vernon. I am taking it to 
sprinkle in Bohemia." 



The Purpose of Reconstruction' 



By Franklin K. Lane 

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



NO man knows where we are going after the war; 
what will be the nature of our new society, how 
new it will be. The imagination of the world is 
naturally challenged by the largeness of the op- 
portunity to put all things right. 

The one danger of any period of reconstruction is not the 
inventiveness of the human mind — throwing into the air for 
all men to gather by wireless new lines of thought, novel con- 
ceptions of society — the danger is in letting go the old before 
the new is tested. The ship must not be allowed to drift. 
We must make sure that we have power to take us in the 
new direction before we let go the anchor. To reject tradi- 
tion, to despise the warnings of history and to be superior to 
the limitations of human nature, is to drive without a chart 
into a Saragossa Sea of water-logged uselessness. 

But the figure of steering a ship must not be carried too far. 
It has its limitations because man is a growth, not a machine. 
The captain of the ship knows his point of destination as well 
as his point of departure. The statesman cannot know at 
what port he will arrive. His supreme duty is to bring his 
ship safely into a harbor, with a crew that is not in mutiny 
and his hand on the wheel. The state must be a "going con- 
cern." 

To adapt ourselves to the conditions that will arise after 
the war will be a task that will also demand an ability to 
reject what is not needed or not fitted for utility under man's 
advanced conception of himself. Revolutions come, radical 
departures of all kinds are taken, because of a too slothful 
appreciation of a change in the weather. The American 
people are not dangerous. They are really, I believe, the 
safest and sanest people on earth. There is no danger what- 
ever of their rushing headlong down a steep place into the 

1 Preface to a collection of papers on American Problems of Reconstruction, 
publisher! last week by E. P. Dnlton & Co. and here reproduced with their 
courteous permission. Copyright, 1918, by E. P. Dutton & Co. 



sea. Sometimes they may be a bit too logical and hence un- 
natural in their adherence to the Cromwellian philosophy of 
"thorough," but no people have a more perfect sense of fair 
play or a keener sense of humor, and the reaction from these 
makes for steadiness, stability, wisdom, not passion. This 
though is true, that their judgment must be respected, and 
respected in time, if things are not to go further than they 
would wish themselves. And this lesson conservatives must 
learn : The sovereign citizen is here ! 

So far as plans for making over our industrial or financial 
or economic lives are concerned, the commonest schemes in- 
volve too great a risk of establishing bureaucracy. To avoid 
the setting up of such machinery, however, unless it is vitally 
necessary, indispensable, seems to me the part of wisdom. The 
common impulse when in a tangle or a haze is to cry out, "Let 
us refer the whole business to a body of experts," which to 
be sure is the only way in which much of government can be 
handled. Yet experts, as all know, have the same capacity 
for imperialism, for cowardice, and for subserviency as all 
other men. They come to wish to exercise authority and have 
a tendency to exercise it ruthlessly if protected from public 
criticism. They are also as weak-kneed as men in general 
before the hasty judgments and clamor of the multitude or 
the will of those who are politically powerful. 

This nation is ripe, not so much for any one change in its 
way of doing things as for an extension and a broadening of 
its own old way. A little Hawaiian girl told me in Hawaii 
that America was in the war to "help those who need help." 
That is our spirit abroad (not pure altruism either), and it 
is the sound center of our system of government at home. 
We shall reconstruct, build anew for a broader democracy, 
in which men will learn more perfectly to work together, not 
for the making of a great state, on the contrary for the making 
of more self-owned and growing individuals. 



TO A REALIST 

By Elizabeth Hanly 

IFE is a prison, friend of mine, you say? 
-*— ' No, nor a palace, but friend, yesterday 
Life was a little house but garnished fine and fair, 
Set by the wayside free to sun and air. 
The road was dusty, yea, but it was sweet; 
Checkered by sun and shade and safe for childish feet. 
Now swept by storm and gusts of bitter rain 
Dark is our road. It will be light again 
And God in His good time obliterate our pain. 



Pierre Dubois 



Who Dreamed of a League of Nations Six 
Hundred Years Ago 

By Lilian Brandt 



ABOUT the year 1300 there was living in Normandy 
an "avocat royal" by the name of Pierre Dubois, 
who occupied his leisure hours in "caressing," as 
his French commentator puts it, "vast projects of so- 
cial reform" — among them a scheme for international arbitra- 
tion as a means of establishing lasting peace among the states 
of Europe. Like Roger Bacon across the channel, he had no 
perceptible influence on his own period. The age of Dante 
had little use for original ideas, and criticism of existing insti- 
tutions was rare. Most of the men of that time who are ad- 
mired today received slight attention from their contempo- 
raries, and their writings — lost sight of for centuries — have 
been discovered and appreciated only within modern times. 

Dubois wrote pamphlets, addressing them usually to the 
king, and offering his services in helping to carry through the 
reforms he urged. But he seems never to have been taken 
into the royal counsels, and he bitterly laments that he cannot 
get people to appreciate his ideas. He is persuaded that all 
hell is leagued against him and that the devil himself inter- 
feres to ruin all his plans. 

His own favorite among his works, the one which he 
"loved," was a proposal of methods for shortening wars and 
legal suits. Simplification of the laws and improvement of 
legal procedure he recurs to in other writings. Another 
pamphlet — the last one of which we know — was a defense of 
the amusements of chivalry, after tournaments and jousts .had 
been forbidden by the pope. Others were concerned with the 
current controversy of Philip the Fair with Pope Boniface 
VIII, and one of these was written in the vulgar tongue. 

His most ambitious undertaking, however, and the one in 
which he develops his idea of a league of nations, was a plan 
for recovering the Holy Land from the "infidels," De Re- 
cuperatione Terre Sancte. Peace among the Christian na- 
tions of Europe he considered an essential condition, and not 
merely a temporary harmony until the conquest should be 
achieved, but a lasting peace. To insure perpetual peace among 
the western nations — federated in a sort of "United States" 
under the leadership of the king of France — he proposes set- 
ting up a court for the arbitration of all differences. The 
court is to be constituted afresh as to personnel on each oc- 
casion, apparently, and is to consist of three ecclesiastical 
judges and three "others" on each side, with appeal to the 
pope. Reform of abuses in the church was another necessary 
preliminary to this enterprise. The worldly spirit of prelates, 
the cupidity of the monks who squandered the goods intended 
for the poor, simony at Rome — all such evils must be cor- 
rected before there could be hope of success. To supply funds 
for the expedition and for the organization to be maintained 
in the Holy Land after its recovery, some of the objection- 



able wealth of the Templars and Hospitalers and other orders 
might be confiscated. 

For the reconstruction and rehabilitation, as it would prob- 
ably now be called, of the Holy Land after its recovery it 
would be desirable to encourage emigration from Europe. 
Preachers everywhere would be asked to urge colonization, 
and bands of emigrants would be collected in each country 
and sent forward under chosen leaders. It would be im- 
portant to see that there should be an adequate supply of con- 
fessors, who understood all the languages in currency; also 
of doctors, and of faithful, experienced "secretaries," ac- 
quainted not only with the language of the Arabs, but also 
with their writings, and with the other dialects of the in- 
habitants. Schools should be established in the priories of the 
Holy Land, where girls as well as boys would be instructed, 
and where the curriculum would include military discipline 
for the strong and vocational training in the mechanical arts 
for the others. 

With all his fertility of imagination and capacity for con- 
structive suggestions, Dubois was still a child of the Middle 
Ages. His critical faculty is not roused by the current as- 
trological beliefs and he sees the past through the fables of 
miraculous deeds of dead heroes. He seeks to support his 
fragile visions of reform by citations from the authorities of 
the medieval universities — the Digest of the Roman law, the 
Canon of Church law, and the works of Aristotle. Ut ait 
philosophus punctuates his dissertations as thickly as if he were 
arguing for the established order of things instead of urging 
reforms and new "programs." When effort after effort fails 
to excite the enthusiasm he himself feels for a project, he does 
not infer that his dreams may perhaps lack a certain practical 
quality, nor that his ideas perhaps seem Utopian to the men 
of his time, but that the devil and all his hosts are conspiring 
against him. 

Towards the end of his life he seems to have entered the 
service of the Comtesse dArtois, for an item in her accounts 
indicates that at Easter time, in the year 1314, she sent to 
Paris for "nine aunes of mottled cloth" for his livery. We 
may imagine him, therefore, spending his last years still "ca- 
ressing" his dreams in the leisure and tranquillity of such a po- 
sition, although after 1313 he is not known to have written 
anything more for the public. One of his pamphlets was 
printed for the first time in 1655, but it was not until the 
middle of the nineteenth century that scholars became in- 
terested in him and began to search for his writings. Since 
then his biography has been constructed bit by bit, chiefly 
from what he reveals in his own works, and he has come into 
the appreciation and sympathy which he sorely missed during 
his life. 



121 




AMERICA OVERSEAS 



-A New Department 



GIVE AND TAKE 

BY THE TIME Americans in western Europe have 
been overwhelmed by the discovery that they are 
really very popular — more so at least than ever 
before — they are very apt, having, as even Kipling 
admits, a saving sense of humor, to bring themselves up with 
the cynical addition — and more popular than they ever will 
be again. 

Well, that depends precisely on whether we really have a 
sense of humor and proportion. There is no danger surely 
that we shall ever wish to dim the fame of the armies of the 
nations with which we are associated. There will be glory 
enough for all. It is not so certain that we may not fall 
into exaggeration and distortion when we come to the 
appraisal of our voluntary agencies for relief, education and 
public health. This danger, again, is not one of intention. 
It is rather inherent in the conditions under which funds are 
raised and workers recruited for these voluntary overseas 
activities. 

Huge sums must be raised, as compared with any previous 
educational or relief funds. The great ocean tonnage required 
for carrying supplies, the truckage and railway tonnage, the 
warehouses and manufacturing establishments, the agricultural 
machinery and household furniture, the sheer financial ex- 
penditure involved — all impress the imagination, and, unless 
they are careful, turn the heads of the orators and publicity 
bureaus charged with conveying these impressions to the home 
public. 

The workers actually in the field have plenty of correctives, 
and if the official spokesmen could rifle the mails and find out 
just what these field workers are saying in personal letters 
to their home folks, it would help them get the due sense of 
proportion into their "dope sheets" and appeals. These can- 
teen workers and searchers and delegates; recreation secre- 
taries, and especially assistant secretaries and helpers; doctors, 
nurses, and nurses' aids — whether in the military service of 
the American and allied armies or engaged in helping civilian 
victims of the war — have only too abundant reminders of 
how little they do as compared with what needs to be done; 
how little as compared with what the people do for them- 
selves, collectively and individually. 

In France, for example, where the American effort takes 
on the most gigantic forms, daily creating new precedents and 
calling forth the ready official French appreciation, it is 
quite literally true, as Americans perhaps too often say merely 
from politeness, that we have far more to learn than to teach ; 
that what we have to give is pitifully small in comparison with 
the needs created by the war — which is our war as much as it 
is theirs; that to feed the undernourished and stricken popula- 
tions we have less than the seven loaves and a few small 
fishes. We shall do well to realize what is often said, that 
we are not at all performing any great act of philanthropy, 
but that we are merely giving inadequate voluntary expres- 
sion to our alliance, as the armies are giving more adequate 

122 



official expression of it; that we are taking part in an inter- 
allied humanitarian effort which in some limited sense fore- 
casts the coming society of nations on its unofficial side; that 
we are in a sense creating international relationships, which 
must be founded on mutual respect and understanding, going 
on very often to lasting admiration and affection, but certainly 
excluding everything which smacks of national conceit or 
its more subtle — and more irritating — counterpart, a carefully 
concealed sense of superiority. 

No doubt the average American in France appreciates an 
open window at night more than the average Frenchman, 
especially the average villager in whose home the average 
American may be billeted ; but the easy inference that therefore 
the American sanitary standards are higher and American 
bodies stronger and, by another easy transition, American 
minds more progressive and American prejudices less silly, is 
perhaps overloading the premise. 

THE NEW MISSIONARIES 

WE are in France primarily because it is on the way to 
the front. But France is not merely a base of military 
operations, a convenience, a series of harbors and train- 
ing camps and replacement stations. We have gone there 
because we were called, but the voice we heard was not merely 
that of the official communiques of hard-pressed armies, 
or of state papers in which diplomats responded to our 
request for a statement of war aims. We shall stay there 
until there is victory and a guarantee of lasting peace, but 
when we come out we shall leave there more than the graves 
of our soldiers and the memory of our deeds. 

We are not less than allies, but more. What binds us is 
something more human and more personal than an alliance, 
more simple and elemental. We are not allies, but friends; 
bound to each other not by accidental, changing, passing 
interests, but by friendship, sympathy, and a consciousness of 
kind such as has never been known before between two 
nations of different language and different racial stock since 
international relations began. Henri Bergson is said to have 
expressed it on his latest return to France by saying that 
America feels towards France as France feels towards Joan 
of Arc. It is not understandings, but mutual understanding — 
a very different thing — that binds us in a lasting union. 

Far be it from economist or social worker to under-rate 
the importance of common material interests. A community 
of economic interest in fact exists. At the present moment we 
are almost as one people. Two per cent, 3 per cent, per- 
haps 5 per cent, of our immense population will actually be 
in France; their food, shelter and clothing, their transporta- 
tion, industrial life and military efficiency, their recreation, 
morals and health, all inextricably involved at every point 
with those of the French. An epidemic, a famine, high prices, 
low prices, prosperity, reverses — for all vicissitudes we are in 
the same boat. The flower of our manhood is there in 
glorious pledge, a hostage and at the same time a guarantee of 






THE S U RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 191 



123 



economic life and health. We have not merely identical 
interests, but one and indivisible solidarity. 

That identity, that solidarity of interests, will not disappear 
when the war ends. Aside from our common financial 
interests, aside from the importance of reestablishing national 
credit and monetary systems in all allied countries after the 
war, aside from the direct obligations of an international 
character which will remain after the war, the simple fact 
will be we shall have made such an investment in France, 
investment of life and limb, of good-will and affection, of 
religion and education, of all the best we have to share, all 
the best that is in us, that we shall not be satisfied if they 
do not bring forth forever. We shall take no mortgage 
and ask for no direct material return from the investment. 
The endowment need not be limited to a term of years, for it 
involves no control by a dead hand. Not a dead hand but a 
living spirit will keep alive the investment. 

France and America have need each of the other, as the 
ocean needs the land, as the morning needs the evening, and 
as science needs faith, each to supplement and complete the 
other, each in certain ways to interpenetrate the other, yielding 
treasures, exchanging wealth, standing in sturdy independence 
and self-respect, yet kindred, fused into a something larger, 
better, more beautiful than either — a democracy, a humanity, 
a religious fellowship, a social solidarity, a conservation of the 
past and a prophecy of the future, an alliance and a partner- 
ship, which shall be lasting because based on mutual needs and 
mutual understanding. 

The religious missionaries of several generations have been 
making investments in good-will supplementary to their 
evangelizing propaganda. Even when direct preaching has 
brought meager returns, the promotion of health, education 
and economic welfare has often brought quick recognition and 
response. This older widespread mingling of human interests 
from the religious motive is finding its natural place in the 
new approach of the peoples to one another. It is the natural 
preparation for the new common life. The missionaries really 
know the people with whom they have worked for all these 
years, and nothing is more essential in the new era than accu- 
rate knowledge and verified impressions. 

We need to know Belgium, Italy and the Balkans, as we 
need to know France. We need to know Russia, Armenia, 
Palestine and China, not merely from official appeals in behalf 
of particular agencies, but with a geographical and historical 
background. We need to listen to Italians, Belgians, and 
Greeks, to Russians and Chinese, as they tell in their own 
person of their national needs and aspirations. We should 
be ready to receive gratefully, as we are always ready to give 
generously. We at home must follow America overseas with 
critical sympathy, with whole-hearted support, with full and 
discriminating understanding. 

RECONSTRUCTION IN THE NEAR EAST 

THE October issue of the World Court is given over to a 
discussion of relief and reconstruction in the countries 
served by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian 
Relief, whose drive for $30,000,000 has been postponed until 
January, but which already in recent months has been obliged 
to extend its field of action. While no sympathetic listing of 
the pressing social and economic needs in which American phil- 
anthropy can and must take part is attempted, several of the 
contributors suggest the main lines along which the social 
forces directed from here can most add to the rehabilitation of 
those unfortunate countries when the pressing requirements 
for relief pure and simple have been met. 



WHEN EVELYN T. WALKER, formerly with the As- 
sociation for Improving the Condition of the Poor of 
New York city, now a Red Cross nurse in France, was about 
to leave Soulac-sur-Mer after having been there in an official 
capacity for nine days, the children (the Red Cross is taking 
care of 105 of them there, almost all orphaned by the war) 
lined up in ranks, and the oldest boy read the following 
speech : 

"Mademoiselle — 

"We have just heard that you are going to leave us. It is 
with eyes full of tears and broken hearts that we see you go. 
You have given us so much pleasure during your stay amongst 
us and we will never forget you. 

"We pray you to be our interpreter to the American Red 
Cross, to thank them for all they have done for us, poor or- 
phans of the war. 

"In closing we assure you that we shall never forget the 
valor of our fathers and of our Allies, the Americans. 

"Vive l'Amerique ! Vive la France!" 



William H. Hall, of the Syrian Protestant College at Bei- 
rut, gives his reasons for believing that a great part of the 
area now included in the Turkish empire can be made agricul- 
turally one of the most fruitful regions of the earth. What is 
needed to bring out this potential wealth is the application of 
scientific — or at least moderately modern — methods of culti- 
vation and of stock improvement. As a first step, this in- 
volves the establishment of a government that ensures safety to 
property and person. 

Given a proper government there is needed above all instruction 
of the people in better methods of doing their work, demonstration 
farms, technical schools, village instruction by convincing experiment 
and illustrated lecture. These things may be done either by the 
government or by private philanthropy, and when accompanied by 
fair taxation and sympathetic encouragement they will meet a ready 
response on the part of the people. 

In other words, the chief task for a long time to come is 
not so very different from that pursued under somewhat dif- 
ferent circumstances, but with essentially the same aims and 
by the same means in our own South. There is, however, the 
additional difficulty that the people of Asia Minor, naturally 
inclined to a roving pastoral life rather than the strengthening 
of home ties, have been uprooted still further by the war and 
the appalling cruelties committed by the Turks on the depend- 
ent races. How to bring back these scattered people and es- 
tablish them in communities and keep them there by the en- 
couragement of civic patriotism, is a formidable problem. Mr. 
Hall suggests that the people left behind are the best adapted 
to the work of reconstruction and that work especially with 
the women and children — in addition, of course, to the re- 
building and restocking of farms — will pay most rapidly at 
first for effort spent. 

Samuel T. Dutton, chairman of the Executive Committee 
for Armenian and Syrian Relief, suggests, more in detail, 
possible plans for rehabilitation through education. The re- 
opening of the American colleges when stable government has 
been established and taking up the former educational activ- 
ities in the different Christian communities will, he says, "be 
an inadequate and feeble treatment of a great and pressing 
problem." There is, first of all, the tremendous problem of 
how to provide for the war orphans whose number cannot 
at present be fully estimated but must far exceed that of other 
belligerent countries. But, apart from this, there is not even 
the beginning of a democratic system of elementary education 
upon which any extension of American influences could build. 

Church and state must be separated and elementary educa- 
tion become a function of government. "The new system 
should be built from the bottom upwards." Unless the- 



124 



THE S U RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 1 1 



people are able to do or at least start that building for them- 
selves, support their schools from taxes justly levied and keep 
them in touch with real needs, one judges from what he says, 
it would be difficult for American missionary effort to func- 
tion. Assuming an elementary school system thus provided 
for, however, opportunities for American agencies in voca- 
tional training, especially agricultural, in health instruction, 
in secondary education generally and in the training of teachers 
will be very great indeed. 

SPREADING THE AMERICAN SCHOOL AND 
RECREATION CENTER 

CM. GOETHE of Sacramento, Calif., whose series of 
• articles on Exporting the American Playground have 
been a feature of the Survey for the last two years, is endeav- 
oring to prepare public opinion to push American recreational 
and educational ideas overseas in the period of reconstruction 
following the war. He has sent out a circular on the spread 
of the American playground centers as "caste-breakers" in 
Calcutta. Mr. Goethe writes: 

Ballighata playground represents an idea: an experiment in ex- 
porting the American playground. Its founders have a vision that, 
with the growth of this idea, there will be eventually a similar cen- 
ter, radiating American democracy, at the capital of every nation 
throughout the world. Such centers should command the very best 
American brains. It will pay America to lend her best. 

The counter influence of such centers upon American ideals will 
be powerful. We will not only export, we will import recreational 
ideas. Already California is testing out, in a practical way, the 
possibilities of importing. One of the best things evolved in Nordic 
European recreational experience is the nature-study-field excursion. 
This test of an importation and use of a recreational idea is being 
made by the California Nature Study League. While the experiment 
is less than two years old, it is showing unexpectedly favorable 
results. 

In a letter to editors and liberals throughout the country 
Mr. Goethe writes: 

Do you remember how a few idealists first talked of a league of 
nations; how it caught the imagination of Americans; how our edi- 
tors continued discussing it in short but persistently repeated edi- 




THE NEW RED CROSS ZONES IN FRANCE 



torials; how most Europeans ridiculed it? Today the league, no 
longer a mere vision, is fighting effectively, destroying Hohenzol- 
lernism. 

Out of its fights are emerging new democracies. President Wilson 
has pledged a free Poland. Congress, in recognizing the Czecho- 
slovaks provided for a resurrected Bohemia. General Allenby's 
victories mean a Zionist Palestine. Serbia should be the nucleus of 
Jugoslavia. A misguided Finland completes an almost unbroken 
chain of infant nations from the olive groves of Gethsemane, where 
suffered the Greatest Democrat of all, to the icebound regions, where 
the Lapps of northernmost Finland gaze at the midnight sun. Behind 
these, stretches mighty Russia. 

These peoples of these lands are emerging from a typical east 
European environment. Anyone who, before the war, had discussed 
American diplomacy with middle-European statesmen, knows how 
they failed to comprehend American democracy as expressed in our 
diplomacy. They said we had not annexed Mexico because we were 
decadent. We abandoned Cuba because too weak to hold it. As 
for our return to China of that part of the Boxer indemnity we con- 
sidered unjust, that was only to be explained by the word "insanity." 
Is there not danger that such concepts may dominate in these new 
nations? Will they know our ideals only from what filters through 
Germanic borders? Do they not need to have, directly from America, 
a pure conception of American democracy? 

There is a practical way to give them our ideals. The short ac- 
count of the successful experiment in British India is given in the 
attached slip. Ought it not be also attempted simultaneously with 
peace for the new democracies born of the war? 

If your reaction be favorable, will you not, with 3'our ability to 
mould public opinion, discuss its possibilities, criticize them per- 
sistently until America grasps them as it has grasped and made into 
an actuality the concept of a league of nations? America must 
glimpse the value of such centers at Warsaw, Belgrade, Prague, Mos- 
cow, Jerusalem before a move is made toward a definite organization 
to provide them. 

THE RED CROSS REORGANIZATION IN 
FRANCE 

A SUPPLEMENT to the bulletin of the American Red 
Cross in France gives the details of the organization of 
the work which went into effect in Paris in late August. 
Although these are described merely as certain changes in the 
organization and the impression that it amounts to a complete 
reorganization has been deprecated, it appears nevertheless that 
the changes are very considerable. They are of two kinds, 
geographical and functional. 

Geographically the administration has been decentralized 
by the creation of nine zones, which vary greatly in size ; one, 
which has headquarters at Brest, includes four French civil 
departments, while that of which Bordeaux is the Tieadquarters 
includes sixteen. Each of these nine zones is in charge of a 
zone manager and it is understood that in each zone the 
manager is in complete charge of all Red Cross activities 
within the zone. The zone manager is provided with a staff 
similar to the operating staff of the commissioner for France 
at headquarters in Paris. Thus each of the departments in 
the headquarters of the commissioner is, or may be, represented 
by a member of the staff in local headquarters of the zone 
managers. These local representatives of the various services, 
like all others engaged in Red Cross activities within the zone, 
will be responsible to the zone manager. 

The well-known departments of military affairs and civil 
affairs are abolished both at headquarters and in the zones. 
Instead of the former there is to be a Department of Army 
and Navy Service which, however, will not be responsible 
for hospital administration ; and instead of the latter there is 
to be a department of general relief, which includes practically 
only the work formerly done by the Bureau of Refugees and 
Relief. The Children's Bureau and the Bureau of Tubercu- 
losis, which had been attached to the Department of Civil 
Affairs, and the Bureau of Hospital Administration, formerly 
in the Department of Military Affairs, have been transferred 
together with the Bureau of Mutiles and the Nurses' Bureau, 



THE S U R V EY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 1 9 1 8 



125 



to what is to be known as the Medical and- Surgical Depart- 
ment. With the changes that have been made, the general 
organization includes the following: 

1. Department of Requirements, including supplies, transportation, 
personnel, construction, permits and passes, and manufacture. 

2. Medical and Surgical Department, including Children's Bureau, 
Bureau of Reconstruction and Re-education, and Nurses. 

3. Department of Medical Research and Intelligence. 

4. Department of Army and Navy Service, including canteens, 
home service, output service and army field service. 

5. Department of French Hospitals. 

6. Department of General Relief, including refugees, soldiers' fam- 
ilies, war orphans and agriculture. 

Dr. Fred T. Murphy, of St. Louis, is appointed director 
of the Medical and Surgical Department, and Homer Folks, 
who has been director of the Department of Civil Relief, 
director of the Department of General Relief. Dr. Alexander 
Lambert becomes head of the Department of Medical 
Research. 

It is obvious that, however reluctant the authorities may 
be to admit it, or however little they may have intended it, 
the American Red Cross policy in Europe is being radically 
changed. Work for civilians is being relatively curtailed and 
work for the army is given right of way. 

It is reported also that the plan of assimilated military rank 
has not worked satisfactorily and is likely to be radically 
changed either by giving regular army commissions, probably 
of lower rank, to the Red Cross or possibly by changing their 
status to that of civilians. 

IN FRANKLIN'S FOOTSTEPS 

WE MUST GO BACK to the days of Benjamin Frank- 
lin for a figure comparable to that of Samuel Gompers 
on his wartime mission to England and France. It was one of 
Poor Richard's sayings that if one "would have a thing well 
done, go; if not, send." 

Last winter and spring Mr. Gompers sent, and the informa- 
tion brought back by the American labor mission which 
visited England at the expense of the British government, was 
of a distorted sort, both in fact and in prophecy. Their chair- 
man described Henderson and his group as defeatists and 
political parasites and what not. The committee's report 
presented at St. Paul indicated that back of the ostensible issue 
of the inter-belligerent conference, the real crux of the diffi- 
culty lay in the fact that the British Labour Party is socialistic 
as well as trade union. The efforts of the American labor 
mission to wean it from its heresies failed ; and a group of 
pro-war Socialists posted off, even without passports, to try 
their hand but with very similar results and very similar 
prophecies. 

Then Mr. Gompers himself went. 

If, as it was freely circulated in the press, his mission was 
to bring back Henderson's head on a platter, to help set up a 
trade union rival to the British Labour Party, to split off 
the great Trade Union Congress from the Labour Party in 
their joint war-aims program, and to set up a purely trade 
union inter-allied body to take the place of the Inter-Allied 
Socialist and Labour Conference through which the British 
labor leaders had achieved unity among all the great labor 
and socialist bodies back of the western front — if these things 
were the purposes of the trip, it was a complete failure. Mr. 
Gompers brought home two old silver plates, the gift of 
British labor, but Henderson's head was on neither. The 
separatist movement for a trade union party fizzled ; the effort 
to have British labor recant on free trade failed; and the inter- 
allied conference which Mr. Gompers attended in London was 
the same conference, recalled, which had been held in Feb- 




COMRADES IN THE BATTLE FOR RUSSIAN FREEDOM 

A group of American Red Cross Commissioners with members of 
the Kerensky government's Commission on Civic Education, taken 

in Petrograd in September, 1917: 
From left to right, sitting: Col. William Boyce Thompson, Mr. 
Lacaroff for years the principal medium between the revolutionary 
party and political exiles; Mine. Catherine Breshkovsky, 
now reported dead ; standing : Nicholas Basil Tchaikovsky, lately 
head of the Government of the North which, according to the 
most recent dispatches, has fallen, and often referred to as the 
"grandfather" of the revolution; Maj. Frederick M. Corse, Victor 
Soskice. a son of Dr. David Soskicc, for many years 
editor of Free Russia in London and Kercnsky's secretary up to 
the time of his fall; Col. Raymond Robins, Gen. K. L. Neslouk- 
hovsky, the first military chief to place his regiments at the disposal 
of the Duma 



ruary, which had been engineered by the British Labour Party 
and the British Trade Union Congress acting together, and 
which included labor and Socialist bodies. 

But in a larger and we hope finer sense, Mr. Gompers' 
trip was a success. He was accompanied, among others, by 
John P. Frey, one of the sanest and most responsible labor 
leaders in America ; true, a convinced opponent to socialism 
and to political action, but used to dealing with organized 
realities. And the British labor movement is an organized 
reality. Mr. Gompers and Mr. Frey were big enough to deal 
with it as it is and not as it had been painted. At the inter- 
allied meeting, New World labor joined with Old in reaffirm- 
ing opposition in the fieldi to Prussian militarism. Old 
World labor joined with new in reaffirming belief in President 
Wilson's fourteen points. Old World labor subscribed to the 
industrial charter offered by the American Federation of 
Labor. Old and new united in reaffirming American labor's 
proposals as to labor representation at the time of settle- 
ment. When it came to the issue of the inter-belligerent 
conference, the two parted and went their ways, Mr. 
Gompers' motion not to deal with enemy labor being over- 
whelmingly voted down. 

That question, after all, is one of tactics — tactics which may 
be rendered out of date if the present governmental exchanges 
result in early peace; but tactics whose influence in provoking 
democratic risings among the German and Austrian and 
Bulgarian workers only the future historian will be able ade- 
quately to appraise. 

So Mr. Gompers split with British labor on the subject of 
tactics, but joined with it on the broad program for an unim- 
perialistic peace which was common to both and to the Ameri- 
can President. 

MR. GOMPERS IN FRANCE 
it T WAS in Paris yesterday," writes an American corres- 

-Lpondent to the Survey, "and happened on a lunch with 
a couple of French C. G. T.'s" (C. G. T. are the initials of 
the Confederation General du Travail, the great trade union 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2, 1918 



I 



body of France which has participated, along with the French 
Socialists of both groups in the inter-allied labor and Socialist 
conference in London.) This correspondent goes on: 

Gompers has made an unexpectedly good impression on the 
C. G. T. They feel that he has progressed and that a bridge has been 
thrown across the chasm, and that they also can learn from him. 
Gompers has invited Jouhaux to go to America, and the latter is 
very anxious to go. It is regarded as a real opportunity to bring a 
ery real Wilsonian in contact with the source of Wilsonism. 

The French working class was greatly impressed by Wilson's last 
speech. The French bourgeois press printed the significant passages 
(to the effect that no government or group of governments could 
make the peace) in small type or not at all — emphasizing the bel- 
licose parts. L'Information Ouvrier Et Social prints much on 
Gompers this week, including his speech which the other papers 
didn't print in toto. 

If you get a chance do urge Jouhaux's coming in the Survey. It 
does not seem possible that his passport would be refused, given 
his strong attitude on national defense since the beginning. He has 
kept the whole C. G. T. together in spite of many divisive currents 
— had a new victory in August, in spite of difficulty; whereas the 
Socialists are torn asunder and in a parlous state. 

The coming of Jouhaux is surely to be desired in building 
up new understanding and fellowship between French and 
Americans. As a trade unionist he should be acceptable to 
the American Federation of Labor where a Socialist repre- 
sentative might not be. The only thing which will mar the 
stirring reception to be given to Mr. Gompers in Chicago on 
his return from abroad will be the fact that his coming and 
going as the responsible representative of American labor has 
not been matched by a corresponding interplay of responsible 
Allied labor leadership — either of the political or industrial 
arms of the movement. For nine months now the coming 
of representatives of the British Labour Party and the British 
Trade Union Congress has been blocked. It may give the 
rank and file of the American labor movement a curious sen- 
sation that unspecified interests have been able to keep them 
immune from the virus of British working class democracy. 

Not the least graphic and appreciative of the French com- 
ment on Mr. Gompers in Paris is that of L'Opinion, which 
carried this sketch in its issue of September 28 : 

A stocky little man of whom one forgets the height in seeing only 
the strong and whimsical face, the big nose, big lips, a complexion 
colored like a sun brick, a scalp almost bare with some few tufts of 
gray hair mixed with black threads. All at once this countenance 
appears illuminated, animated as it is incessantly by his astonishing 
bright eyes in which sparkling gold and green appear. These chang- 
ing eyes which brighten and darken turn themselves directly to you 
in inquiry and conquest. The first impression is one of mobility, of 
force and almost as much of charm. It is one of the faces whose 
modeling and expression tempt a painter. . . . 

Samuel Gompers is not merely an orator with a magic voice. 
From the first meeting, his personality strikes you and impresses 
itself on you. Still less can we define it in a formula such as an 
American proposed to me: "He reminds me absolutely of a Scotch 
Calvinist preacher." 

We see him seated in an armchair with a big cigar in his hand 
patiently lending an ear to the questions of an interviewer. From 
politeness he has put a French rose which someone has offered him 
in his buttonhole. He listens — this orator is a singularly good lis- 
tener — he makes you repeat, put your question more precisely. He 
is no hurry to reply; prudence is his first virtue. 

However sure his thought may be, he seeks a form that will express 
it better. He foresees and obviates any interpretation which will 
misrepresent it. He proceeds step by step. With a definite char- 
acter, with an emphasis of the voice he impresses the idea, the fact 
to which he wishes to draw attention. His hand is nervous, under- 
scored by a sober gesture. For him there is no question of leaving 
to the many chances which a lack of precision has in store for those 
who leave to developments the trouble of working out their precise 
thought. This prudence is a sort of honesty, a feeling of responsi- 
bility. If he measures his words it is because he knows that every 
word is an act. 

Samuel Gompers has both the inclination and the gift for action 
and, what is not always reconcilable, he is a strong man: "I am 
proud to live in an epoch in which action is everything, in which 
there is not a thought, a passing impulse but which can and must 
be translated by an act." And he adds: "I am proud to live in an 



epoch in which if the young men of 20 have the maturity of those 
of 30, those of 60 have the energy of those of 40." 

Energy and vitality which abound in the man create his convic- 
tions. The conception which Gompers has of democracy is that of 
an extremely mobile society, in which liberty has the first place, in 
which liberty permits every personality to come to birth, to be 
formed, to assert itself frankly in complete freedom of movements: 
"We wish to be masters of our destinies and that everyone in the 
universe shall have the possibility of living his whole life. We wish 
to have the right to make mistakes, to commit errors, provided that 
the opportunity is given us to express ourselves. This is the priv- 
ilege of democracy." 

A strong personality, he feels no distrust for other individualities; 
on the contrary, he thinks that the desires of the masses cannot ex- 
press themselves through persons whose action is embarrassed by 
shibboleths and traditions of party, and that their interests will be bet- 
ter defended than they are by energetic and independent men capable 
of listening to reason, but of holding their own against caprice. He 
believes that the great force operating in the world is that of bodies 
of free men animated by the same spirit, closely linked together by 
mutual esteem and sympathetic reciprocity. In accordance with cer- 
tain essential principles of action, they are always ready to renew 
their agreement by amicable discussions and to recast every day, if 
necessary, their action. . . . 

THE MAN THE BOYS CALL "ROSY" 

ESPECIALLY commissioned by the secretary of war for 
unique personal service among soldiers at the front, 
Julius Rosenwald, of Chicago, has had unusual opportunities 
to elicit the reactions from the men to the after-war issues 
which he presented to them individually and to smaller and 
larger groups. Survey readers are privileged to share with 
his family excerpts from letters written to the home circle, 
which are all the more interesting because so conversational 
and personal in giving little glimpses of incidents and impres- 
sions to the family group. 

Better, however, than anything he could have written as in- 
troductory to these insights is the impression which a young 
officer casually caught of Mr. Rosenwald in the very act of 
fulfilling his mission with a group of soldiers. It comes to us 
through the officer's father, to whom it was sent when Mr. 
Rosenwald was discovered by the son to be his father's friend : 

After luncheon I dropped into the Y. M. where there was a lec- 
ture going on and the place was packed. The enthusiastic cheering, 
whistling and clapping aroused my curiosity, and I knew it must 
be something worth while to stir the fellows up so. I wedged in 
at the back of the hall. The speaker was a short, heavy man of 
middle age, and he was in officer's uniform. He had iron gray hair, 
a ruddy face; a little flushed because of the effort to make himself 
heard over the whole assembly, and perhaps due also in part to 
the enthusiasm with which his remarks were received by the boys. 

As I listened I was soon deeply impressed by what he was say- 
ing. He was an artist in touching just the right chord in the fel- 
lows, and he talked in such a personal way and so whole-heartedly 
mixing in a few good stories now and then, that he took the boys 
by storm. I turned to a mechanic next to me and said, "Who is he?" 

"Damn fine; the fellows call him 'Rosy.' He is a big bug from 
Chicago on the National Defense. He is certainly damn good." 

I stayed through to the end and joined in the three big cheers 
that were given him. It is the first time a speaker has been cheered 
in this camp since I've been here. 

A long line formed to shake hands with him. I wouldn't resist 
the temptation to fall in line with the rest, and as I stepped up, he 
gave me a big hug and turning to the assembled group he said, "I 
know this boy's dad and mother, his sister and his kid brother. 
I tell you there is no finer stuff in this world than this right here 
under my arm." I was a trifle embarrassed, but not so much so 
because they all knew he was a trifle optimistic after the big demon- 
stration he had just received. We had a pleasant chat and I soon 
found him to be Mr. Rosenwald that father knows and told us so 
much about. I was keen to take him for an airplane ride, he was such 
a good sport. I went to see the officer in charge of training to get 
permission, but when he learned he was a civilian, he said that 
Pershing had issued orders forbidding it. 

Here are the excerpts from Mr .Rosenwald's letters taken 
at random and just as they came along in the few family 
letters : 

I saw my first sign of war aside from men in uniform. As soon 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 191 



127 



as we got outside of Paris there were transports or big auto trucks 
by the score loaded with men and materials. I think I saw a thou- 
sand in three days. Then every few moments we would pass a camp, 
French or American. Aeroplane hangars, ammunition places or 
stores, big guns and all along were German prisoners working on 
the roads and in the fields. Every town we passed through had 
numbers of American soldiers. They were also all along the road 
putting up telegraph lines, repairing roads, doing the hardest kind 
of work or sitting around doing nothing — all appeared happy. 

I spent this evening at the Y. M. C. A. for enlisted men. They 
have one for officers also. They had a good band concert, about 
fifty pieces, and later a song leader got the men to sing. Afterward 
the band was invited into a little room and had refreshments, to 
which I was invited, and made them a little talk, shaking hands with 
some of the men. The Jewish boys seem to mix splendidly, which 
I was delighted to find them doing. They say they receive every 
consideration from the Y. M. C. A. A room is provided for Friday 
evening services and a sign was up that such services would be held 
every Friday. 

I rode in a tank. It was quite an experience. They took me over 
some rough places and ditches. They are marvelous contrivances. 
They run through the thickest kind of brush and over fair-sized 
trees, knocking them down and climbing over the trunks and branches. 
Thousands of carrier pigeons are raised. They let some of them 
out to show us how they came back. They are the fastest and most 
reliable messengers. They are carried to the front in baskets. They 
will find their way hundreds of miles. 

We began to get into war-ridden zones, where the sides of the 
road were marked by temporary defense spots. There were shell 
holes in the ground. In a good-sized town every house was shattered 
and most of the buildings completely ruined. We saw two or three 
families who had come back to live in the midst of these broken 
stones, brick and mortar. A wagon was in the road with three 
American girls who were giving canned food and bread to these 
families. 

I spoke in the court of the staff quarters to about 1,500 men at 
noon. In the evening I had two enormous audiences jput in the open, 
one of 5,000 and later one of 7,000. At both I had attentive and en- 
thusiastic listeners. My efforts are well received and I feel repaid 
for making them, especially when I get a large group at once. A 
young fellow called to me while I was speaking in a hospital, "Say, 
mister, would you advise us to learn French when we will be in 
Germany so soon?" Another at the same place, when I told him I 
had letters from various governors and senators which I would read 
if they wanted them, said, "Start the barrage." They have wonder- 
ful spirits. Rarely does a complaint come from a boy in a hospital. 
I was at one of the largest flying schools. I spoke there twice in 
the Y. M. huts. There are Red Cross women here who run the can- 
teens, one for officers and one for privates. They work like Trojans, 
wait on the men at three meals a day, cook and keep the dining 
room clean. When I returned from my last talk at 9:30 P. M. they 
were still cleaning up. 

Yesterday was a great day. I spoke at two hospitals, both in the 
course of construction and each designed for about 50,000 men. When 
you realize what a job it is to run a 200-bed hospital at a place where 
everything is available, this is a great achievement here where every- 
thing has to be transported miles and miles. I spoke twice at each 
place. They were very grateful audiences. 

Such a day as I have had. I stood in the rain and spoke to the 
men at a large motor repair place, where several thousand men are 
employed. You should have seen that place. It is a marvelous de- 
velopment, all since May 1, with enormous steel and glass buildings 
full of machinery and stock. What our people have accomplished in- 
dustrially beats anything which one could have dreamed of. 

I had two large outdoor crowds last evening. There were about 
4,000 at both places. I spoke in the streets of the two towns, with 
the French looking from every window and doorway, just as though 
they could understand. The kids were playing around my improvised 
stand, which was made of cartridge cases in one place and three 
empty boxes in the other. The treatment I received everywhere is 
royal. I couldn't have believed it. Wherever I speak, the officers are 
pleased and enthusiastic and say it does the men great good. 

I generally spend the last fifteen minutes to tell them what they 
must make of America when they return — a real nation, all belonging 
to one another. They are demonstrating in the army that men from all 
places have their faults and their virtues, but are all made of good 
stuff. It is the same way with nationalities. There should be no more 
prejudices against people from any country if they become Americans. 
I speak of civic matters and politics. I often show them what a dis- 
grace it is to our country to treat the Negro as we do and not give 
him a square deal such as they like to have. I also tell them we 
must honor the men we elect to office and not suspect them of im- 
proper motives if they are trying to serve the state or nation. 

Mr. Rosenwald is also reported to have cheered the men 
much by dwelling upon the great industrial developments in 



America which will follow the war and the opportunities that 
will be open when they return to share in them. This per- 
sonal mission of the very human Chicago merchant is unique 
in having been conferred upon him alone and directly by the 
secretary of war, as well as in its purpose to hearten and in- 
spire the men while at the front and when they return to the 
citizenship of the homeland. 

THE CASE OF THE CHAPLAINS 

THE Federal Council of Churches has issued in its bulletin 
the report of the Rev. Charles S. Macfarland as the com- 
missioner sent to France on behalf of the council. Dr. Mac- 
farland seems to have been cordially received and to have 
had unusual opportunities of meeting important personages, 
including Marshal Foch, General Pershing, Premier Clemen- 
ceau, and the King of Belgium. His mission was especially to 
French Protestants, but he saw the armies at the front, the 
Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., the American Red Cross, the 
Salvation Army, the French Boy Scouts, and pretty much 
everything else worth seeing. 

Dr. Macfarland finds that there is a religious spirit in the 
French army. He thinks that his invitation from the French 
war office to visit the army as its guest was "a genuine acknowl- 
edgment of the place of religion in a war for ideals and that 
neither the French army nor the French people nor indeed 
the French government were without the sense and spirit of 
religion." 

Of the Belgian army he says that "still less even, than the 
French army, have they had the support of those great institu- 
tions for moral and spiritual support which have followed our 
boys from their first day in camp. But they have not been 
left alone. Cardinal Mercier's spirit has been abroad in their 
midst." King Albert himself, Dr. Macfarland finds to be "a 
man of religious spirit and faith." His adjutant, his military 
adviser and right hand man who lives under the same roof, 
happens to be a Protestant and "a very earnest student of 
scriptures." There are only a few thousand Protestant 
soldiers in the Belgian army. There are some Protestant 
chaplains, but the Y. M. C. A. has not yet found its way into 
the Belgian army. There is danger that in the new relation- 
ships of friendship between the two greater nations, France 
and America, little Belgium and the days of 1914 may be 
forgotten. A Belgian national leader is quoted as saying: 
"We want in the days to come to reveal and express clearly 
to ourselves those ideals which have maintained us in war, 
and we must do it in the form of religion. We hope that 
America may help us in this as in other ways." 

The inadequate number of chaplains in the United States 
army, their inadequate equipment and their lack of transpor- 
tation facilities, are emphasized by Dr. Macfarland. He 
reports a unanimous and positive demand among interested 
generals and chaplains for a distinct chaplains' corps with 
rank and pay on an equality with the medical corps. There is 
some difference of opinion as to whether the simple use of the 
cross or an additional insignia of rank is preferable. 

The chief difficulties, according to Dr. Macfarland, are 
encountered at ports of embarkation and in certain of the 
camps near the larger cities and towns. In many of these 
places "the situation is deplorable." If public opinion in 
regard to these deplorable conditions can in any way contribute 
to their improvement it might be desirable for one who has 
had Dr. Macfarland's exceptional opportunities for observa- 
tion to be more explicit. He thinks that chaplains and 
Y. M. C. A. are doing their part wisely and well in association 



128 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 1 1 






with the military authorities, but that it seems clear, "as we 
have realized in this country, that remedial and effective action 
must be secured through earnest cooperation between the 
military and civil authorities." 

The commissioner has only praise for the Y. M. C. A., the 
American Red Cross, and the Salvation Army. Of the latter 
he heard hearty and glowing expressions of appreciation from 
both officers and soldiers of their unselfishness, bravery, and 
modest quiet efficiency, especially at critical moments under 
fire. 

A remarkable address from Bishop Brent, senior chaplain, 
G. H. Q., to the War Time Commission of the Churches, 
ends with these words: 

We beg of you to think only of one thing — the choicest manhood 
of our nation is in France or headed towards France, under the 
domination of the spirit of self-sacrifice. The strongest and best 
men in the ministry are not too good to serve them. It would be a 
crime to send weaklings or incompetents to so sublime and so diffi- 
cult a task. Give us your best and give them promptly. 

TRANSPORTING SCHOOLS TO EUROPE 

IF only a small part of the plans of the Army Educational 
Commission for transporting a large slice of America's pub- 
lic school system to western Europe, to teach American soldiers 
what they would have learned if they had not gone abroad, 
and much more beside, is ultimately carried out, the achieve- 
ment will be of unimaginable value. These plans actually 
stagger the mind. From the North Sea to the Swiss border, 
in England, in Italy — wherever American soldiers are or may 
be — this school system is to be erected. The chairman of the 
commission, John Erskine, professor of English at Columbia 
University, has just returned from France, where he was 
able to tell accurately on how large a scale the plans can be 
carried out. He wants 2,000 teachers and administrators — 
wants them immediately. 

He is arranging for the purchase of eight million dollars' 
worth of text-books, in special editions, to be sold to soldiers 
at cost. The government will give a priority on white paper 
to the commission, so that these books may be rushed through 
the press. He is arranging for correspondence courses as a 
supplement to the class-room work. The size of these ad- 
ministrative tasks gives some indication of the size of the 
educational plans themselves. 

The bulk of the new education will be carried on in 
France. To show the parallel that will be carried out between 
the school system to be erected there and the one at home, 
France is being divided into eight administrative regions, 
which the commission is thinking of as states. Each region 
is to be divided into smaller districts, which are being thought 
of as counties. State and county superintendents are wanted 
from this country to administer the work in France; indeed, 
the whole 2,000 men being sought by Professor Erskine will 
be used chiefly in administrative jobs. Teachers will come 
from the college graduates in the army, and some, doubtless, 
from the high schools in this country. 

The V. M. C. A. in this country and the American Library 
Association are jointly supplying the money for this enter- 
prise. Of the estimated budget of $15,000,000, the Y. M. 
C. A. is to furnish $12,000,000, the American Library As- 
sociation the remainder. Classes will for the most part be 
located in Y. M. C. A. huts, though other buildings will be 
used where necessary. 

If it be objected that the American soldier abroad is over- 
worked and ought to be allowed to spend his few leisure hours 
reading entertaining stories and doing what he wants, the an- 



swer comes from the soldier himself. Life for the soldier is 
not a constant succession of dashes over the top. Possibly 
four and certainly three out of every five of our men have not 
fought and will not fight. They are permanently engaged in 
vital service back of the lines, in construction work, in trans- 
portation, in that whole array of tasks known as the "service 
of supplies" — tasks necessary to keep the minority of actual 
fighters ready and eager for battle. A story is told of a 
regiment at Brest which hung out a service flag in honor of 
one of its members who was sent 200 miles nearer the front 
than the regiment had yet been. 

These men have time on their hands. They think. They 
become bored and some of them worry over what they will 
do when they return home. More than that, they will have 
still more time on their hands when an armistice comes and 
when demobilization begins. Then the motive of prepara- 
tion for war will have gone out of their lives. It is probable 
that many, if not most of our soldiers will be in France a year, 
a year and a half, possibly two years after the rest of us re- 
gard the war as closed. 

That light novels do not fully meet the soldiers' needs even 
now is shown by their own acts. Both the Y. M. C. A. 
and the American Library Association conduct a library serv- 
ice throughout France, and the former conducts a book order 
and sales branch beside. During July and August the library 
association distributed 198,000 volumes, of which 163,000 
were text books wanted by soldiers. The Y. M. C. A. dis- 
tributed in the same period nearly 3,000,000 books and periodi- 
cals; requests for fiction, whether from officer or soldier, were 
few in comparison with requests for more serious volumes. 
Specific requests were received in a single week for books on 
drug gardening, complete bookkeeping, plane and solid geome- 
try, shorthand, bridge building, plane and spherical trigonome- 
try, architectural gardening, forestry and algebra. "If we'd 
start a class in Sanscrit," says Professor Erskine, "I believe 
the fellows would come and learn it." 

These are some of the reasons why the Army Educational 
Commission is planning to erect a school system in France. 
Another reason is that the government itself wants to make 
it possible for American soldiers to come back to this country 
better off instead of worse off educationally than if they had 
not gone. The work is being planned in two parts. One 
comprises that which can be carried on during the war, the 
other that which can be carried on after the war. Military 
purposes will, of course, dominate the former; it cannot reach 
the men at the very front. The four-fifths or three-fifths 
back of the lines will, however, be within the scope of its bene- 
fits. Army authorities themselves are said to see no reason 
why these men can not give six or eight hours a day, if they 
desire, to the pursuit of their education. 

Two hundred thousand soldiers are already studying French. 
Thirty thousand are studying English. Among the other sub- 
jects that will be taught in the new curriculum are history, 
geography, civics, mathematics, business and commerce, and 
banking and economics. Emphasis will perhaps be laid at 
first on teaching the causes, purposes and progress of the war, 
the history and ideals of the leading nations involved and 
such other subjects as may be regarded as likely to make the 
soldier fight with earnestness based on conviction. 

It is for the period when fighting shall have ceased, how- 
ever, that the most thorough plans are being laid. In addi- 
tion to the academic courses, which will be strengthened and 
extended, intensive industrial and vocational instruction will 
be offered. It is the belief of the commission that hundreds of 
thousands of young men were enlisted or drafted before they 






THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2, 191 



129 



had learned trades! For these men the future presents serious 
problems. If the plans of the commission are fully carried out 
no soldier, it is hoped, will return to America without having 
been offered the opportunity to learn a trade. It is estimated 
that 30 or 40 per cent of American soldiers in Europe will be 
glad to accept this instruction. The facilities for giving it 
will be literally abundant. Modern war creates its own in- 
dustrial workshops on a huge scale. Western Europe is filled 
with repair shops, construction camps and plants for building 
all manner of machinery which, when war ceases, will be 
relieved of pressing demands. These can be made to afford, 
it is believed, unparalleled facilities for vocational instruction. 

But that is not all. In France and Belgium the last sounds 
of the cannon will be quickly followed by those of the hammer 
and the anvil. When fighting has actually ceased, American, 
English and French engineers will take the lead in reconstruct- 
ing these countries, in rebuilding bridges, railways, churches, 
whole cities, so that during much of the period of demobiliza- 
tion western Europe is likely to become a huge laboratory for 
vocational instruction. The task of making this count in 
the education of American soldiers is one that the commission 
has set itself to solve. 

Attendance by soldiers upon all these classes will be volun- 
tary, except possibly for compulsory instruction in English for 
illiterates (the first draft caught many of these) and for sol- 
diers of foreign birth who cannot speak English. 

The Army Educational Commission consists of four promi- 
nent educators. Professor Erskine is chairman ; Frank E. 
Spaulding, superintendent of schools of Cleveland and the 
highest paid superintendent in the country, is the member in 
charge of the field staff and of the organization of general 
education below college grade; Kenyon L. Butterfield, presi- 
dent of Massachusetts Agricultural College, is the member in 
charge of vocational, commercial, trade and general technical 
education ; and Algernon Coleman, professor of romance 
languages in the University of Chicago, is executive secre- 
tary. Professor George D. Strayer, president of the National 
Education Association and professor of educational adminis- 
tration at Teachers' College, Columbia University, is the home 
director of the commission. The offices of the commission are 
in the Y. M. C. A. building at 347 Madison avenue, New 
York city. General Pershing appointed the commission after 
the names had been approved by an informal group of educa- 
tors and the Y. M. C. A. 

THE CONFIDENTIAL EXCHANGE IN PARIS 

THE social service exchange has taken firm root in Paris 
and already rootlet feelers have made their way to Mar- 
seilles and Lyons and to one or two smaller cities. As with 
several other trans-Atlantic ideas, the French soil is showing 
itself wholly congenial. 



Margaret Curtis, of Boston, who worked with an American 
relief fund in Paris for a year and a half before the American 
Red Cross was established there, had been a missionary for 
closer cooperation and interchange of information among 
French and Franco-American agencies. Abbe Viollet had 
been for years advocating such interchange and cooperation, 
and the monthly periodical Assistance Educative had also 
helped to prepare the way. Many enlightened workers in the 
field of social work, like Leon Bourgeois, Paul Strauss and 
Jules Siegfried, were naturally sympathetic. It remained only 
for Miss Curtis, in charge of American Red Cross work for 
the refugees in the Department of the Seine, to work out 
a practical plan and to secure the support of the key agencies 
and individuals. 

The committee created by the American Red Cross included 
among others M. Mesureur, director-general of the Assistance 
Publique, of Paris; M. Fliche, president of the Society of St. 
Vincent de Paul ; M. Plantet, vice-president of the Office 
Central des Oeuvres Charitables; M. Fuster, secretary-general 
of the Institut d'Hygiene Sociale, and Mile. Gourlet, editor 
of Assistance Educative. 

The Red Cross undertook to meet all expenses until the end 
of the calendar year 1918. Emily W. Dinwiddie, of New 
York, was sent for to serve as director, and the enterprise was 
launched at a public meeting on May 10, attended by many of 
the local mayors of Paris and other officials and by repre- 
sentatives of the relief agencies. Abbe Viollet came back from 
the front on special permission to give a stirring address. Pro- 
fessor Fuster discussed the raison d'etre of the plan from the 
French point of view. Miss Curtis, however, was the authori- 
tative spokesman, not only on behalf of the American Red 
Cross, but on behalf of the American social service ex- 
changes. 

The Fichier Central really began work when it was estab- 
lished on July 1 in its present headquarters. In the month 
of July, 4,582 families were reported by eighteen agencies. Of 
these, only twenty-four were duplicates, all — it is amusing to 
notice — found in the lists submitted by the American agencies. 
In the cooperating organizations are several well-known pre- 
war agencies like the Societe des Visiteuses and the Association 
Valentin Haiiy for the relief of the blind. War agencies like 
those for the protection of men discharged without a pension 
(reformes No. 2) and the Secours National are also in- 
cluded. 

Miss Dinwiddie sends word that, the museums being closed, 
it is becoming the popular amusement of the day to come in 
and see how the Fichier Central works. The excellent staff 
of French workers and the well-equipped offices reflect credit 
on the founders and directors of the enterpise. As Mine. 
Siegfried, who is a member of the committee, says: Tout 
marche bien. 




COSKBO! 




WHY THE SURVEY MISSED 
THE MAIL 

THE SURVEY, along with the 
other weeklies published in New 
York, took an enforced vacation last 
week on account of a strike of the cylin- 
der-press feeders. The men went out on 
October 21 and tied up the presses for 
the entire week. This week an agree- 
ment was reached to leave the matter to 
the adjudication of the federal War La- 
bor Board and work was resumed on 
Tuesday morning after the board had 
issued a statement blaming the em- 
ployers for the occurrence of the 
strike. 

The controversy was over wages. In 
1917 the cylinder-press feeders were get- 
ting $18 a week. In October of that 
year the rate was raised to $22 and last 
June another raise brought it to $24. 
On October 1 the men requested an ad- 
vance to $30 a week. This request went 
to the Printers' League section of the 
Employing Printers' Association, which 
referred the matter to its executive com- 
mittee. The latter, appearing to fear 
that a strike was imminent, appealed to 
the federal War Labor Board to take 
jurisdiction. This act, without consul- 
tation with the union, caused indigna- 
tion among the men and they walked 
out, charging the employers with vio- 
lating an agreement that requires all 
matters in controversy to be settled by 
arbitration. 

The employers, on the other hand, 
charged the union with breaking its con- 
tract by making a request for a wage in- 
crease in view of the fact that the agree- 
ment reached last June stipulated that 
the $24 rate was to remain in effect un- 
til March 1, 1919. A bitter controversy 
followed in which the printing press- 
men's union took the side of the feeders 
and struck in sympathy, while George L. 
Berry, president of the International 
Pressmen's Union, took the opposite po- 
sition. He charged the feeders with 
breaking their contract and without avail 
ordered them back to work. 

After urging the men to return to 
work, pending inquiry, the War Labor 

130 



Board began a hearing of the matter on 
Monday morning. At first inclined to 
question the jurisdiction of the board, 
the union officials were soon induced to 
enter into an agreement to abide by its 
decision. 

The following statement of the mat- 
ters in controversy was read for the 
Board by William H. Taft, joint chair- 
man: 

The important facts in controversy before 
us between the Printers' League and Press 
Feeders' Union 23 are these: 

A contract fixing wages was entered into 
by the employers and the men covering a 
period extending until October 1, 1919. The 
change in the cost of living brought about 
by the war forced concessions by the em- 
ployers in which they granted two increases 
in wages. These, in the opinion of the men, 
have not reached a figure sufficient for them 
to enjoy the comforts they should in view 
of existing conditions. They requested the 
employers to grant them an increase of $6 
per week, added to the $24 which they re- 
ceived under former concessions. 

Consenting in writing to a conference and 
in accordance with the terms of mediation 
and arbitration of the contract, before the 
appointed time for the conference, the em- 
ployers, expecting a strike, filed a complaint 
against the union, averring the men in- 
tended to strike, although they were bound 
by the contract, and asking mediation and 
arbitration of the board to secure their rights 
under the contract. 

The representative of the employers, who 
appeared before the board in Washington, 
was inquired of as to whether there was an 
arbitration clause in the contract, and he 
said there was. He was advised that in two 
cases already heard and decided by the 
board the board refused to take for its me- 
diation and arbitration differences the settle- 
ment of which by private arbitration was 
provided for in the contract between the 
parties. He was advised, therefore, that he 
was premature in his application. 

Subsequently, the board was informed of 
the strike of the men and took the step in 
its telegrams which the record shows. This 
action of the employers explains the present 
attitude of the parties and the present un- 
fortunate situation. 

The Press Feeders' Union, through its 
president, has now agreed to submit the en- 
tire matter in controversy to the board and 
the board will accordingly assume juris- 
diction. 



KM 



UNIONIZING THE STEEL 
INDUSTRY 

THE nation-wide campaign for or- 
ganizing the steel workers, plans for 
which were laid at the St. Paul conven- 
tion of the American Federation of La- 
bor last June, is fairly under way. Re- 
ports from Illinois and Indiana indi- 
cate that remarkable success is meeting 
the efforts of the organizers in those 
states where the campaign is being waged 
in the strongholds of the United States 
Steel Corporation, the traditional enemy 
of organized labor. 

Mass meetings recently held in Gary, 
Ind., and Joliet, 111., have resulted in 
thousands of the employes of the cor- 
poration joining the various craft unions 
having jurisdiction. In Gary the or- 
ganizers claim that 9,000 members have 
been secured. The Amalgamated As- 
sociation of Iron, Steel and Tin 
Workers, only one of the several 
unions involved, has more than 1,000 
new members in Joliet. There are re- 
ports of a rallying to the union standard 
in the South Works of the Illinois Steel 
Company, the Wisconsin Steel Com- 
pany, and other iron and steel plants in 
South Chicago, Indiana Harbor and 
elsewhere in the vicinity of Chicago. 

As a result of the action of the St. 
Paul convention, twenty-six international 
unions have combined under the direc- 
tion of the American Federation of La- 
bor to conduct the organizing campaign 
in the steel industry. The plan followed 
is similar to that found so successful in 
organizing the Chicago stockyards. In 
that campaign every union having juris- 
diction over any of the stockyards em- 
ployes sent organizers to assist in the 
work, and the directing body was the 
stockyards council, a group representa- 
tive of all the unions involved. 

That campaign was confined almost 
entirely to a single locality. The steel 
campaign is country-wide and there has 
been formed the National Committee for 
Organizing Iron and Steel Workers. 
Samuel Gompers is chairman and the 
secretary is William Z. Foster, who was 
secretary of the stockyards council. 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 2 , 191 



131 



With the headquarters in Pittsburgh, 
the very heart of the non-union territory 
to be won, the committee is getting the 
campaign organized there and in va- 
rious centers such .as Cleveland and 
Youngstown, Ohio, and Johnstown, Pa. 
Organizers are being assigned to the dif- 
ferent districts and local headquarters 
are being opened. As soon as the ban 
on public meetings of all sorts, on ac- 
count of the influenza epidemic, is raised, 
there will follow in all of these centers 
an active movement for organization, 
with mass meetings and propaganda in 
the newspapers and through pamphlets 
and handbills. 

Meanwhile, entirely independently of 
these recent activities under the direc- 
tion of the American Federation of La- 
bor, the several craft unions having 
jurisdiction in any department of the 
steel industry, have been steadily at 
work for some time. The Amalgamated 
Association of Iron, Steel and Tin 
Workers, which was defeated in the 
famous Homestead strike of 1892 and 
later all but crushed by United States 
Steel Corporation, has today the largest 
membership in its history. In 1891, the 
year before the Homestead strike, it was 
at the height of its power with 24,000 
members. In 1911 and 1912, its mem- 
bership had dropped to a mere handful 
of 4,500. Today, there are close to 
30,000 dues-paying members on the books 
at international headquarters, and more 
are constantly being added. 

The machinists are everywhere or- 
ganizing with great rapidity. Three or 
four years ago they had a membership 
of 60,000; now they number over 200,- 
000. A considerable part of this in- 
crease is due to organization in the steel 
mills. In the plants of the Midvale 
Steel Company and the Bethlehem Steel 
Company they have been especially suc- 
cessful. Other unions have been active 
and there are reports of organizing ac- 
tivity at Steelton, Pa., at Pueblo, Colo., 
in the plant of the Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company, and in the South. To 
the record of these organizing gains 
must be added the fact that both the 
Midvale and the Bethlehem companies 
have recognized the right of their em- 
ployes to bargain collec